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Full text of "The metallurgists and chemists' handbook; a reference book of tables and data for the student and metallurgist"

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THE 

METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' 
HANDBOOK 



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THE 

METALLURGISTS 

AND 

CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

A REFERENCE BOOK OF TABLES AND 

DATA FOR THE STUDENT AND 

METALLURGIST 



COMPILED BY 

DONALD M. LIDDELI .," 

OAl>TAIN, SIG. R. C, A. S.; CHIEF ENGINEER, WAR CREDITS BOARD 
CONSULTING METALLURGICAL ENGINEER, AND SOMETIME MAN- 
AGING EDITOR OF The Engineering and Mining Journal 



Second Edition 

Revised and Enlarged 

.Second Impression 



McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, Inc. 
239 WEST 39TH STREET. NEW YORK 



LONDON: HILL PUBLISHING CO., Ltd. 

6 & 8 BOUVERIE ST., E. C. 

1918 



Coi'yRIGHT, 1916, 1918, BY THK * 

McGr'aw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 



THK MAl'I->: HBKKK VORK PA. 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION 



lu preparing the second edition of the "Metallurgists and 
Chemists' Handbook" there has been no change from the plan 
originally adopted, and the additions, in the main, have been 
largely those bearing on war activities, such as additional 
information on alloys and toxic gases. Unfortunately much 
that I should like to print on these subjects is at present for- 
bidden ground. A short chapter has also been added on 
"Organic Chemistrj^, " and an attempt made to present the 
new concepts concerning the constitution of matter. 

Thanks are due to the many friends who have pointed out 
the defects of the first edition. Among these I feel most 
indebted to are Dr. Colin G. Fink for notefi on the" Constants of 
tungsten; B. A. Robinson for a careful rfevie_w 'of practically 
the entire book; and Dr. Robert B. Sosrcaii for notes on the 
carbonates and silicates. • 

DoXALli M! LiDDELL. 

Washingtox, D. C, 
AprU 15, 1918. 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 

This book is but little more than a collection of tables — those 
which my own experience and the requests from the readers of 
the Engineering and Mining Journal have led me to believe 
are most necessary to the chemist and metallurgist. There is 
no lengthy discussion of processes or apparatus. The field of 
descriptive metallurgy is at present too crowded by the monu- 
mental works of Schnabel, Hofman, Roberts-Austen and others, 
to admit of further competition. Certain sections will probably 
be criticized for their brevity, but these treat of those processes 
where there are no tables of constants, and the matter must 
either be descriptive or else non-existent. 

In the preparation of these tables I have been constantly 
struck by the divergent values given bj" different authorities 
for the same constants. While space has usually' prevented my 
giving the names of the experimenters and the dates of their 
work, I have attempted to exercise some discrimination in the 
choice between published values, taking into consideration the 
experimenter where known, and so far as available, the methods 
used, and, if I had not the original source, the general character 
of the book in which his work was transcribed. 

Yet, on the theorj^ of probability only, the choice cannot 
always have been a happy one. Again, apart from any 
reliability' of the figures as I have found or chosen them, several 
years of sad experience have demonstrated the fallibility of 
compositors and proofreaders. So for all the unknown errors 
of fact, of judgment and of type contained herein, I herewith 
tender apolog>'. And I shall therefore take it as a favor to be 
advised of any errors which the reader may detect, at the same 
time asking his indulgence concerning them. 
• Thanks are due the many publishers who have so kindly 
allowed copying from their publications — who they are can be 
seen from the footnote credits through the book. I must also 
thank the friends .who have aided me in its preparation: 
Dr. Edward Weston, of Elizabeth, N. J., and W. R. Ingalls, 
H. A. Megraw and Percy E. Barbour, of the Engineering and 
Mining Journal. Mr. IMegraw contributed nearly all the data 
on ore dressing and cyanidation and Mr. Barbour, besides 
giving some valuable data, checked the page proof from begin- 
ning to end. He is doubtless the only man beside the author 
who will ever read the entire book. And more than . all is 
appreciation due for the many hours of painstaking work by 
my wife in compiling and checking the various tables, and in 
reading the proofs. 

Donald M. Liddell. 
Elizabeth, N. J. 

February 11, 1916. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

PxtEFACE V 

Sec. I. Mathematics 1 

Sec. II. Price and Productiox Statistics ... 53 

Sec. III. Physical Constants 75 

Sec. IV. Chemical Data 2.39 

Sec. V. Sampling, Assaying and Analysis 318 

Sec. VI. Ore Dressing 355 

Sec. VII. Cyanidation 419 

Sec. VIII. Fuels and Refractories 429 

Sec. IX. Mechanical Engineering and Construc- 
tion 456 

Sec. X. General Metallurgy 491 

Sec. XI. Organic Cheivhstry 625 

Sec. XII. First Aid 632 

Index 641 



METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' 
HANDBOOK 



SECTION I 
MATHEMATICS 



SYMBOLS 



The abbreviations given below will be standard in this book. 
It has been attempted to make them conform to those recom- 
mended by the International Electrotechnical Commission, 
and the current practice of the best edited chemical, physical, 
and mathematical pubUcations. 

A ampere 1; work (the latter also represented by W) 

a acceleration 

B magnetic flux density 

B, b breadth 

C coulombs; electric capacity; Centigrade temperature 

D electrostatic flux density; depth 

d differential 

7 coefficient of adiabatic expansion, 1.406 approx. 

A heat; increment 

d partial differential 

E, e electromotive force; lumens per cm.-, foot candles 

e base of Napierian logarithms = 2.718281828459 

c dielectric constant 

F factor of safety; farad' 

/ frequency; force; coefficient of friction 

G conductance 

g acceleration due to gravity = 981 cm. per sec. 

H magnetic field; henry i 

H, h height; head " 

J? efficiency 

7, i current; international candle 

i imaginary square root of — 1 ; in older works, amperes 

J intensity of magnetization; mechanical equivalent of 
heat, the joule^ 

K susceptibility 

L self inductance; lumen -second or -hour 

I length^ 
M mutual inductance 

• Recommended by the Internatiooal Electrotechnical Commission for 
use after numerical values. 
> In dimensional equations, tise L, M, T, for length, mass and time. 

1 



2 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

m mass^ 

M permeability ; coefficient of friction 

n number of turns in unit of time 

01 angular velocity, ^r 

P power; pressure 

p pressure 

IT ratio of circumference to diameter = 3.1415926535897 

Q quantity of electricity 

R resistance; gas constant 

r radius 

p resistivity 

S reluctance 

2 summation « 

T absolute temperature; thickness; period 

t temperature, time,^ thickness 

6, «> temperature centigrade 
e temperature absolute 
V, V velocity, volt' 
A' reactance 
ir weight; energy; watt* 
w weight 

<f> phase displacement 
4> magnetic flux 
Z impedance 

Mathematical Symbols 

+ plus, positive Z angle 

— minus, negative O parallelogram 

± plus or minus D square 

= equals or equal to O circle 

o equivalent to L right angle 

X multiplied by ± perpendicular to 

-^ divided by ^ degree, hour 

> greater than ' minute, foot 

< less than " second, inch 

oc varies as va "n"throot 

([| }]), symbols denoting a" "ri."th power 

numbers enclosed are con- S summation 

sidered as one expression ^-^ cycle 

A triangle A increment 

X ratio of circumference y integral 

to diameter d partial differential 

log logarithm = identical 

logn log to base "n" = approaches 

, J a c . ^ , 00 infinity 
a:o::c :d, r = -„ a is to o as 
^ ^ CIS tod 

1 Recommended by the International Electrotecbnical Commission for uae 
after numerical values. 
*In dimensional equations, uae L, M , T. for length, ma.<;s and time. 



MATHEMATICS 



Trigonometric Abbreviations 



sin sine 




tan 


tangent 


cos cosine 




cot 


cotangent 


sec secant 




versin 


versed sine 


CSC cosecant 




covers 


coversed sine 

1 


sin~i0 angle whose 


sine 


is $ sin 6~^ 








sin d 




The 


Greek Alphabet 




A. a alpha 




1,1 iota 


P,p rho 


h,ii beta 




K,K kappa 


S,s,(7 sigma 


r,7 gamma 




A,X lambda 


T,r tau 


A,6 delta 




M,/i mu 


T,u upsilon 


E.e epsilon 




N,;/ nu 


4>.<^ phi 


Z,f zeta 




r.^xi 


X,x chi 


H,J7 eta 




0,0 omicron 


*,i^ psi 


e,e,d theta 




n,7r pi 


fi,« omega 



Mathematical Constants 



e =.2.718281828459045 

3.55 , . 

T = jY^ (approx.). 

TT = 3.14159265358979 
Vtt = 1.772 
7r2 = 9.8696 

- = 0.5642 



log JO = 0.434294 
299 
« = T77> (approx.). 



log TT 
logeX 
1 



110 
0.4971499 
2.302585 logiox 

0.10132 



-s/.S = 1 . 4422509 
\/5 = 2.2360680 
^5 = 1.709621 



V2 = 1.4142136 
'^= 1.2599210 
■^.5 = 0.7937002 
a/3 = 1 . 7320508 

Temperature Reduction 
The Fahrenheit scale is based on 212° as the boiling point of 
water at normal pressure, 32° as the freezing point. Its zero 
was formerly supposed to be the lowest temperature attainable 
artificially. 

The Centigrade (Celsius) scale assumes the freezing point of 
water as being 0°, the boiling point under normal pressure 
as 100°. 

The Reaumur scale assumes the freezing point of water as 
0°, the boiling point of water as 80°. 

^0 C.° = R.° ;i% R.° = C.° 
%(F° - 32) = C.°. ; % C.° + 32 = F.° 
^(F.° - 32) = R.° ; % R.° + 32 = F.° 

Units of Heat 
The British Thermal Unit (B.T.U.) is the quantity of heat 
required to raise the temperature of 1 lb. of water 1°F., at or 
near its maximum density (39.1°F.). 



4 MET.\LLURG1STS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

The calorie (cal.) is the quantity of heat necessary to raise 
the temperature of 1 gram of water from 10°C. to 11°C. (some- 
times also defined as "from 4°C. to 5°C.," less commonly still, 
from "0=C. to 1°C." 

The kilogram-calorie (Cal.) is 1000 times the above. 

The pound-calorie is the quantity of heat necessary to raise 
the temperature of 1 lb. of water 1°C. (usually from 4°C. to 
5°C ) 

1.0 Cal. = 3.968 B.T.U. = 2.2046 Ib.-cal. 
1.0 B.T.U. = 0.252 Cal. = 778 ft.-lb. 
1 Ib.-Cal. = % B.T.U. = 0.4536 Cal. 

Latent heat of a substance is the number of calories required 
t) be absorbed to change 1 gram of the substance from a solid 
to a liquid or a liquid to a gas, without change of temperature. 
An equal quantity is given out when the reverse change takes 
place. 

Specific heat of a .substance is the ratio of the quantities 
of heat necessary to raise the temperature of equal masses 
(if the substance and of water from the same to the same 
temperatures. 

The equivalent points on the different scales are 
0.0° C = 0.0° R. 

- 40.0° C = - 40.0° F. 

- 25 . 6° R = - 25 . 6° F. 

Scale of Temperatures by Color of Iron^ 
Dark red— hardly visible 970°F. Orange 2000°F. 

Dull red 1300°F. Yellow 2150°F. 

Cherrv— dark 1450°F. White heat 2350°F. 

Cherrv— red 1650°F. White welding 2600'F. 

Cherry— light 1800°F. White— dazzling 2800°F. 

Standard Thermometric Points^ 

Ice melts 0.0'C. Zinc solidifies 419. 4°C. 

Water boils 100. 0°C. Sulphur boils 444. 7°C. 

Aniline boils 184. 1°C. Antimonv solidifies 630. 7°C. 

Naphth;ilene boils 218. 0°C. Sodium chloride 

Tin solidifies 231. 9°C. solidifies 801. 0°C. 

Benzophenone boils 306. 0°C. Silver sohdifies 960. 5°C. 

Lead solidifies 327. 4°C. Copper solidifies 1083. 0°C. 

Weights and Measures 
Linear Measure — English 
12 in. = 1 ft. 
3 ft. = 1 yd. 
b^i vd. or lej^ft. = 1 rod or perch. 
320 rods, 1760 yd., 5280 ft. = 1 mile. 
.Also a number of miscellaneous units, some of which are obso- 
lete, or obsolescent, others are used by certain trades only. 

1 For tables of melting points, see pp. 140, 216, 254 and 452. For Se«;er- 
cone data see p. 450. 

» Afcording to the National Physical Laboratory. 



MATHEMATICS 5 

A point = M2 in. 

A line = H2 in- 

A barleycorn = 3-^ in. 

A palm = 3 in. 

A hand = 4 in. 

A span = 9 in. 

A cubit = 18 in. 

A military pace = 30 in. 

A link = Koo chain 

A knot (nautical mile) = 6086 ft. 

A fathom = 6 ft. (United States) 

A fathom = 6.08 ft. (British) 

1 ell (English) = 45 in. 

1 ell (Dutch) = 1 . 094 yd. 

1 bolt = 40 yd. 

A chain = 4 rods (66 ft.) = 20.11684 meters 

A furlong = }4 ™ile 

A league = 3 knots 

A cable length = 120 fathoms (United States) 

A cable length =608 ft. (British) 
An International Geographical mile = 3^5° ^t equator = 

24,350.3 ft. 
A British nautical mile = 6,080.4 ft. 

Linear Measure — French^ 
10 millimeters = 1 centimeter 10 dekameters = 1 hektometer 
10 centimeters = 1 decimeter 10 hektometers = 1 kilometer 
10 decimeters = 1 meter 10 kilometers = 1 myriameter. 

10 meters = 1 dekameter 

A micron is Hooo mm. ; a millimicron = Hooo micron; 
1 angstrom unit = Ho millimicron 

Conversion Table, Linear Measure- 

lin. =2.540005 cm. 1 cm. = 0.3937000 in. 

1 ft. = . 3048006 m. 1 m. = 39 . 37000 in. = 3 . 28083 ft. 

1 yd. = 0.9144018 ra. 1 m. = 1 . 09361 yd. = . 00062 mi. 

1 mi. = 1 . 609347 km. 1 km. = 0. 62137 mi. = 3280. 83 ft. 

The old French measures and their equivalents are : 

1 toise = 1 .9490366 m. 1 pouce = 2. 706995 cm. 

1 pied =0.3248394 m. 1 ligne = 0.225583 cm. 

1 toise = 6 pieds = 72 pouces = 864 lignes 

* The decimeter, dekameter, hektometer and myriameter are seldom used 
as compared with the other measures. When the metric system was de- 
vised the meter was supposed to be one ten-millionth part of the quadrant 
of the earth's surface. However, owing to inaccuracies of measurement, this 
is only approximately true, and the meter must be defined as the length of 
a standard bar of platinum kept in Paris, when measured at a temperature 
of zero dei;rees centigrade. 

2 The foot is defined by United States law as being s**)?^ 93 7 meters. 
Therefore in the United States 1 meter = 39.37 in. exactly. The British 
equivalent is, however, 1 m. =- 39.370113 in. Apparently the British inch 
and the American inch were intended to be equivalent, but are not, though I 
nave never heard of any notice being taken of this fact in commercial trans- 
actions. The value 1 meter = 39 .37 in. has been used in all equivalents in 
this book. 



C iMETALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Square Measure — English 

144 sq. in. = 1 sq. ft. 

9 sq. ft. = 1 sq. yd. 
30.25 sq. vd.\ , , 

272.25 sq.ft. / =lsq-rod 

160 sq. rd. ] 

10 sq. ch. I 1 „„,^ 

4 roods f =lacre 
43,560 sq. ft. J 

640 acres = 1 sq. mi. 

A square of flooring or roofing = 100 sq. ft. 

A section of land = 1 mi. sq. 

A township = 36 sq. mi. 

A board foot = 1 ft. square X 1 in. thick 

Square Measure — French 

100 sq. mm. = 1 sq. cm. 

100 sq. cm. = 1 sq. dm. 

100 sq. dm. = 1 sq. m. (centar) 

100 sq. m. =1 sq. dekameter or ar 

100 sq. dekameters = 1 sq. hcktometer (hektar) 

lOOsq.hektometcrs = 1 sq. kilometer 

Conversion Table, Square Measure 

1 centar (1 sq. m.) = 1550 sq. in. = 10.764 sq. ft. 

1 ar = 119.6 sq. yd. 

1 hectar = 2.47104 acres. 1 acre = 0.40469 hektar 

1 sq. cm. = 1.5500 sq. in. 1 sq. in. = 6.4516 sq. cm. 

1 sq. meter = 10.76387 sq. ft. 1 sq. ft. = 0.092903 .sq. m. 

1 sq. km. = 0.3861 sq. mi. 1 sq. mi. = 2.589998 sq. km. 

Cubic Measure — English^ 

1728 cu. in = 1 cu. ft. 

27 cu. ft. = 1 cu. yd. 

128 cu. ft =1 cord 

50 cu. ft. of square timber = 1 load 

40 cu. ft. of unhewn timber = 1 load 

A board foot = 1 ft. square X 1 in. thick 

Weight — English 
Avoirdupois 

16 drams (dr.) = 1 ounce (oz.) 
16 oz. = 1 pound (lb.) 

100 lb. = 1 hundred-weight (cwt.) 

20 cwt. = 1 ton 

Troy 
24 grains = 1 pennyweight (dwt.) 
20 dwt. = 1 oz. Tr. 
12 oz. Tr. = 1 lb. Tr. 
> For French cubic equivalents see under "Measures of Capacity," p. 9. 



MATHEMATICS 



The Avoirdupois pound = 7000 grains = 14.5833 oz. Tr. 
The Troy pound = 5760 grains = 13. 1657 oz. Avoir, 

The Avoirdupois ounce = 437.5 grains = 0.9115 oz. Tr. 
1 ton = 29,166.66 oz. Tr. 

1 ton = 0.89287 long ton 

1 long ton = 1.12 short tons = 2240 lb. 
(Troy weight is used in weighing gold, silver, platinum, etc. 
In weighing precious stones the metric carat = 200 mg., is 
now used.) 

1 barrel of flour = 8 sacks = 196 lb. 

1 barrel of pork = 200 lb. 

1 barrel of cement = 4 sacks = 376 lb. 



10 milligrams 
10 decigrams 
10 dekagrams 



Weights- 

= 1 centigram 

= 1 gram 

= 1 hectogram 



-French 

10 centigrams = 1 decigram 
10 grams = 1 dekagram 

10 hectograms = 1 kilogram^ 



100 kilograms = 1 metric quintal 
1000 kilograms = 1 metric ton (tonne) or millier 

Conversion Table, Weight 

1 oz. avoir. = 28.34953 grams 

1 lb. avoir. = 453.59 grams 

1 ton = 907 . 18 kg. 

1 gram = 0.035274 oz. avoir. = 0.00220 lb. 

1 kg. = 35.27393 oz. avoir. = 2.2046223 lb. 

1 metric ton = 1. 102311 tons = 0.9842 long tons 

1 grain = 64.799 mg. 

Idwt. = 1.55517 g. 

1 oz. Troy =31. 1035 g. 

lib. Troy = 0.37324kg. 

1 gram = 15.4324 gr. = 0.64301 dwt. 

1 mg. = 0.64301 dwt. = 0.03215 oz. Tr, 

1 kg. = 32 . 15074 oz. Tr. = 2 . 67923 lb. Tr, 

The libra used in Spain, Portugal and Spanish America 
differs slightly from the U. S. pound, ranging from 1.012 in 
Portugal and Brazil to 1.016 in Cuba and Porto Rico. 

The Assay Ton, — A weight used by assayer such that 1 ton 
(2000 lb.) : 1 oz. Tr. : : 1 A.T. : 1 mg.; i.e., if the assayer weighs 

* When the metric system was devised, it was intended that 1 gram 
should equal the mass of 1 cubic centimeter of water at its greatest density 
(4°C.) This relation does not exactly hold, and it is necessary to define 
the gram as the one-thousandth part of a standard mass of platinum kept 
in Paris. At 4°C. the mass of 1 cc. of water differs so slightly from unity 
that for nearly all calculations no correction is necessary. A liter was in- 
tended to be equal to 1000 cc. but was detined as the volume occupied by a 
kilogram of water at 4°C. and 760 mm. pressure. It is therefore equivalent 
to 1000 . 027 CO. (de Lepinay, Benoit and Buisson.) 



8 MET.\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOJ<: 

out assay tons, each milligram of metal recovered represents 
1 Trov oz. 

1 A.T. = 29.16667 grams 
On the English system, ton of 2240 lb. 

1 A.T. = 32.66667 grams 

Apothecaries Weight 
20 grains = 1 scruple O) 

3 9 =1 dram (3) 

8 3 =1 ounce (5) 

12 5 =1 lb. Tr. 

Apothecaries Measure 
60 minims (ITl) = 1 dram 
8 drams =1 fluid ounce 

16 fl. oz. = 1 pt. 

The apothecaries grain is equal to the Troy grain; the scruple 
to % of the pennyweight. 

1 gr. = 64.799 mg. 1 S = 1295.98 mg. 

1 3 = 3887.94 mg. 1 fl. oz. = 29.5729 milUliters 

1 milliliter (1 c.c.) = 0.3381 fl. oz. 

Measures of Capacity — English 

Dry Liquid 

2 pt. =1 qt. 4 gills = 1 pt. 

8 qt. =1 peck 2 pt. =1 qt. 

4 pk. = 1 bushel 4 qt. =1 gal. 

311^ gal. = 1 barrel (bbl.) U. S. 

2 bbl. = 1 hogshead (hhd.) 

2 hhd. = 1 pipe 

42 gal. = 1 bbl. (Standard Oil Co.), formerly 

a tierce 
84 gal. (2 tierces) = 1 puncheon 

A liquid gallon (U. S.) contains 231 .0 cu. in. 
An Imperial gallon contains 277.408 cu. in.^ 
A bushel (U. S.) contains 2150.42 cu. in. 

An Imperial bushel contains 2218. 192 cu. in.^ 
A quarter contains 8 Imperial bu. 

Note. — It can be seen that the dry quart contains 673-^ 
cu. in., while the liquid quart contains only 57^ cu. in. There 
is therefore no royal road to reducing dry measures to wet 
equivalents, though the ratio is about 1 : IJ (1. 16364). 

1 Imperial gal. = 1 . 20094 U. S. gal. 

1 U. S. gal. = 0.83268 Imp. gal. 

1 Imp. bu. = 1.03151 U. S. bu. 

1 U. S. bu. = 0.96945 Imp. bu. 

1 gal. (ale or beer) = 1 .2208 U. S. gal. 

» Sometimee given 277.274. 
» Sometimes given 2219.28. 



MATHEMATICS 



Grains per U. S. gal. X 17. 138 = parts per million 

Grains per Imp. gal. X 14.285 = parts per million 

Parts per million X 0.0583 = grains per U. S. gal. 

Parts per million X . 700 = grains per Imp. gal. 

Measures of Capacity — French 
1000 cu. mm. = 1 c.c. 
1000 c.c. = 1 cu. dm. (liter) 

1000 cu. dm. = 1 cu. m. 
In measuring wood, the cubic meter is called a ster. 
10 milliliters = 1 centiliter 
10 centiliters = 1 deciliter 
10 deciliters = 1 liter 
10 liters = 1 dekaliter 

10 dekaliters = 1 hectoliter 
10 hectoliters = 1 kiloliter 

Conversion Tables, Cubic Measiure 
1 cu. in. = 16.38720 c.c. 

1 c.c. = 0.06102338 cu. in. = 0.0000353 cu. ft. 
1 cu. ft. = 0.028317 cu. m. 
1 cu. m. = 35.31445 cu. ft. = 1 .30794 cu. yd. 
1 cu. yd. = 0.764559 cu. m. 

Liquid Equivalents 

1 fl. oz. = 29 . 5729 milliliters 

1 milliliter = 0.3381 fl. oz. = 0.061025 cu. in. 

1 gill = 1 . 1829 deciliters 

1 deciliter = 0.8454 gills 

1 quart = 0.94633 liters 

1 liter = 1.0567 quarts. 

1 U. S. gal. = 3.78533 liters 

1 dekaliter = 2.6418 gal. 

Dry Equivalents 

1 pt. = 0.550599 liters 

1 deciliter = 0.18162 pt. 

1 qt. = 1.10120 liters 

inter ■ = 0.90810 quarts 

1 pk. =0.08810 hectoliter 

1 hectoliter = 2.8378 bu. 

1 bu. (U. S.) = 0.352.38 hectoliter 

1 kiloliter = 1 . 3079 cu. yd. 

Circular and Angular Measure 
60 sec. (") => 1 minute (') 
60 min. (') = 1 degree (°) 
360 deg. (°) = 1 circumference 
In the higher mathematics another unit is used: 
2ir radians = 1 circumference 
.-. 1 radian = 57.2957795° = 57° 17' 44.806" 



10 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Time 
60 sec. = 1 min.; 60 min. = 1 hr.; 24 hr. = 1 day 
365.242218 solar days = 1 year 
29 days 12 hr. 44 min. = 1 lunar month 
A seconds pendulum = 39.138 in. = 0.9958 meters in the 
latitude of New York at sea level. 



The period of a pendulum is ta /- 
acceleration due to gravity. 



, where I is length, and g the 



Miscellaneous 



20 units = 1 score 
12 units = 1 dozen 
12 dozen = 1 gross 
12 gross = 1 great gross 
1 atmosphere = 14.7 lb. per sq. in. = 29.922 in. of mercurv 
33.9 ft. of water 



24 sheets = 1 quire 
20 quires = 1 ream 
2 reams = 1 bundle 
5 bundles = 1 bale 



C.G.S. Units 

The unit of force is the dyne. It is that force which applied 
to a mass of one gram will give it an acceleration of one centi- 
meter in one second. 

The unit of work is the erg. This is the work done by one 
erg acting through a distance of one centimeter. The joule 
=10' ergs. 

A calorie is the heat necessary to raise the temperature of 
1 gram of water from 0°C. to 1°C. 

A great calorie (Calorie) is the heat necessary to raise the 
temperature of 1 kg. of water from 0°C. to 1°C. 



Unit 


Erg 


Joule 


Kilogram- 
meter 
(g. = 981) 


Calorie 


Small 
calorie 


Erg 


1 
10' 

981.0X10' 
418.4X10' 


10-' 
1 

9.81 
4184 


1.019X10-' 
0.1019 

1 
426.5 


2.. 39011 

X10-" 

2.39011 

xio-« 

2.3446 

xio-' 

1 


2.39011 

xio-« 

2.39011 


Kilogram-meter 
(g.=981) 

Calorie 


xio-« 

2.3446 
1000 



The unit magnetic mass or pole is such that placed at a 
distance of one centimeter from an identical mass, it exercises 
a repulsion equal to 1 dyne. 

The permeabilitj- is the ratio of flux density to magnetic 
intensity. 

The unit of electric current in the C.G.S. system is a current 
that exerts a force of one dyne on a unit magnetic pole placed 
at the center of an arc of the circuit, 1 cm. long, and 1 cni. 
radius. The practical unit is the ampere (see below), which is 
one-tenth the C.G.S. unit. 



MATHEMATICS 1 1 

The C.G.S. unit of quantity is the quantity which in one 
second is conveyed by a C.G.S. unit of current. The practical 
unit is the coulomb, the quantity of current passing per second, 
in a current carrying one ampere. It is one-tenth the C.G.S. 
unit. 

The C.G.S. unit of potential difference or electromotive 
force is the potential difference which exists between two points 
of a conductor conveying a unit current when one erg of work 
is done per second. The practical unit is the volt (see below) 
= 108 X the C.G.S. unit. 

The C.G.S. unit of resistance is the resistance possessed by a 
conductor through which a unit e.m.f. causes a unit current to 
flow. The practical unit is the ohm (see below) = 10^ X the 
C.G.S. unit. 

The C.G.S. unit of capacity of a condenser is that capacity 
which gives a unit potential difference between the coatings 
when either coating has a unit quantity of electricity. The 
farad is the practical unit and equals 10~^ times the C.G.S. 
unit. 

A Gauss is the unit of field strength, the intensity of field 
which acts on a unit pole with a force of one dyne. A unit 
magnetic pole has 47r lines of force proceeding from it. It is 
equal to gilberts per centimeter length. Gausses = maxwells 
-j- area. 

A Maxwell is the unit of magnetic flux, the amount of magne- 
tism passing through every square centimeter of a field of unit 
densitJ^ The weber is 1,000,000 maxwells. If a conductor 
cuts a magnetic field so that one volt is induced, 100,000,000 
maxwells are cut per second. 

A Gilbert is the unit of magneto-motive force, the amount 

produced by -p- = 0.7958 ampere turns. The m.m.f. of a coil 
47r 

is 1.2566 times the ampere turns. <j> = flux in maxwells. 

Reluctance is that quantity in a magnetic circuit which limits 
the flux under a given m.m.f. It corresponds to the resistance 
in the electric circuit. 

The Oersted is the unit of magnetic reluctance, it is the 
reluctance of a cubic centimeter of an air-pump vacuum. 

Inductance is the property of a circuit which opposes any 
change in current flowing by inducing a counter-electromotive 
force in the circuit at the time the current is changing. The 
practical unit is the henry (see below) = 10^ X the C.G.S. 
unit. 

PRACTICAL ELECTRICAL UNITS 

Ohm — unit of resistance. The International Ohm^ is the 
resistance offered to an unvarying electric current by a column 

'The true ohm ( = 10' electromagnetic C.G.S. units) is apparently the 
resistance of 106.29 cm. of mercury 1 sq. mm. in section. The 1884 legal 
ohm = 0.9972 int'l. ohms. The B.A. ohm = 0.9866 int'I. ohm. 

A joule is almost equal to the energy expended in one second by an 
international ampere in an international ohm. 



12 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

of mercury at O'C, 14.4521 grams ia mass, of a constant cross 
section, and of a length of 106.3 cm. 

Coulomb — imit of quantity. Equal to one ampere passinjf 
for one second. 

Ampere — unit of current. The International Ampere is 
the unvarying electric current which, when passed through a 
solution of nitrate of silver in water, under certain specifications, 
deposits silver at the rate of 0.00111800 grams per second. 

International Volt — unit of pressure. It is that electrical 
pressure which will steadily produce a one-ampere current 

through a one-ampere resistance. For practical use it is y^oA 

of the e.m.f. of the Clark cell at 15°C. 

International Watt — unit of energj'. It is the energy ex- 
pended per second by an unvarying electric current of one 
International Ampere under an electric pressure of an Inter- 
national Volt. 

International Farad — unit of capacity. It is the capacity 
of a conductor which is charged to a potential of one volt by 
one coulomb of electricity. 

International Henry — unit of inductance. It is the induct- 
ance in the circuit when the e.m.f. induced in the circuit is 
one international volt, while the inducing current varies at 
the rate of one international ampere per second. 

Ohm's Law. — Current in amperes = 

Pressure in volts , E 

or / = 



Resistance in ohms R 

Power in watts equals energy of the current multiplied by the 
voltage. 

Direct current — P (watts = E (volts) X / (amperes) 
E^ 

Alternating current — 
single-phase, P = EI X Power factor 
two-phase, P = \/2EI X Power factor (line values; two 

wire) 

three-phase, P = \/'6EI X Power factor Gine values; 

three wire) 

Units of Force 

1 poundal = 13,825 dynes 

1 gram's weight = 981 dynes 

1 pound's weight = 444,518 dynes 

Work and Energy 

1 foot-pound = 1.356 X 10' ergs = 1.356 joules = 0.1383 kilo- 
gram-meters 
1 watt = 1 joule per second 

1 kilogram-meter = 7 . 233 foot-pounds 



MATHEMATICS 



13 



Weight, Force or Pressure, Combined with Areas 

1 atmosphere = 760 mm. of mercury = 29.9212 in. of mercurv 
= 10 3329 m. of water = 33 . 9006 ft. of water 
= 1 . 03329 kg. per sq. cm. = 14 . 6969 lb. per sq. in. 

1 barie = 1 dyne per sq. cm. = 0.00208870 lb. per sq. ft. 

1 foot-pound = 13.82.55 kg. cm. = 3.306 X IQ-^cal. 

1 kg. per sq. m. = 14.2234 lb. per sq. in. 

1 lb. carbon oxidized to CO2 = 14,544 heat units. 

Table of Equivalent Values for Power Expressed in 
Various English and Metric Units 



Watt Kw. 



^o. 



per seel „ „„„ 'per sec. 
per sec.; 



1 W & t t IB 1 I i 

equal to. . . I 1.000;0.001000,0.00134;o. 00136 
1 kw. is equal 



to 1000.0 

1 English 
(and Amer- 
ican) h.p. . . 

1 Continen- 
tal h.p 

1 kg.-m. per 
sec 

1 ft.-lb. per 
sec 

1 kg.-cal, per 
sec 

1 B.t.u. per 
sec 1055.0 1.055 |0.415 |0.422 



746.0 

735.0 

9.81 



1.000 1.34 1.36 



0.746 11.000 il.OlS 

0.735 0.985 ^1.000 

0.00981 0.0131 0.0133 
I 
1.356:0.00136 0.00182 0.00185 

4200.0 4.20 5.61 5.70 



0.102 
102.0 

76.0 
75.0 
1.000 
0.138 
427.0 
107.6 



0.737 0.000238 0.000947 
737.0 0.238 0.947 



550.0 


0.178 


0.707 


541.0 


0.175 


0.696 


7.233'o.00234 


0.00930 


1.000 0.0003240.00129 


3090.0 '1.000 


'3.968 


778.0 


0.252 


1.000 



Light — velocity of. 299,583 km. per sec. = 186,319 mi. per sec. 
Wave length, fed light— 5 line— . 000068702 cm. 
Wave length, violet Ught— i? line— . 000 039 338 cm . 
Velocity of sound in drA- air = 1090\/l -r 0.00367t°C. ft. per sec. 

Some Foreign Weights and Measures and the U. S. 
Equivalents^ 

1 almude f Portugal) = 4 . 422 gal. 

1 arobe (Paraguay) = 25 lb. 

1 arroba, dry (Argentine) = 25.3171 lb. 
1 arroba, liquid (Cuba, Spain, 

Venezuela) =4.263 gal. 

1 arshine (Ru.ssia) = 28 in. 

1 sq. arshine (Russia) = 5.44 sq. ft. 

1 baril (Argentine, Mexico) = 20.079 gal. 

1 braca (Brazil) = 2.407 yards 

1 bu (Japan) = 0. 119305 in. 

1 candy (India) = 529 lb. 



> " Foreign Weights, Measures and Moneys 



By John J. Macfarlane. 



14 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



catty (China. Str. Sett.) 

cattj' (Japan) 

cattv (Java) 

catty (P. 1.) 

catty (Sumatra) 

centaro (Central America) 

chih (China) 

cho (Japan) 

cuadra (Argentine) 

dessiatine (Russia) 

doli (Russia) 

fanega (Argentine) 

fen (China) 

fen (sq.) (China) 

frasco (Aigentine) 

funt (Rufcsia) 

go (Japan) 

hao (China) 
sq. hao (China) 
jo (Japan) 
ken (Japan) 
kin (Japan) 
koku (Japan) 

kwan (Japan) 
legua (Brazil) 
h (China) 
Hang (China) 
lyi (China) 

manzana (Costa Rica) 
marc (Bolivia) 
maund (Bengal) 
maund (Bombay) 
maund (Madras) 
meou (China) 
mil (Denmark) 
milla (Nicaragua, Honduras) 
momme (Japan) 
pie (Argentine) 
pie (Spainj 
pikul (Borneo, Java) 
pikul (China, Str. Sett.) 
pikul (Japan) 
pikul (F. 1.) 
pipa (Brazil) 
pood (Russia) 
pulgada (Argentine) 
quintal (Argentina) 
quintal (Bolivia, Chile, Co- 
lombia, Domin. Rep., Spain) 
1 quintal (Brazil) 



1.3331b. 

1.323 1b. 

1.356 1b. 

1.39 1b. 

2.1181b. 

4.2631 gal. 

1.049867 ft. 

357.916 ft. 

4.2 acres 

2 . 6997 acres 

. 685 grains 

3.89 bu. 

0.12598 in. 

0.015181 acres 

2 . 5096 quarts 

0.9028 lb. = 409 grams 

1.270.506 gill Uquid = 

0.0198517 peck dry 

2.5715 ft. 

0.00015181 acres 

3.31404 yd. 

1.983427 yd. 

1.32277 1b. Avoir. 

39.7033 gal. hquid = 

4.96291 bu. dry 

8.26733 1b. Avoir. 

4. 102 miles 

0.012598 in. 

1.31561 oz. Avoir. 

0.0015181 acres 

1 . 625 acres 

0.507 1b. 

82 . 2855 lb. 

28 1b. 

25 1b. 

0.15181 acres 

4.68 mi. 

1.1493 miles 

2.4123045 dwt. 

0.9478 ft. 

0.91407 ft. 

135 . 63M lb. 

133H lb. 

132.277 1b. 

139.485 1b. 

1.648 quarts 

36.11281b. 

0.947 in. 

101.281b. 

101.4 1b. 
129.5261b. 



MATHEMATICS 



15 



1 quintal (Costa Rica) 

1 quintal (Syria, Turkey) 

1 ri (Japan) 

1 ri (marine) (Japan) 

1 sagene (Russia) 

1 sashen (Russia) 

1 shaku (Japan) 

1 sheng (China) 

1 sho (Japan) 

1 sun (Japan) 

1 tan (Japan) 

1 tch'e (China) 

1 tchetvert (Russia) 

1 to (Japan) 

1 ts'onen (China) 

1 tsubo (Japan) 

1 vara (Argentine) 

1 verchok (Russia) 

1 verst (Russia) 

1 zolotnik (Russia) • 



= 101.465 1b. 

= 125 lb. 

= 2.440338 mi. 

= 1 . 1506873 mi. 

= 7 ft. 

= 7 lb. 

= 11.9305424 in. 

= 2.7354 liq. gal. 

= 1.5881325 qt. liquid = 

0.1985166 pecks drv 
= 1.1930542 in. 
= . 24507 acre 
= 12.598 in. 
= 117,600 sq. ft. 
= 3.9703313 gal. liquid 
= 1.2598 in. 
= 3.953829 sq. yd. 
= 34. 1208 in. 
= 1.75 in. 
= 3,500 ft. 
= 658 grains 



UNITED STATES AND FOREIGN MONEY 

(The following figures are based on the gold standard only 
and do not include e.xchange.) 



Argentina Cgold) 

Argentina (paper) 

Austria 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Ceylon 

Chile 

China 

Columbian Rep'b. 1 peso 

Costa Rica 1 colon 

Denmark 

Ecuador 

Egypt 



1 peso 
1 peso 
1 krone 
1 boliviano 
1 milreis 
1 rupee 
1 peso 



= SO. 9648 = 100 centavos 

= 0.4246 = 100 centavos 

= 0.20.3 = 100 holler 

= 0.3893 = 100 centavos 

= 0.5463 = 1000 reis 

= 0.32443 = 100 cents 

0.365 = 100 centavos 



1 Haikwan tael = IW oz. avoir, of silver = 10 mace 



= 1.00 
0.4654 
1 krone = 0.268 

1 Sucre = 0.4867 

1 pound (£E) = 4.943 



= 100 centavos 
= 100 centavos 
= 100 ore 
= 100 centavos 
= 100 piastres 



France 

Germany 

Great Britain 

Greece 

Guatemala 

Haiti 

Honduras 

Hongkong 

Hungary 

India 

Italy 

Japan 

Mexico 

Netherlands 

Nicaragua 

Norway 

Panama 



1 franc 

1 mark 

1 pound (£) 

1 drachma 

1 peso 

1 gourde 

1 peso 

1 dollar 

1 krone 

1 rupee (Rs.) 

1 lira 

1 yen 

1 peso 

1 guilder 

1 peso 

1 krone 

1 balboa 



240 pence! 



1000 milliemes 

0.193 = 100 centimes 

0.238 = 100 pfennig 

4.8665 = 20 shillings = 

C.193 =100 lepta 

0.965 = 100 centavos 

0.965 = 100 centimes 

0.3979 = 100 centavos 

0.463 = 100 cents = 1000 cash 

0.2026 = 100 filler 

0.32443 = 16 annas = 192 pies' 

0.193 = 100 centesimos 

0.498 = 100 sen = 1000 rin 

0.498 = 100 centavos 

0.0402 = 100 cents 

0.965 = 100 centavos 

0.268 = 100 ore 

1 . 00 =2 silver pesos 

200 centisinios 

4.8665 = lOdinero = 100 centavos 



Peru 1 libra (£P) 

1 5 shillings = 1 crown; 21 sh. = 1 guinea; 4 farthings = 

2 A lakh = 100,000 rupees; a crore = 10,000,000 rupees. 



1 penny (d.). 



16 MET.\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



0.50 = 100 centavos 

1.08 = 1000 reis 

0.193 = 100 bani 

0.515 = 100 kopecks 

0.3978 = 100 centavo3 

0.193 = 100 centisinios 

0.5C77 = 100 cents 

0.268 = 100 ore 

4.40 = 100 piasters = 4000 paraa 

1.0.342 = 100 centavos 

0.1930 = lOOcentimos 



Philippine 


Is. 


1 peso 


Portugal 




1 milreis 


Roumania 




1 leu 


Russia 




1 ruble 


Salvador 




1 peso 


Spain 




1 peseta 



I 



Straits Settlements 1 dollar 
Sweden 1 krona 

Turkey 1 pound (£T) 

Uruguay 1 peso 

Veneiuela 1 bolivar 



COINAGE STANDARDS* 



Country 



Gold 
coin 



Silver 
coin 



Country 



Gold 
coin 



Silver 
coin 



900 
900 
900. 



Abyssinia , 

Argentine 

Austria-Hungary 

Belgium 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Bulgaria 

Canada 

Cevlon 

Chile 

China |. . . 

Colombia ]900 

Congo |900 

Corea 900 

Costa Rica 1900 

Crete 900 

Curacao 

Cyprus 

Denmark. . . . 
Dominica. . . 
Dutch East Indies I . . . 

Ecuador 900 

Egypt ;875 

Finland j900 

France j900 

Germany 900 

Great Britain 1916 

Greece |900 

Guatemala 900 

Hayti i900 

Holland 900 



900 



835 

900 

900,835 

900,835 

900 

916.6 

900,835 

925 

800 

500 

,866,820 

900,835 

900,835 

800 

900 

900,835 

640 



900.0,800,600,400 

900,835 

720 

900 

833.3 

868,750 

900,835 

900 

925 

900,835 

900,83.- 

900,835 

945,640 



Honduras 

Honduras (British) 

Hongkong 

India 

Italy 

Japan 

Mauritius 

Mexico.^ 

Morocco 

Newfoundland. . . . 

Nicaragua 

Norway 

Panama 

Paraguay 

Persia 

Peru 

Portugal 

Roumania 

Russia 

Salvador 

Servia 

Siam 

South Africa 

Spain 

Sweden 

Straits Settlements 

Switzerland 

Turkey 

United States 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 



916.6 
900.0 
900.0 



916.6 



900 
925 
800 
916.6 
900,835 
800 
800 
902 . 7.800 
900,835 
925 
800 
1900.0 800,600,400 




ALGEBRA 
Powers and Roots 
According to the binomial theorem 

(a + 6)^ = a^ + KaK-^h + ^^^ ~ ^^ a^-'b' + 

1 ' ^ 

K(k-l)(k- 2) ^^_.^. ^ ^ _ K(K-l) . . Ja^bf^-' 



1-2-3 



K(K - 1) 



1-2-3 . . . (K- 1) 

' T. K. Rose, "Precious Metals." 



1-2-3 . . .(K -2) 
2 ab^-i ^ b* 



+ 



MATHEMATICS ■ 17 

This formula will serve for the solution of any power what- 
ever, and will, in general, ser\'e to indicate the process of the 
extraction of roots. However, for all practical work on roots 
and powers, use the table of logarithms on p. 42. 
log a" = k log a 

k ,~ log a 
log Vo = -17— 



Permutation, Choice and Chance 

The number of different arrangements (or permutations) 
of n different things taken altogether is factorial n. 
{n\ or n_= n{n - 1) (n - 2) ... 3 X 2 X 1) 
The number of different selections (or combinations) of n 
different things taken r at a time is: 

nin - 1) (n - 2) . . . (n - r + 1) 



The number of selections of n things taken r at a time is the 
same as the number of selections of n things taken n — r at a 
time. 

The number of selection of n things taken r at a time is 
greatest when : If n is an odd number, 

n - 1 

if n is an even number 

n 

The chance of an event happening is expressed by the frac- 
tion of which the numerator is the number of favorable ways, 
and the denominator the whole number of ways, favorable and 
unfavorable. 

If there are several events of which one, and only one can 
happen, the chance that one will happen is the sum of the 
respective chances of happening. 

Progression 
The chief "progressions" are arithmetical, geometrical, and 
harmonic. They are series of numbers in which a common law 
connects the successive terms. 

Arithmetical progression in a series of numbers consists in a 
constant difference between the successive terms, as 
1, 3, 5, 7, 9, . . . 
Let a = first term ;^ = last term ;rf = the common difference; 
n = the number of terms; s = the sum of the terms. 

7 1 / i> J 2s s , {n — l)d 1 J , 

Z=o-}- {n -l)d =— - a =- + i — ^~- = --i^d± 
n n z z 



yJ2ds + (« - 2) 



18 MET.\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

5 = ^[Sa + {n - l)dj = ^{l + a) = ^[ 21- (n - l)d] = 

I + a ( d + I - a \ 
2 \ d ) 

1 / i\ J 2s , 8 (n — l)d 1 , , 



2ds 



d = i^^ = 2(g - an) ^ P - g' ^ 2(nZ - s) 
n — 1 n{n — 1) 2s — Z — a ~ n(n — 1) 

2s _ d -2a ± y/{ 2a - d)' + %ds ^ 

2d ~ 

2Z + d ± \ / (2Z + dy - Ms 
2d 
Geometrical progression in a series of numbers consists in a 
constant ratio existing between the successive terms, as 
4, 8, 16, 32, . . . 
Let a = first term; I = last term; m = any (middle) term; 
s = sum; r = ratio or constant multiplier. 

a + {r - l)s (r - 1)8^-' 

t = ar" 1 = = — 

r r" ' 

m = ar'"~^ 

a(r'' — 1) rl — a -v//" — -s/a" ^J"" ~ ' 



1 r - 1 n-^- _ „-l^ 

(r - l)s 



r/ - (r - 1)8 



= ""V4 = 



s , s — a 8 , Z _ 

r" r H = r" , r""' H -, = O 

a a s — I s — I 

Harmonic series is one in which the numbers are the recipro- 
cals of those forming an arithmetical progression. Such series 
are of small practical value, and such questions as arise in them, 
when solvable, are best answered by inverting the series, and 
solving as a problem in arithmetical progression. In ancient 
times a fictitious importance was attached to them owing to the 
fact that a series of rods of uniform cross-section having lengths 
in harmonic progression forms a musical scale, hence the name. 

INTEREST, ANNUITIES, SINKING FUNDS 
Simple Interest 

If the principal be represented by P 

the interest on SI for one year by r 

the amount of SI for one year by R 

the number of years by n 

the amount of P after n years by A 



MATHEMATICS 19 

Then R = I +r 

Simple interest on P for one year = Pr 
Amount of P for one year = PR 

Simple interest on P for n years = Pnr 
Amount P for n years = P(l + nr) 

that is _ A = P(l + nr) 

When any three of the quantities A, P, n, r, are given, the 
fourth maj^ be found from this last equation. 

Since P will in n years at r interest amount to A, P may be 
considered equivalent in value to A at the end of n years; in 
other words, P is the "present worth" of A. 

Compound Interest 
When compound interest is reckoned payable annually. 
The amount of P dollars in 

1 year is P(l + r) = PR 

2 years is PP(1 + r) = PR^ 
n years = Pi?" 

or A = PR" or P = 4- 

When compound interest is reckoned semi-annually. 
The amount of P dollars in 

K year is p(l+^) 
1 year is p(l+^V 

n years, A = ^ ( ^ + o") 
When the interest is payable quarterly 

When the interest is payable monthly 

(r \ 12n 

And when the interest is payable q times a year 

Sinking Funds 
If the sum set apart at the end of each year to be put at 
compound interest be represented by S, then, the sum at the 
end of the 

first year = S 

second year = S + SR 

third year = S + SR + SR"^ 

nth. year = S + SR + SR^ . . . 57?"-i 

A = S + SR + SR^ . . . + 5i2»-i 
.-. AR = SR + SR^ . . . + SR'^-^ + SR"' 

:. AR - A = SR'^ - S 

^ ^ 5(^^^ ^ ^^ (R" - 1) 
R — 1 r 



20 MET.\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 





COMPOCND 


Interest .\xd 


Discount Tables 






Two per cent. 


Two 


and one- 


half per 


cent. 


Years 


Am't 
of $1 


Present 
val. of 
SI due 


Am't 

of SI 

per 


Present 
val. of 
SI annu- 


Am't 
of $1 


Present 
val. of 
SI due 


Am't 

of SI 

per 


Present 
val. of 
SI an- 




in n 

>T8. 


in n 
yre. 


annum 
in n 
yrs. 


ity for 
n yrs. 


in n 
yrs. 


in n 
yrs. 


annum 
in n 
yrs. 


nuity 
for n 
yrs. 


1 


$1,020 


.9804 


1.02 


1.000 


1.025 


.9756 


1.03 


1.000 


2 


1.040 


.9612 


2.06 


1.9S0 


1.051 


.9518 


2.08 


1.976 


3 


1.061 


.9423 


3.12 


2.942 


1.077 


.9286 


3.15 


2.927 


4 


1.082 


.9238 


4.20 


3.884 


1.104 


.9060 


4.26 


3.856 


5 


1.104 


.9057 


5.31 


4.808 


1.131 


.8839 


5.39 


4.762 


6 


1.126 


.8880 


6.43 


5.713 


1.160 


.8623 


6.55 


5.646 


7 


1.149 


.8706 


7.58 


6.601 


1.189 


.8413 


7.74 


6.508 


8 


1.172 


.8535 


8.75 


7.472 


1.218 


.8207 


8.95 


7.349 


9 


1.195 


.8368 


9.95 


8.325 


1.249 


.8007 


10.20 


8.170 


10 


1.219 


.8203 


11.17 


9.162 


1.280 


.7812 


11.48 


8.971 


11 


1.243 


.8043 


12.41 


9.983 


1.312 


.7621 


12.80 


9.752 


12 


1.268 


.7885 


13.68 


10.787 


1.345 


.7436 


14.14 


10.514 


13 


1.294 


.7730 


14.97 


11.575 


1.379 


.7254 


15.52 


11.258 


14 


1.319 


.7579 


16.29 


12.348 


1.413 


.7077 


16.93 


11.983 


15 


1.346 


.7430 


17.64 


13.106 


1.448 


.6905 


18.38 


12.691 


16 


1.373 


.7284 


19.01 


13.849 


1.485 


.6736 


19.86 


13.381 


17 


1.400 


.7142 


20.41 


14.578 


1.522 


.6572 


21.39 


14.055 


18 


1.428 


.7002 


21.84 


15.292 


1.560 


.6412 


22.95 


14.712 


19 


1.457 


.6864 


23.30 


15.992 


1.599 


.6255 


24.54 


15.353 


20 


1.486 


.6730 


24.78 


16.678 


1.639 


.6103 


26.18 


15.979 


21 


1.516 


.6598 


26. 30 


17.351 


1.680 


.5954 


27.86 


16.589 


22 


1.546 


.6468 


27.84 


18.011 


1.722 


.5809 


29.58 


17.185 


23 


1.577 


.6342 


29.42 


18.658 


1 . 765 


.5667 


31.35 


17.765 


24 


1.608 


.6217 


31.03 


19.292 


1.809 


.5529 


33.16 


18.332 


25 


1.641 


.6095 


32.67 


19.914 


1.854 


.5394 


35.01 


18.885 


26 


1.673 


.5976 


34. 34 


20.523 


1.900 


.5262 


36.91 


19.424 


27 


1.707 


. 5859 


36.05 


21.121 


1.948 


.5134 


38.86 


19.951 


28 


1.741 


.5744 


37.79 


21.707 


1.996 


.5009 


40.86 


20.464 


29 


1.776 


.5631 


39.57 


22.281 


2.046 


.4887 


42.90 


20.965 


30 


1.811 


.5521 


41.38 


22.844 


2.098 


.4767 


45.00 


21.454 


31 


1.848 


.5412 


43.23 


23.396 


2.150 


.4651 


47.15 


21.930 


32 


1.885 


.5306 


45.11 


23.938 


2.204 


.4538 


49.35 


22.395 


33 


1.922 


.5202 


47.03 


24.468 


2.259 


.4427 


51.61 


22.849 


34 


1.961 


.5100 


48.99 


24.989 


2.315 


.4319 


53.93 


23 . 292 


35 


2.000 


.5000 


50.99 


25.499 


2.373 


.4214 


56.30 


23.724 


36 


2.040 


.4902 


53 . 03 


25.999 


2.433 


.4111 


58.73 


24.145 


37 


2.081 


.4802 


55.11 


26.489 


2.493 


.4011 


61.23 


24 . 556 


38 


2.122 


.4712 


57.24 


26.969 


2.556 


.3913 


63.78 


24 . 957 


39 


2.165 


.4619 


59.40 


27.441 


2.620 


.3817 


66.40 


25.349 


40 


2.208 


.4529 


61.61 


27.903 


2. 685 


.3724 


69.09 


25.730 


41 


2.252 


.4440 


63 . 86 


28.355 


2.752 


.3633 


71.84 


26.103 


42 


2.297 


.4353 


66.16 


28.799 


2.821 


.3545 


74.66 


26.466 


43 


2.343 


.4268 


68.50 


29.235 


2.892 


.3458 


77.55 


26.821 


44 


2.390 


.4184 


70.89 


29.662 


2.964 


.3374 


80.52 


27.166 


45 


2.438 


.4102 


73.33 


30.080 


3.038 


.3292 


83.55 


27.504 


46 


2.487 


.4022 


75.82 


30.490 


3.114 


.3211 


86.67 


27.833 


47 


2.536 


.3943 


78.35 


30.892 


3.192 


.3133 


89.86 


28.1.54 


48 


2.. 587 


.3865 


80.94 


31.287 


3.271 


.3057- 


93.13 


28.467 


49 


2.639 


.3790 


83.58 


31.673 


3.353 


.2982 


96.48 


28 . 773 


50 


2.092 


.3715 


86.27 


32.052 


3.437 


.2909 


99.92 


29.071 



For interest at 4, 5 and 6 per cent., payable semi-annually, use the tables 
at 2, 2W and 3 per cent., di\nding the year numeral by 2. 

The fourth column, "present value of 81 annuity for n years." is calcu- 
lated for an annuity payable at the beginning of the vear. The data for 
an annuity payable at the end of the year by taking the next year's figure 
and deducting SI from it. 



MATHEMATICS 



21 





Compound 


Interest and 


Discount Tables 






Three per cent. 


Three and one 


-half per 


cent. 


Years 


Am't 
of $1 


Present 
val. of 
$1 due 


Am't 

of $1 

per 


Present 

val. of 

SI annu- 


Am't 
of $1 


Present 
val. of 
$1 due 


Am't 

of $1 

per 


Present 
val. of 
$1 an- 




in n 
yrs. 


in 74 
yrs. 


annum 

, in 11 

yrs. 


ity for 
n yrs. 


in n 

yrs. 


in n 

yrs. 


annum 
in n 
yrs. 


nuity 
for n 
yrs. 


1 


SI. 030 


.9709 


1.03 


1.000 


SI. 035 


.9662 


1.04 


1.000 


2 


1.061 


.9426 


2.09 


1.971 


1.071 


.9335 


2.11 


1.966 


3 


1.093 


.9151 


3.18 


2.913 


1.109 


.9019 


3.21 


2.900 


4 


1.126 


.8885 


4.31 


3.829 


1.148 


.8714 


4.36 


3.802 


5 


1.159 


.8626 


5.47 


4.717 


1.188 


.8420 


5.55 


4.673 


6 


1.194 


.8375 


6.66 


5.580 


1.229 


.8135' 


6.78 


5.515 


7 


1.230 


.8131 


7.89 


6.417 


1.272 


.7860 


8.05 


6.329 


8 


1.267 


.7894 


9.16 


7.230 


1.317 


.7594 


9.37 


7.115 


9 


1.305 


.7664 


10.46 


8.020 


1.363 


.7337 


10.73 


7.874 


10 


1.344 


.7441 


11.81 


8.786 


1.411 


.7089 


12.14 


8.608 


11 


1.384 


.7224 


13.19 


9.530 


1.460 


.6849 


13.60 


9.317 


12 


1.426 


.7014 


14.62 


10.253 


1.511 


.6618 


15.11 


10.002 


13 


1.469 


.6810 


16.09 


10.954 


1.564 


. 6394 


16.68 


10.663 


14 


1.513 


.6611 


17.60 


1 1 . 635 


1.619 


.6178 


18.30 


11.303 


15 


1.558 


.6419 


19.16 


12.296 


1.675 


.5969 


19.97 


11.921 


16 


1.605 


. 6232 


20.76 


12.938 


1.734 


.5767 


21.71 


12,517 


17 


1.653 


.6050 


22.41 


13.561 


1.795 


.5572 


23.50 


13,094 


18 


1.702 


.5874 


24.12 


14.166 


1.857 


.5384 


25.36 


13.651 


19 


1.754 


.5703 


25.87 


14.754 


1.923 


.5202 


27.28 


14,190 


20 


1.806 


.5537 


27.68 


15.324 


1.990 


.5026 


29.27 


14.710 


21 


1.860 


. 5375 


29.54 


15.877 


2.059 


.4856 


31.^ 


15.212 


22 


1.916 


.5219 


31.45 


16.415 


2.132 


.4692 


33.46 


15.698 


23 


1.974 


.5067 


33.43 


16.937 


2.206 


.4533 


35.67 


16.167 


24 


2.033 


.4919 


35.46 


17.444 


2.283 


.4380 


37.95 


16.620 


25 


2.094 


.4776 


37.55 


17.936 


2.363 


.4231 


40.31 


17.058 


26 


2.157 


.4637 


39.71 


18.413 


2.446 


.4088 


42.76 


17.482 


27 


2.221 


.4502 


41,93 


18.877 


2.532 


.3950 


45.29 


17.890 


28 


2.288 


.4371 


44.22 


19.327 


2.620 


.3817 


47.91 


18.285 


29 


2.357 


.4243 


46.58 


19.764 


2.712 


.3687 


50.62 


18.667 


30 


2.427 


.4120 


49.00 


20.188 


2.807 


.3563 


53.43 


19 . 036 


31 


2.500 


.4000 


51.50 


20.600 


2.905 


.3442 


56.33 


19.392 


32 


2.575 


.3883 


54.08 


21.000 


3,007 


.3326 


59.34 


19.736 


33 


2.652 


.3770 


56.73 


21.389 


3.112 


.3213 


62.45 


20 . 069 


34 


2.732 


.3660 


59.46 


21.766 


3.221 


.3105 


65.67 


20 . 390 


35 


2.814 


.3554 


62.28 


22.132 


3.334 


.3000 


69.01 


20 . 701 


36 


2.898 


.3450 


65.17 


22.487 


3.4.50 


.2898 


72.46 


21.001 


37 


2.985 


.3350 


68.16 


22.832 


3.571 


.2800 


76.03 


21.290 


38 


3.075 


.3252- 


71.23 


23.107 


3.696 


.2706 


79.72 


21.571 


39 


3.167 


.3158 


74.40 


23.492 


3.825 


.2614 


83.55 


21.841 


40 


3.262 


.3066 


77.66 


23.808 


3.959 


.2526 


87.51 


22 . 103 


41 


3.360 


.2976 


81.02 


24.115 


4.098 


.2440 


91.61 


22.355 


42 


3.461 


.2890 


84.48 


24.412 


4.241 


.2358 


95 . 85 


22 . 599 


43 


3.565 


.2805 


88.05 


24.701 


4.390 


.2278 


100.24 


22.835 


44 


3.671 


.2724 


91.72 


24.982 


4.543 


.2201 


104.78 


23.063 


45 


3.^82 


.2644 


95.50 


25.254 


4.702 


.2127 


109.48 


23 . 283 


46 


3.895 


.2567 


99.40 


25.519 


4.867 


. 2055 


114.35 


23.495 


47 


4.012 


'.2493 


103.41 


25.775 


5.037 


.1985 


119.39 


23 . 701 


48 


4.132 


.2420 


107.54 


26.025 


5.214 


.1918 


124.60 


23 . 899 


49 


4.256 


.2350 


1 1 1 . 80 


26.267 


5 . 396 


.1853 


1.30.00 


24.091 


50 


4.384 


.2281 


116.18 


26.502 


5,585 


.1791 


135.58 


24 . 277 



22 MET.\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Compound Interest and Discount Tables 





Four per cent. 


Five per cent. 


Years 


Am't 
of $1 


Present 
val. of 
SI due 


Am't 

of $1 

per 


Present 
val. of 
$1 annu- 


Am't 
of $1 


Present 
val. of 
$1 due 


Am't 

of $1 

per 


Present 
val. of 
SI an- 




in n 
yre. 


in n 
yrs. 


annum 
in n 
yrs. 


ity for »» 
yrs. 


in n 
yrs. 


in n 
yrs. 


annum 
in n 
yrs. 


nuity 
for n 
yrs. 


1 


$1,040 


.9615 


1.04 


1.000 


81.050 


.9524 


1.05 


1.000 


2 


1.082 


.9246 


2.12 


1.962 


1.103 


.9070 


2.15 


1.952 


3 


1.125 


.8890 


3.25 


2.886 


1.158 


.8638 


3.31 


2.859 


4 


1.170 


.8548 


4.42 


3.775 


1.216 


.8227 


4.53 


3.723 


5 


1.217 


.8219 


5.63 


4.630 


1.276 


.7835 


5.80 


4.546 


6 


1.265 


.7903 


6.90 


5.452 


1.340 


.7462 


7.14 


5.329 


7 


1.316 


.7599 


8.21 


6.242 


1.407 


.7107 


8.55 


6.076 


8 


1.369 


.7307 


9.58 


7.002 


1.477 


.6768 


10.03 


6.786 


9 


1.423 


.7026 


11.01 


7.733 


1.551 


.6446 


11.58 


7.463 


10 


1.480 


.6756 


12.49 


8.435 


1.629 


.6139 


13.21 


8.108 


11 


1.539 


.6496 


14.03 


9.111 


1.710 


.5847 


14.92 


8.722 


12 


1.601 


.6246 


15.63 


9.760 


1.796 


.5568 


16.71 


9.306 


13 


1.665 


.6006 


17.20 


10.385 


1.886 


.5303 


18.60 


9 . 863 


14 


1.732 


.5775 


19.02 


10.986 


1.980 


.5051 


20.58 


10.394 


15 


1.801 


.5553 


20.82 


11.563 


2.079 


.4810 


22.66 


10.899 


16 


1.873 


.5339 


22.70 


12.118 


2.183 


.4581 


24.84 


11.380 


17 


1.948 


.5134 


24.65 


12.652 


2.292 


.4363 


27.13 


1 1 . 838 


18 


2.026 


.4936 


26.67 


13.166 


2.407 


.4155 


29.54 


12.274 


19 


2.107 


.4746 


28.78 


13.6.i9 


2.527 


.3957 


32.07 


12.690 


20 


2.191 


.4564 


30.97 


14.134 


2.653 


.3769 


34.72 


13.085 


21 


2.i79 


.4388 


33.25 


14 . 590 


2.786 


.3589 


37.51 


13.462 


22 


2.370 


.4220 


35.62 


15.029 


2.925 


.3419 


40.43 


13.821 


23 


2.465 


.4057 


38.08 


15.451 


3.072 


. 3256 


43.50 


14.163 


24 


2.563 


.3901 


40.65 


15.857 


3.225 


.3101 


46.73 


14.489 


25 


2.666 


.3751 


43.31 


16.247 


3.386 


. 2953 


50.11 


14.799 


26 


2.772 


.3607 


46.08 


16.622 


3 . 5.56 


.2812 


53.67 


15.094 


27 


2.883 


.3468 


48.97 


16.983 


3.733 


.2678 


57.40 


15.375 


28 


2.999 


.3335 


51.97 


17.330 


3.920 


.2551 


61.32 


15.643 


29 


3.119 


.3207 


55.08 


17.663 


4.116 


.2429 


65.44 


15.898 


30 


3.243 


.3083 


58.33 


17.984 


4.322 


.2314 


69.76 


16.141 


31 


3.373 


.2965 


61.70 


18.292 


4.538 


.2204 


74.30 


16.372 


32 


3.508 


.2851 


65.21 


18.588 


4.765 


.2099 


79.06 


16.593 


33 


3.648 


.2741 


68.86 


18.874 


5.003 


. 1999 


84.07 


16.803 


34 


3.794 


. 2636 


72.65 


19.148 


5.253 


.1904 


89.32 


17.003 


35 


3.946 


.25.34 


76.60 


19.411 


5.516 


1813 


94.84 


17.193 


36 


4.104 


.2437 


80.70 


19.665 


5.792 


.1727 


100.63 


17.374 


37 


4.268 


.2343 


84 . 97 


19.908 


6.081 


.1644 


106.71 


17.547 


38 


4.439 


.2253 


89.41 


20.143 


6.385 


.1.506 


113.10 


17.711 


39 


4.616 


.2166 


94 . 03 


20.368 


6.705 


.1491 


119.80 


17.868 


40 


4.801 


.2083 


98.83 


20.584 


7.040 


.1420 


126.84 


18.017 


41 


4.993 


.2003 


103.82 


20.793 


7.392 


.1353 


134.23 


18.159 


42 


5.193 


.1926 


109.01 


20.993 


7.762 


.1288 


141.99 


18.294 


43 


5.400 


.18.52 


114.41 


21.186 


8.150 


.1227 


150.14 


18.423 


44 


5.617 


.1781 


120.03 


21.371 


8.5.57 


.1169 


158.70 


18.546 


45 


6.841 


.1712 


125.87 


21.549 


8.985 


.1113 


167.69 


18.663 


46 


6.075 


.1646 


131.95 


21.720 


9.434 


.1060 


a77.12 


18.774 


47 


6.318 


.1583 


138.26 


21.885 


9.906 


.1009 


187.03 


18.880 


48 


6.571 


.1522 


144.83 


22.043 


10.401 


.0961 


197.43 


18.981 


49 


6.833 


.1463 


151.67 


22.195 


10.921 


.0916 


208.35 


19.077 


50 


7.107 


.1407 


158.77 


22.341 


11.467 


.0872 


219.82 


19.169 



MATHEMATICS 



23 



Compound Interest and Discount Tables 





Six per cent. 






Six per 


cent. 




Am't 


Present 

val. of 

$1 due 

in 71 

yrs. 


Am't 
of $1 


Present 
val. of 


Am't 


Present 

val. of 

SI due 

in n 

yrs. 


Am't 
of $1 


Present 
val. of 


2 

OS 

a 


of $1 
in n 
yrs. 


per 

annum 

in n 


$1 an- 
nuity 
for n 


2 


of $1 
in n 
yrs. 


per 

annum 

in n 


$1 an- 
nuity 
for n 


>< 




yrs. 


yrs. 


!^ 




yrs. 


yrs. 


1 


$1,060 


.9434 


1.06 


1.000 


26 


4.549 


.2198 


62.71 


13.783 


2 


1.124 


.8900 


2.18 


1.943 


27 


4.822 


.2074 


67.53 


13.003 


3 


1.191 


.8396 


3.37 


2.833 


28 


5.112 


.1956 


72.64 


14.211 


4 


1.262 


.7921 


4.64 


3.673 


29 


5.418 


.1846 


78.06 


14.406 


5 


1.338 


.7473 


5.98 


4.465 


30 


5.743 


.1741 


83.80 


14.591 


6 


1.419 


.7050 


7.39 


5.212 


31 


6.088 


.1643 


89.89 


14.765 


7 


1.504 


.6651 


8.90 


5.917 


32 


6.453 


.1550 


96.34 


14.929 


8 


1.594 


.6274 


10.49 


6.582 


33 


6.841 


.1462 


103.18 


15.084 


9 


1.689 


.5919 


12.18 


7.210 


34 


7.251 


.1379 


110.43 


15.230 


10 


1.791 


.5584 


13.97 


7.802 


35 


7.686 


.1301 


118.12 


15.368 


11 


1.898 


.5268 


15.87 


8.360 


36 


8.147 


.1227 


126.27 


15.498 


12 


2.012 


.4970 


17.88 


8.887 


37 


8.636 


.1158 


134.90 


15.621 


13 


2.133 


.4688 


20.02 


9.384 


38 


9.154 


.1092 


144.06 


15.737 


14 


2.261 


.4423 


22.28 


9.853 


39 


9.704 


.1031 


153.76 


15.846 


15 


2.397 


.4173 


24.67 


10.295 


40 


10.286 


.0972 


164.05 


15.949 


16 


2.540 


.3936 


27.21 


10.712 


41 


10.903 


.0917 


174.95 


16.046 


17 


2.693 


.3714 


29.91 


11.106 


42 


11.557 


.0865 


186.51 


16.138 


18 


2.854 


.3503 


32.76 


11.477 


43 


12.250 


.0816 


198.76 


16.225 


19 


3.026 


.3305 


35.79 


11.828 


44 


12.985 


.0770 


211.74 


16.306 


20 


3.207 


.3118 


38.99 


12.158 


45 


13.765 


.0727 


225.51 


16.383 


21 


3.400 


.2942 


42.39 


12.470 


46 


14.590 


.0685 


240.10 


16.456 


22 


3.604 


.2775 


46.00 


12.764 


47 


15.466 


.0647 


255.56 


16.524 


23 


3.820 


.2618 


49.82 


13.042 


48 


16.394 


.0610 


271.96 


16.589 


24 


4.049 


.2470 


53.86 


13.303 


49 


17.378 


.0575 


289 . 34 


16.650 


25 


4.292 


.2330 


58.16 


13.550 


50 


18.420 


.0543 


307 . 76 


16.708 



These tables are an abridgement of the seven-place tables in " Annuaire pour 
I'an 1913," published for the Bureau of Longitudes, by Gauthier-Villars, Quai 
des Grands-Augustins, 55; Paris, France. 

Bond Interest. — ;The true return on a bond is not the interest rate di^dded 
by the purchase price, for if the bond be paid at par at maturity, the discount 
is earned if the bond was purchased below par, while if it was purchased above 
par, the premium must be amortized. If P is the price of a bond with n years 
to run; .S the face of the bond, g the rate of interest current (expressed as a 
decimal) ; r the stipulated' rate of the bond (as a decimal, .05, .06) ; x the in- 
terest on the investment, 

for annual payments l+x= ^ ^Hq - r) + r(l + g)''} ^V„ 



for semiannual payments 1 -f- ^ 



|- .S{(.-.)+r(l + |)-} j 



'/. 



24 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Annual Intestment Table^ 

The sum of money which must be invested at the beginning of each year 
for a period of 1 to 50 years to amount to SIOOO at compound interest. 



Years 


2 Per 


3 Per 


3M Per 


4 Per 


5 Per 


6 Per 


Years 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


1 


S980.39 


970.87 


966.18 


961.55 


952.38 


943.39 


1 


2 


485.43 


478.24 


474.83 


471.25 


464.47 


457.88 


2 


3 


320.31 


314.07 


311.04 


307.98 


302.11 


296.30 


3 


4 


237.87 


232.07 


229 . 20 


226.45 


220.95 


215.66 


4 


5 


188.40 


182.88 


180.18 


177.53 


172.35 


167.36 


5 


6 


155.42 


150.08 


147.51 


144.97 


140.02 


135.24 


6 


7 


131.87 


126.71 


124.19 


121.74 


116.97 


112.39 


7 


S 


114.22 


109.18 


106 . 74 


104.35 


99.73 


95.32 


8 


9 


100 . 50 


95.57 


93.19 


90.86 


86.37 


82.10 


9 


10 


89.53 


84.69 


82.36 


80.09 


75.72 


71.57 


10 


11 


80.57 


75.80 


73.52 


71.30 


67.04 


63.01 


11 


12 


73.10 


68.41 


66.17 


63.99 


59.83 


55.92 


12 


13 


66.78 


62.17 


59.96 


57.83 


53.77 


49.96 


13 


14 


61.38 


56.82 


54.66 


52.57 


48.59 


44.89 


14 


15 


56.69 


52.20 


50.07 


48.02 


44.14 


40.53 


15 


16 


52.60 


48.16 


46.07 


44.06 


40.26 


36.75 


16 


17 


48.99 


44.61 


42.55 


40.58 


36.86 


33.44 


17 


18 


45.79 


41.46 


39.44 


37.49 


33.85 


30.53 


18 


19 


42.92 


38.65 


36.66 


34.75 


31.19 


27.94 


19 


20 


40.35 


36.13 


34.17 


32.29 


28.80 


25.65 


20 


21 


38.02 


33.86 


31.92 


30.08 


26.66 


23.59 


21 


22 


35.91 


31.79 


29.89 


28.08 


24.73 


21.74 


22 


23 


33.99 


29.92 


28.04 


26.26 


22.99 


20.07 


23 


24 


32.23 


28.20 


26.35 


24.60 


21.40 


18.57 


24 


25 


30.61 


26.63 


24.81 


23.09 


19.95 


17.20 


25 


26 


29.12 


25.18 


23.39 


21.70 


18.63 


15.95 


26 


27 


27.74 


23.85 


22.08 


20.42 


17.42 


14.81 


27 


28 


26.46 


22.61 


20.87 


19.24 


16.31 


13.77 


28 


29 


25.27 


21.47 


19.75 


18.15 


15.28 


12.81 


29 


30 


24.17 


20.41 


18.72 


17.14 


14.33 


11.93 


30 


31 


23.13 


19.42 


17.75 


16.21 


13.46 


11.12 


31 


32 


22.17 


18.49 


16.85 


15.34 


12.65 


10.38 


32 


33 


21.26 


17.63 


16.01 


14.52 


11.90 


9.69 


33 


34 


20.41 


16.82 


15.23 


13.76 


11.20 


9.06 


34 


35 


19.61 


16.06 


14.49 


13.06 


10.54 


8.47 


35 


36 


18.86 


15.34 


13.80 


12.39 


9.94 


7.92 


36 


37 


18.14 


14.67 


13.15 


11.77 


9.37 


7.41 


37 


38 


17.47 


14.04 


12.54 


11.18 


8.84 


6.94 


38 


39 


16.83 


13.44 


11.97 


10.64 


8.35 


6.50 


39 


40 


16.23 


12.88 


11.43 


10.12 


7.88 


6.10 


40 


41 


15.66 


12.34 


10.92 


9.63 


7.45 


5.72 


41 


42 


15.11 


11.84 


10.43 


9.17 


7.04 


6.36 


42 


43 


14.60 


11.36 


9.98 


8.74 


6.66 


5.03 


43 


44 


14.11 


10.90 


9.54 


8.33 


6.30 


4.72 


44 


45 


13.64 


10.47 


9.13 


7.94 


5.97 


4.43 


45 


46 


13.20 


10.06 


8.74 


7.57 


5.64 


4.16 


46 


47 


12.78 


9.66 


8.37 


7.23 


5.34 


3.91 


47 


48 


12.37 


9.29 


8.02 


6.90 


5.06 


3.67 


48 


49 


11.97 


8.94 


7.69 


6.59 


4.79 


3.45 


49 


50 


11 CO 


8.61 


7.37 


6.29 


4.55 


3.25 


50 



' From "Lefax," Philadelphia, Penn. 



MATHEMATICS 25 

AMORTIZATION AND DEPRECIATION FORMULAS' 

Amount of an annuity which at the end of n years will 
amortize a capital of SI (interest on annuity payments and on 
original capital figured at the same rate). 

j-(l _|_ j-)n 

Annuity = ^ ^ ^^ _ ^ -Sl 

Present value of an annuity of SI per year, payable for n 
years, at the end of the year. 

Present value = — 1 — -n — ; — r- SI 
r I (1 + O-J 

The sum produced at the end of n j'ears by placing annually 
$1 at r interest, each dollar being deposited at the beginning of 
the year. 

Sum = ^— ^-'"[(l + r)" - 1]-S1 
r 

Present worth of SI payable at the end of n years. 

SI 

Present worth = -jz — ; — r- 
(1 + r)" 

Value at the end of n vears of SI at compound interest. 
Value = (1 + r)»-Sl 

AREAS 

Triangle = base X K altitude 

Triangle (let a, b, and c be the sides and 2s = a + b + c) 

Area = 's/sis — a) {s — b) (s — c) 

Trapezoid = J^ sum of the bases X the altitude 

Circle = irr^ 

Sphere = 4xr2 = wd^ 

Cylinder (total surface) = 2irr^ + 2irrh {h = height or altitude) 

Cylinder (cylindrical surface only) = vdh = 27rr/i 

Cone = 7rr2 + 2Tr(}4Vr'- + h^) 

Regular polygons — w'^here side = s, or r = apothem (radius of 

inscribed circle) 

5 sides (pentagon) 1 . 720477s2 = 3 . 632717-2 

6 sides (hexagon) 2.598076s2 = 3.46410r2 

7 sides (heptagon) 3.633912s2 = 3.37101r2 

8 sides (octagon) 4.828427s2 = 3.31371^2 

9 sides (nonagon) 6.181824s2 = 3.27573r2 

10 sides (decagon) 7. 6942098= = 3.24920r2 

11 sides (undecagon) 9.36.5640s2 = 3.22993r2 

12 sides (duodecagon) 11.196152s2 = 3.21539r2 

for n sides, A = -s^ cot = nr^ tan 

4 n n 

> From "Annuaire pour 191.5, Bureau dea Longitudes." See p. 23 for bond 
interest formula. 



26 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



T.\nLE OF Regular Polygons 



Name of 
polygon 



Area 
side <= S 
A = cS^ 



Radius of 

ciroum- 

scribed circle 



£11 






ca*^ II 



u 



Angle 

at 
center 



Angle 

between 

adjacent 

sides 



Triangle.. . 
Square. . . . 
Pentagon.. 
Hexagon. . 
Heptagon. 
Octagon.. . 
Nonagon. . 
Decagon . . 
I'ndecagon 
Duodecagon 



0.4330127 2 
1.0000000 1 
1.7204774 1 
2.5980762 1 
3.G339124 1 
4.8284271 1 
6.1818242 1 
7.69420881 
9.3656399 1 
11.1961524 1 
I 



,000 0. 
,414 0. 
,238,0. 
,115 1. 
,110 1. 
,083ll. 
,064|1. 
,051 1. 
,0421. 
.037 1, 



57730. 
7071 0, 
8506 0, 
0000 , 
152 4 1. 
3066 1, 
4619 I 
6180 1, 
774711, 
9319 1 
I 



2887 
5000 
6882 
8660 
0383 
2071 
3737 
5388 
7028 
8660 



1.7320 120° 60° 
1.4142 90° 90° 
1.1756 72° 108° 
1.0000 60° 120° 
0.8677 51°26' 128°34' 
0.7653 45° 135° 
0.6840 40° 140° 
0.6180 26° 144° 
0.5634'32°43' 147°16'21' 
0.51761 30° 150° 



T.\BLE OF THE REGULAR POLYHEDRONS WHOSE EdGE IS 

Unity 





No. of faces 


Surface > 


Volume- 


Tetrahedron' 

Hexahedron (cube)' . . . 

Octahedron' 

Dodecahedron' 

Icosahedron' 


4 

6 

8 

12 

20 


1 . 7320508 

6.0000000 

3.4641016 

20.6457288 

8.6602540 


0.1178513 
1 . 0000000 
0.4717045 
7.6631189 
2.1816950 



' If the edge is not unity, multiply the constant in the table by tlie scjuare 
of the side. 

2 If the edge is not unity, multiply the constant in the table by the cube of 
the side. 

>The faces of the tetrahedron, octahedron and icosahedron (20 faces) are 
triangles; of the hexahedron, squares; and of the dodecahedron, pentagons. 

Circular Ring. — Area = w {R"^ — r^) = ir{R — r) 
(R + r) = difTerence in areas between the inner 
and outer circles. 




V = 0.7854r2 = 0.3927c2. 

4 



Q uadrant. — Area 

(c = chord.) 

Segment. — b = length of arc. $ = angle in de- 
grees, c = chord = \/4(2/tr — /i*) 

Area = }^i[br — c{r — h)] 



c{r - h) 



360 



When d is greater than 180°, then - X difference 
between r and h is added to the fraction -tt^t.- 




MATHEMATICS 27 

a 

Sector. — Area = }4hr - i^r- ^ 
360 

9 = angle in degrees 

h = length of arc 
Spandrel.— Area = 0.2146r2 = O-lOySc^^ 
Parabola. — Area = %sh 

I = length of curved line = periphery — « = oT 

(Veil + c + 2.0326 X log ( V'c + Vl+c) 



(<■ — s — *\ where c = I — I 

Ellipse. — Area = irab 



64 



Circum. = Tr(a + b) 



\b +aj 



[close approximation] 




Sector of Sphere. — Total surface = -^ (4/i + c) ; 



c = 2\/{2hr - h-'). 

,^ , 2Trr'^h 2irr- 

Volume = 



/ •Y/4r2 _ (,2\ 
\ 2—} 



3 3 

Segment of Sphere. — Spherical surface 



Total surface 



= 2Trrh + ~c^ = |(c2 + 2h^) 



Sh 



Volume = ttAm r — n) = -n-h-i 

c = 2\/2hr - h^ 

Frustrum of Pyramid. — (Area of top and bottom, 
a and a' respectively). 

Volume = ^(o + a' + ^aa') 

Ellipsoid of Revolution. — Volume = — (product 
of the three radii). 



Paraboloid of Revolution. — Volume = 



wr^h 



Curved surface = ^ ^, [(r^ + ih^)* - r«] 



28 MEIWLLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Volumes 
Cylinder = irr-h = -d-h 

Sphere = -r- = -xr' 
6 3 

Cone = }ri-n-r-h {^^ the vol. of the containing cylinder) 

Pyramid = y^ base X altitude 

TRIGONOMETRY 

The following formulas refer to Fig. 1. 



sin 


,4 


a 
c 








cot 


A 


_ b 
a 




cos 


A 


_ h 
c 








sec 


A 


c 

~ b 




tan 


A 


a 

" b 


b 
c 






cosec 


A 


c 
a 




vers 


A 


= 1 






covers 


A 


= 1 - 


u 
c 










suvers 


A 












S 




R 




Quad7i\B 


Q 
P 


y<CC 


^ 


\ Quad.3 


C 

Quad.4 


^ 





I 

Fio. 2 

Regarding the trigonometric functions as functions of the 
arc, rather than of the angle (see Fig. 2) we have : 
sin a = BC = OD cot a = RS 

cos a = OC = BD sec a = OQ 

tan a - PQ cosec a = OR 

vers a = CP covers a = SD 

suvers a = P'C 
The fundamental trigonometric formula? arc: 

sin a = 

J _ v/sec'a— 1 



cosec 


a 




V i — COS' a 


008 a » 
1 




= 




sec a 


Vl— sin' a 


tan a ■= 








1 




= 


Sin a 


cot a 


Vl —sin- a 



Vl+tan^ , 



V^l+cot^ a 



_ "V^l— cos' a _ / 

= =» Vsec'a-l 



Vcosec' a~i 



cot a =» 


= 






1 

ant a 


Vl-sin2 
sin a 


a 


sec or = 








1 


= 


1 




cos a 


Vl-sin2 


a 


CSC a = 








1 


= 


1 




sin a 


Vl —COS' 


a 



MATHEMATICS 29 



~ Vcosec^o — 1 



\/l — cos- a \/scc2 a-fl 

/— — ;p- _ Vl+cofg _ 

Vl+tan-a — 7 — 



\/cosec2 a — 1 

Vl+tan^a _ /r-r-TT- - —'^ " 

VI -foot' or- / y 

tan a Vsec' a — 1 

sin a COS a 

sin- a + cos- or = 1; tan or = ; cot a = -. 

cos a sin a 

Rule for signs of trigonometric functions in various quadrants : 

Quadrant 12 3 4 

+ - - 

- - + 

- + - 

- + - 

- - + 
+ 

Any function of 0° or an even multiple of 90°, l^j , plus or 

minus A, is the same function of A, and any function of an 
odd multiple of 90° is the complementary function of A, the 
sign being determined for the appropriate quadrant by the 
above table. 

sin (x -\- y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y .'. sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x 
cos(x 4- 2/) = cos X cos y —sin x sin y .' . cos 2x = cos^ x — sin^ x 

sin {x — y) = sin x cos y — cos x sin y 

cos (x — y) = cos X cos ?/ -f sin x sin y 



sm 


+ 


cos 


+ 


tan 


+ 


cot 


+ 


sec 


+ 


cosec 


+ 



'tan (x -f y) 

tan (x — y) 

cot (x + y) 

cot (x - y) 



tan X + tan y 
1 — tan X tan y 

tan X — tan y 
1 + tan X tan y 

cot X cot y — 1 

cot ?/ -+- cot X 

cot X cot y + 1 



cot y — cot X 

sin (x + y) _ tan x -f tan y 

sin (x — y) tan x — tan y 

cos (x + y) _ 1 — tan x tan y 

cos (x — y) 1 + tan x tan y 



30 MET.\LLURG1STS AND CHEMISTS' HANDB(X)K 



sin (x + y) 

cos (x - y) 

sin (j - y) 

cos (x + y) 

sin (x + y) sin (x — y) 

cos (x + y) cos (x — y) 

sin 2x 



tan 2x 
cot 2x 
sin J^x 

cos y^x 
tan >^x 

cot y^x 

sin 3x 
cos 3x 

tan 3x 



_ t»n X + tan y 

1 + tan X tan t/ 
_ tan X — tan y 

1 — tan X tan y 
= sin^x — sin^j/ = cos- y — cos- x 
= cos^ X — sin- y- = cos* y — sin- x 
= 2 sin X cos x 

= 2 cos^x — 1 = 1—2 sin* x 
2 tan X 



1 — tan- X 

cot' X — 1 

2 cot X 



-4 



COS X 



1 -h COS X 



1 + cos X 
sin X 



1 — cos X 
= 3 sin X — 4 sin' x 
= 4 cos' X — 3 cos X 
_ 3 tan X — tan' x 
~ 1-3 tan* X 



Solution of Triangles 

The solution of the right triangle is readily deduced from the 
functional equations applying to Fig. 1, 




The solution of oblique triangles is given in the following 
formula: 

a + h ^ sin A + sin ^ ^ tan yj {A + B) ^ cot }r^C 

a - b ~ sin A - sin B ~ tan }^ {A - B) tan }4iA - B) 

a» = 62 4- c* - 26c cos yl or c* = o* + 6* - 2ac cos C 

6* + c* - a* „ o* -f 6* - c* 

cos A = —. or cos C = 



26c 



2a6 



MATHEMATICS 



31 



sin ^A = ^^ 



+ b - c) (a - b + c) 



46c 



'4 



{s — g) (s — b) 
6c 



1/ A his — a) 

cos y,A = yj^^ 



tan 



UA - * / (s - 6) (s - c) / 6c 



V 



6c 

(s - 6) (s' - c) 
6c 



\ 6c 



Area = 



a6 sin C _ be sin A _ ac sin 5 _ 6" sin C sin ^ 
2 ~ 2 ~ 2 ~ 2 sin 5 

\/s(s — a) {s — 6) (s — c) 
area 



Radius of inscribed circle = 



}^ perimeter 

(product of the sides) 
(four times area) 



Radius of circumscribed circle 

Exact Numerical Value of the Functions of Some Angles 



Angle 


0° 


30° 


45° 


60° 


90° 


120° 


135° 


150° 


180° 


270° 


360° 


Sine 





Vz 


V2 


V3 
2 


1 


V3 
2 


1 

v'2 


ii 





-1 





Cosine 


1 


1 


V3 
2 


1 
V2" 


i2 





-Iri 


1 

~V2 


_V3 
2 


-1 





1 


Tangent 


1 
V3 


1 


V3 


.. 


-V3 


-1 


1 
~V3 





» 





Cotangent 


Vs 


1 


1 
V3 





1 

~V3 


-1 


-V3 


» 





<= 


Secant 


2 
V3 


V2 


2 


CO 


-2 


-V2 


2 

~V3 


-1 


^ 


1 


Cosecant 


2 


^2 


2 
V3 


1 


2 
V3 


V2 


2 


0= 


-1 


» 






1 


2-v'3 


V2"-l 


H 


1 


?i2 


1+^2 


2+V3 


2 


1 







2 


2 


V2 


2 






\i 


V2-I 
V2" 


2- VI 

2 





2-^3 


V2-I 


H 


1 


2 








2 


V2' 





32 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Squares, Cubes, Square akd Cube Roots of Numbers from 

I TO lOOO 



No. 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. 
Root 


Cube 
Root 


No. 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. 

Root 


Cube 
Root 


X 


I 


I 


I.OOOO 


I.OOOO 


Si 


2601 


132651 


7.1414 


3-7084 


3 


4 


8 


I.4I42 


1.2599 


52 


2704 


148877 


7.2111 


3.7325 


3 


9 


37 


1.7321 


1.4422 


S3 


2809 


7.2801 


3.7563 


4 


16 


64 


2.0000 


1.5874 


54 


2916 


157464 


7.3485 


3.7798 


5 


25 


125 


2.2361 


1. 7100 


55 


3025 


166373 


7.4162 


3.8030 


6 


36 


2X6 


2.4495 


1.8171 


S6 


3136 


175616 


7.4833 


3.8259 


7 


49 


343 


2.6458 


1.9129 


57 


3249 


185193 


7.5498 


3.848s 


8 


64 


512 


2.8284 


2.0000 


58 


3364 


195112 


7.6158 


3.8709 


9 


81 


729 


3.0000 


2.0801 


59 


3481 


20S379 


7.6811 


3.8930 


xo 


100 


1000 


3.1623 


2.1544 


60 


36CO 


216000 


7.7460 


3.9149 


II 


131 


133 1 


33166 


3.3240 


61 


3721 


226981 


7.8102 


3.9365 


12 


144 


1728 


34641 


2.2894 


62 


3844 


238328 


7.8740 


3.9579 


13 


160 


3197 


36056 


3.3513 


63 


3969 


350047 


7.9373 


3-9791 


X4 


196 


3744 


3-7417 


3.4101 


64 


4096 


362144 


8.0000 


4.0000 


15 


225 


3375 


3.8730 


2.4662 


6S 


422s 


37462s 


8.0623 


4.0207 


x6 


2S6 


4096 


4.0000 


2.5198 


66 


4356 


387496 


8.1240 


4.0412 


17 


389 


4913 


41231 


2.5713 


67 


4489 


300763 


8.1854 


4.0615 


i8 


324 


5832 


4.2426 


2.6207 


68 


4624 


314432 


8.2462 


4.0817 


19 


361 


6859 


43589 


2.6684 


69 


4-61 


328509 


8.3066 


4.1016 


30 


400 


8000 


4.4721 


3.7144 


70 


4900 


343000 


8.3666 


4.1213 


21 


441 


9261 


4.5826 


3.7589 


71 


S041 


3S7911 


8.4261 


4.1408 


32 


484 


10648 


4.6904 


2.8020 


73 


S184 


373248 


8.4853 


4.1602 


23 


529 


12167 


4.7958 


2.8439 


73 


5329 


389017 


8.5440 


4.1793 


24 


576 


13824 


4 


8990 


2.884s 


74 


5476 


405224 


8.6023 


4.1983 


35 


625 


15625 


5 


0000 


2.9240 


75 


562s 


42187s 


8.6603 


4.2173 


36 


676 


17576 


5 


0990 


2.9625 


76 


5776 


438976 


8.7178 


4.2358 


27 


729 


19683 


S 


1962 


3.0000 


77 


5929 


456533 


8.7750 


4.2543 


28 


784 


21952 


5 


2915 


3.0366 


78 


6084 


474552 


8.8318 


4.2727 


29 


841 


24389 


5 


3852 


3.0723 


79 


6241 


493039 


8.8882 


4.2908 


30 


900 


27000 


5.4772 


3.1072 


80 


6400 


512000 


8.9443 


4.3089 


3t 


961 


29791 


S..5678 


3.1414 


81 


6561 


531441 


9.0000 


4.3267 


33 


1024 


32768 


5.6569 


3.1748 


82 


6724 


.551368 


9.0554 


4-3445 


33 


io8q 


35937 


5.7446 


3.207s 


83 


6889 


571787 


9.1 104 


4.3621 


34 


1156 


39304 


5.8310 


3.2396 


84 


7056 


592704 


9.1652 


4.379s 


35 


1225 


4287s 


5.9161 


3.2711 


85 


7225 


61412s 


9.2195 


4.3968 


36 


I2q6 


46656 


6.0000 


3.3019 


86 


7396 


636056 


9.2736 


4.4140 


37 


1369 


S0653 


6.0828 


3.3322 


87 


7569 


658503 


93276 


4.4310 


38 


1444 


54872 


6.1644 


3.3620 


88 


7744 


681472 


9.3808 


4.4480 


39 


I52I 


59319 


6.2450 


3.3912 


89 


7921 


704969 


9.4340 


4.4647 


40 


1600 


64000 


6.3246 


3-4200 


90 


8100 


729000 


9.4868 


4.4814 


41 


I68I 


68921 


6.4031 


3.4482 


91 


8281 


753571 


9.5394 


4.4979 


42 


1764 


74088 


6.4807 


3.4760 


92 


8464 


778688 


9.5917 


4.5144 


43 


1849 


79507 


6.5574 


3.5034 


93 


8649 


804357 


9.6437 


4.5307 


44 


1936 


85184 


6.6332 


3.5303 


94 


8836 


830584 


96954 


4.5468 


45 


2025 


9112s 


6.7082 


3.5569 


95 


9025 


85737s 


9.7468 


4.5629 


46 


3II6 


97336 


6.7823 


3-5830 


96 


9216 


884736 


9.7980 


4-5789 


47 


2209 


103823 


6.8557 


3.6088 


97 


9409 


912673 


9.8489 


4.5947 


48 


2304 


110592 


6.9282 


3.6342 


98 


9604 


941192 


9.8995 


4.6104 


49 


2401 


117649 


7.0000 


3.6593 


99 


9801 


970299 


9.9199 


4.6261 


SO 


3500 


125000 


7.0711 


3.6840 j 


xoo 


lOOOO 


lOOOOOO 


10.0000 


4.6416 



MATHEMATICS 



33 



Squares, Cubes, Square and Cube Roots of Numbers from 

I TO lOOO 



No. 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. 
Root 


Cube 
Root 


No. 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. 

Root 


Cube 
Root 


lOI 


10201 


1030301 


10.0499 


4.6570 


iSi 


22801 


3442951 


12.2882 


5.3251 


102 


10404 


1061208 


10.0995 


4.6723 


152 


23104 


351 1808 


12.3288 


5 


3368 


103 


10609 


1092727 


10.1489 


4.6875 


153 


23409 


3581577 


12.3693 


5 


348s 


104 


10816 


1124864 


10.1980 


4.7027 


154 


23716 


3652264 


12.4097 


5 


3601 


los 


11023 


1157625 


10.2470 


4.7177 


155 


24025 


372387s 


12-4499 


5 


3717 


106 


11236 


1191016 


10.2956 


4.7326 


156 


24336 


3796416 


12-4900 


5 


3&32 


107 


1 1449 


1225043 


10.3441 


4.747S 


157 


24649 


3869893 


12-5500 


5 


3947 


108 


11664 


1259712 


10.3923 


4.7622 


158 


24964 


3944312 


12.5698 


5 


4061 


109 


11881 


1295029 


10.4403 


4.7769 


159 


252S1 


4019679 


12.6095 5 


4173 


110 


I3IOO 


133 1000 


10.4881 


4.7914 


160 


25600 


4096000 


12.6491 


5 


4288 


III 


I232I 


1367631 


10.S357 


4.80S9 


161 


25921 


4173281 


12.6886 


5.4401 


112 


I2S44 


1404928 


10.5830 


4.8203 


162 


26244 


4251528 


12.7279 


5 


4514 


"3 


12769 


1442897 


10.6301 


4.8346 


163 


26569 


4330747 


12.7671 


5 


4626 


114 


12996 


1481544 


10.6771 


4.8488 


164 


26896 


4410944 


12.8062 


5 


4737 


115 


1322s 


1520875 


10.7238 


4.8629 


165 


27225 


4492125 


12.8452 


5 


4848 


116 


13456 


1560896 


10.7703 


4.8770 


166 


27556 


4574296 


12-8841 


5 


4939 


117 


13689 


1601613 


10.8167 


4.8910 


167 


27889 


4657463 


12.9228 


5 


5069 


118 


13924 


1643032 


10.8628 


4.9049 


168 


28224 


4741632 


12.9615 


5 


3178 


119 


14161 


1685159 


10.9087 


4.9187 


169 


28561 


4826809 


13.0000 


5 


3288 


120 


14400 


1728000 


10.954s 


^•9324 


170 


28900 


4913000 


13.0384 


5 


3397 


121 


1464I 


1771361 


11.0000 


4.9461 


171 


29241 


S000211 


13.0767 


S.5SOS 


122 


14884 


1815848 


11.0454 


4.9597 


172 


29584 


5088448 


13.1149 


5.5613 


123 


15129 


1860867 


11.0905 


4-9732 


173 


29929 


S177717 


13.1529 


5-3721 


124 


15376 


1906624 


11.1355 


4.9866 


174 


30276 


5268024 


13.1909 


S-3828 


125 


1562s 


195312s 


11.1803 


S.oooo 


175 


30625 


S35937S 


13.2288 


5-5934 


126 


15876 


2000376 


11.2250 


S.0133 


176 


30976 


5451776 


13.2665 


5-6041 


127 


16129 


2048383 


11.2694 


5.0265 


177 


31329 


5545233 


13.3041 


S-6147 


128 


16384 


2097152 


11.3137 


S-0397 


178 


31684 


5639752 


13.3417 


5.6252 


129 


1 664 1 


2146689 


11.3578 


5-0528 


179 


32041 


5735339 


13.3791 


56357 


130 


16900 


2197000 


11.4018 


5.0658 


180 


32400 


5832000 


13.4164 


5.6462 


131 


17161 


2248091 


11.4455 


S.0788 


181 


32761 


S929741 


13.4536 


3.6367 


132 


17424 


2 299968 


11.4891 


5.0916 


182 


33124 


6028568 


13.4907 


3.6671 


^ii 


17689 


2352637 


11.5326 


5.1045 


183 


33489 


6128487 


13.5277 


5-6774 


134 


17956 


2406104 


11-5758 


5.1172 


184 


33856 


6229504 


13.5647 


S-6877 


133 


1822s 


246037s 


II. 6190 


5. 1299 


185 


34225 


6331625 


13-6015 


5.6980 


136 


18496 


2515456 


11.6619 


5.1426 


186 


34596 


6434856 


13-6382 


5.7083 


137 


18769 


2571353 


11.7047 


5.1551 


187 


34969 


6339203 


13-6748 


5.718s 


138 


19044 


2628072 


11-7473 


5.1676 


188 


35344 


6644672 


13.7113 


S.7287 


139 


19321 


2685619 


11. 7898 


S.1801 


189 


35721 


6751269 


13.7477 


5.7388 


140 


19600 


2744000 


11.8322 


5.1925 


190 


36100 


6859000 


13.7840 


5.7489 


X41 


1988 X 


2803221 


11.8743 


S.2048 


191 


36481 


6967871 


13.8203 


5 7590 


142 


20164 


2863288 


11.9164 


5.2171 


192 


36864 


7077888 


13-8564 


5 


7690 


143 


20449 


2924207 


11.9583 


5. 2293 


193 


37249 


7189057 


13-8924 


5 


7790 


144 


20736 


2985984 


12.0000 


5.241S 


194 


37636 


7301384 


139284 


5 


7890 


14s 


21025 


3048625 


12.0416 


5.2536 


195 


3802 s 


7414875 


13-9642 


5 


7989 


146 


2I3I6 


3112136 


12.0830 


5.2656 


196 


38416 


7529536 


14.0000 


3 


8088 


147 


21609 


3176523 


12.1244 


5.2776 


197 


38809 


7645373 


14.0357 


5 


8186 


148 


21904 


3241792 


12.1655 


52896 


198 


39204 


7762392 


14.0712 


5 


828s 


149 


22201 


3307049 


12.2066 


S.301S 


199 


39601 


7880599 


14.1067 


5 


8383 


150 


22500 


3375000 


12.2474 


5.3133 


200 


40000 


8000000 


14.1421 


5-8480 



34 .METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

i)yL"AR£S, Cubes, Square akd Cube Roots of Numbers from 

I TO lOOO 



No 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. 
Root 


Cube 
Root 


No. 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. 
Root 


Cube 
Root 


20t 


40401 


81 20601 


14-1774 


5-8578 


2SI 


63001 


15813251 


15-8430 


6.30S0 


20 2 


40804 


8242408 


14.2127 


5.8675 


252 


63504 


16003008 


15-8745 


6.3164 


203 


41209 


8365427 


14.2478 


5-S771 


253 


64009 


16194277 


15.9060 


6.3247 


204 


41616 


8489664 


14.2829 


5.8868 


254 


64516 


16387064 


15-9374 


6.3330 


20s 


42025 


8615125 


14.3178 


S-8964 


255 


65025 


1658137s 


15-9687 


6-3413 


206 


42436 


8741816 


14.3527 


S-90SO 


256 


65536 


16777216 


16.0000 


6.349<i 


207 


42849 


8869743 


14-3875 


S-9155 


257 


66049 


16974593 


16.0312 


6-3579 


208 


45264 


8998912 


14.4222 


5-9250 


258 


66564 


17173512 


16.0624 


6.3661 


209 


43681 


9129329 


14-4568 


S-9345 


259 


67081 


17373979 


16.0935 


6.3743 


210 


44100 


9261000 


14.4914 


S-9439 


260 


67600 


17576000 


16.124s 


6.382s 


211 


44521 


9393931 


14-3258 


S-9533 


261 


681 2 1 


17779581 


16.ISSS 


6.3907 


212 


44944 


9528128 


145602 


S-9627 


262 


68644 


17984728 


16.1864 


6.3988 


213 


45369 


9663597 


14-5945 


S-9721 


263 


69169 


18191447 


16.2173 


6.4070 


214 


45796 


9800344 


14.6287 


5.9814 


264 


69696 


18399744 


16.2481 


6.4151 


215 


46225 


9938375 


14.6629 


S-9907 


265 


70225 


18609625 


16.2788 


6.4232 


216 


46656 


10077696 


14.6969 


6.0000 


266 


70756 


18821006 


16.3095 


6.4312 


217 


47089 


10218313 


14-7309 


6.0092 


267 


71289 


19034163 


16.3401 


6.4393 


218 


47524 


10360232 


14-7648 


6.0185 


268 


71824 


19248832 


16.3707 


6.4473 


219 


47961 


10503459 


14-7986 


6.0277 


269 


72361 


19465109 


16.4012 


6.4553 


2iO 


48400 


10648000 


14.8324 


6.0368 


270 


72900 


19683000 


16.4317 


6.4633 


021 


48841 


10793861 


14.8661 


6.04S9 


271 


73441 


19902511 


16.4621 


6.4713 


222 


49284 


10941048 


14-8997 


6.0550 


272 


73984 


20123648 


16.4924 


6.4792 


223 


49729 


11089567 


14-9332 


6.0641 


273 


74529 


20346417 


16.5227 


6.4872 


224 


SOI 76 


11239424 


14.9666 


6.0732 


274 


75076 


20570824 


16.5529 


6-4951 


225 


5062s 


11390625 


15.0000 


6.0822 


275 


7562s 


2079687s 


16.5831 


6.5030 


226 


51076 


11543176 


15-0333 


6.0912 


276 


761,6 


21024576 


16.6132 


6.5108 


227 


51529 


11697083 


15.0665 


6.1002 


277 


76729 


21253933 


16.6433 


6.5187 


228 


51984 


11852352 


15-0997 


6.1091 


278 


77284 


21484952 


16.6733 


6.526s 


229 


52441 


1 2008989 


15-1327 


6.1180 


279 


77841 


21717639 


16.7033 


6.5343 


230 


52900 


12167000 


15-1658 


6.1269 


280 


78400 


21952000 


16.7332 


6.5421 


231 


S3361 


12326391 


1 5- 1987 


6.1358 


281 


78961 


22188041 


16.7631 


6.5499 


232 


53824 


12487168 


15-231S 


6.1446 


282 


79524 


22425768 


16.7929 


6.5577 


233 


54289 


12649337 


iS-2643 


6.1534 


283 


80089 


22665187 


16.8226 


6.5654 


234 


54756 


1 281 2904 


15-2971 


6.1622 


284 


80656 


22906304 


16.8523 


6.5731 


23s 


55225 


12977875 


15-3297 


6.1710 


28s 


81225 


23149125 


16.8819 


6.5808 


236 


55696 


13144256 


15-3623 


6.1797 


286 


81796 


23393656 


16.911S 


6.5885 


237 


56169 


13312053 


15-3948 


6.188s 


287 


82369 


23639903 


16.9411 


6.5962 


238 


56644 


13481272 


15-4272 


6.1972 


288 


82944 


23887872 


16.9706 


6.6039 


239 


S7I2I 


13651919 


15-4,596 


6.2058 


289 


83521 


24137569 


17.0000 


6.611S 


240 


57600 


13824000 


iS-4919 


6.214s 


290 


84100 


24389000 


17.0294 


6.6191 


241 


S8081 


13997521 


IS-S242 


6.2231 


291 


84681 


24642171 


17.0587 


6.6267 


242 


58564 


14172488 


15-5563 


6.2317 


292 


85264 


24897088 


17.0880 


6.6343 


243 


59049 


14348907 


15-S885 


6.2403 


293 


85849 


25153757 


17.1172 


6.6419 


244 


59536 


14526784 


15-6205 


6.2488 


294 


86436 


25412184 


17.1464 


6.6494 


245 


6002 s 


1470612s 


iS-6525 


6.2573 


295 


8702s 


25672375 


17.1756 


6.6569 


246 


60516 


14886936 


iS-6844 


6.2658 


296 


87616 


25934336 


17.2047 


6.6644 


247 


61009 


15069223 


15.7162 


6.2743 


297 


88209 


26198073 


17.2337 


6.6719 


248 


61504 


15252992 


15-7480 


6.2828 


298 


88804 


26463592 


17.2627 


6.6794 


249 


62001 


15438249 


15-7797 


6.2912 


209 


89401 


26730899 


17.2916 


6.6869 


250 


62500 


15625000 


15-8114 


6.2996 


300 


90000 


27000000 


17.320s 


6.6943 









MATHEMATICS 






35 


f Squares, Cubes, 


Square 


AND Cube 


Roots of Numbers 


FROM 






I TO lOOO 










^-T J. Square 


Cube 


Sq. 
Root 


Cube 
Root 


No. 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. 
Root 


Cube 
Root 


301 j 90601 


27270901 


17-3494 


6.7018 


351 


123201 


43243551 


18.7350 


7.0540 


302 91204 


27543608 


17.3781 


6.7092 


352 


123904 


43614208 


18.7617 


7.0607 


303 91S09 


2781S127 


17.4069 


6.7166 


333 


124609 


43986977 


18.7883 


7.0674 


304 92416 


28094464 


17-4356 


6.7240 


354 


125316 


44361864 


18.8149 


7.0740 


305 93025 


28372625 


17.4642 


6.7313 


355 


126025 


44738875 


18.8414 


7.0807 


306 1 93636 


28652616 


17.4929 


6.7387 


3S6 


126736 


45118016 


18.8680 


7-0873 


307, 94249 


28934443 


17.5214 


6.7460 


357 


127449 


45499293 


18.8944 


7.0940 


30S 94864 


2921S112 


17.5499 


6.7533 


358 


128164 


43882712 


18.9209 


7.1006 


309I 95481 


29503629 


17.5784 


6.7606 


359 


1288S1 


4626S279 


18.9473 


7.1072 


31D 96100 


29791000 


17.6068 


6.7679 


360 


129600 


46656000 


18.9737 


7.1138 


311 96721 


30080231 


17.6352 


6.77S2 


361 


130321 


47045881 


19.0000 


7.1204 


312, 97344 


3037132S 


17.6635 


6.7824 


362 


131044 


47437928 


19.0263 


7.1269 


315 


97969 


30664297 


17.6918 


6-7S97 


363 


131769 


47832147 


19.0526 


7-I33S 


314 


98596 


30959144 


17.7200 


6.7969 


364 


132496 


48228544 


19.078S 


7.1400 


315 


99225 


31255S75 


17.7482 


6.8041 


36s 


133225 


48627125 


19.1050 


7.1466 


316 


99856 


31354496 


17-7764 


6.8113 


366 


133956 


49027896 


19.1311 


7-1531 


317' 100489 


31855013 


17.8045 


6.818s 


367 


134689 


49430863 


19.1572 


7.1596 


31S 101124 


32157432 


17-8326 


6.8256 


[368 


135424 


49836032 


19-1833 


7.1661 


319 101761 


32461759 


17.8606 


6.8328 


369 


136161 


50243409 


19.2094 


7.1726 


320 


102400 


32768000 


17.888s 


6.8399 


j370 


136900 


S0653000 


19.2354 


7.1791 


321 


103041 


33076161 


17.9165 


6.8470 


371 


137641 


S 106481 I 


19.2614 


7-1855 


322 


103684 


33386248 


17.9444 


6.8541 


372 


138384 


51478848 


19.2873 


7.1920 


323 


104329 


33698267 


17.9722 


6.8612 


373 


139129 


51895117 


19.3132 


7.1984 


324 


104976 


34012224 


18.0000 


6.8683 


374 


139S76 


52313624 


19.3391 


7.204S 


325 


105625 


34328125 


18.0278 


6.8753 


375 


140625 


52734375 


19.3649 


7.2112 


326 


106276 


34645976 


18.0555 


6.8824 


376 


141376 


53157376 


19.3907 


7-2177 


327 


106929 


34965783 


18.0831 


6.8894 


377 


142129 


53582633 


19.4165 


7-2240 


328 


107584 


35287552 


18.1108 


6.8964 


378 


142884 


54010152 


19.4422 


7.2304 


329 


108241 


35611289 


1S.1384 


6.9034 


379 


143641 


54439939 


19.4679 


7.2368 


330 


108900 


35937000 


18.1659 


6.9104 


380 


144400 


54872000 


19.4936 


7.2432 


331 


109561 


36264691 


18.1934 


6.9174 


381 


145161 


55306341 


19.5192 


7.249s 


332 


110224 


36594368 


18.2209 


6.9244 


382 


145024 


55742968 


19.5448 


7.2558 


333 


110889 


36926037 


18.2483 


6.9313 ' 


383 


146689 


56181887 


19.5704 


7.2622 


334 


111556 


37259704 


18.2757 


6.9382 , 


384 


147456 


56623104 


19.5959 


7.2685 


335 


112225 


37595375 


18.3030 


6.9451 1 


385 


148225 


57066625 


19.6214 


7.2748 


336 


112896 


37933056 


18.3303 


6.9521 1 


386 


14S996 


57512456 


19.6469 


7.2811 


337 


113569 


38272753 


18.35-76 


6.9589 i 


387 


149769 


57960603 


19.6723 


7.2874 


338 


114244 


38614472 


18.3848 


6.9658 


388 


150544 


58411072 


19.6977 


7.2936 


339 


114921 


38958219 


18.4120 


6.9727 


389 


151321 


58863869 


19-7231 


7.2999 


340 


II5600 


39304000 


18.4391 


6.979s 


390 


152100 


59319000 


19.7484 


7.3061 


341 


I16281 


39651821 


18.4662 


6.9864 


391 


152881 


59776471 


19.7737 


73124 


342 


116964 


40001688 


18.4932 


6.9932 


392 


153664 


60236288 


19.7990 


7.3186 


343 


117649 40353607 


18.5203 


7.0000 


393 


154449 


60698457 


19.8242 


7.3248 


344 


118336 


40707584 


18.5472 


7.0068 


394 


155236 


61162984 


19.8494 


7.3310 


345 


119025 


41063625 


18.5742 


7.0136 


395 


156025 


61629875 


19.8746 


7-3372 


346 


119716 


41421736 


18.6011 


7.0203 


396 


156S16 


62099136 


19.8997 


7-3434 


347 


120409 


41781923 


18.6279 


7.0271 


397 


157609 


62570773 


19.9249 


7-3496 


348 


121104; 42144192 


18.6548 


7.0338 


398 


158404 


63044792 


19.9499 


7-3358 


349 


1 2 1801 


42508549 


18.6815 


7.0406 


399 


159201 


63521199 


19.9750 


7-3619 


350 


122500 


42875000 


18.7083 


7.0473 


400 


160000 


64000000 


20.0000 


7.3681 



30 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Squares, Cubes, Square and Cube Roots of Numbers from 
I TO looo 



No. 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. 
Root 


Cube 
Root 


'no. 

1 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. 
Root 


Cube 
Root 


401 


I 6080 I 


64481201 


20.0250 


7.3742 


451 


203401 


91733S51 


21.2368 


7.6688 


402 


161604 


64964S08 


20.0499 


7.3S03 


452 


204304 


92345408 


21.2603 


7.6744 


403 


162409 


65450827 


20.0749 


7-3864 


433 


205209 


92959677 


21.2838 


7.6800 


404 


163216 


65939264 


20.0998 


7.392s 


454 


2o6n6 


93576664 


21-3073 


7-6857 


40s 


16402s 


6643012s 


20.1246 


7-3986 


4SS 


207025 


94196375 


21.3307 


7.691+ 


406 


164836 


66923416 


20.1494 


7-4047 


4S6 


207936 


94818816 


21.3542 


7.6970 


407 


163649 


67419143 


20.1742 


7.4108 


457 


208849 


95443993 


21.3776 


7.7026 


408 


166464 


67917312 


20.1990 


7.4169 


458 


209764 


96071912 


21.4009 


7.7082 


409 


167281 


68417929 


20.2237 


7.4229 


459 


210681 


96702579 


21.424.5 


7.7138 


410 


168100 


68921000 


30.2485 


7.4290 


460 


311600 


97336000 


21.4476 


7-7194 


411 


168921 


69426531 


20.2731 


7.43SO 


461 


2I2S21 


97972181 


21.4709 


7.7250 


412 


169744 


69934528 


20.2978 


7 


4410 


462 


213444 


98611128 


21.4942 


7.7306 


413 


170569 


70444997 


20.3224 


7 


4470 


463 


214369 


99252847 


21.5174 


7-7362 


414 


171396 


70957944 


20.3470 


7 


4S30 


464 


215296 


99897344 


21.5407 


7-7418 


41S 


172225 


7147337s 


20.3715 


7 


4S90 


46s 


216225 


100544625 


21.5639 


7-7473 


416 


173056 


71991296 


20.3961 


7 


4650 


466 


217156 


101 194696 


21.5870 


7-7529 


417 


173889 


72511713 


20.4206 


7 


4710 


467 


218089 


101847563 


21.6102 


7-7584 


418 


174724 


73034632 


20.4450 


7 


4770 


468 


219024 


102503232 


21.6333 


77639 


419 


175561 


73560059 


20.4695 


7 


4829 


469 


219961 


103161709 


21.6564 


7.769s 


420 


176400 


74088000 


20.4939 


7.4889 


470 


220900 


103823000 


21.679s 


7.7750 


421 


177241 


74618461 


20.5183 


7.4948 


471 


22184I 


104487111 


21.7025 


7.780s 


422 


178084 


75151448 


20.5426 


7.5007 


472 


222784 


105154048 


21.7256 


7.7860 


423 


178929 


75686967 


20.5670 


7-5067 


473 


223729 


105823817 


21.7486 


7.791s 


424 


179776 


76225024 


20.5913 


7.5126 


474 


224676 


106496424 


21.7715 


7.7970 


42s 


18062s 


76765625 


20.6155 


7-5185 


475 


225625 


107171875 


21-7945 


7.802s 


426 


181476 


77308776 


20.6398 


7-5244 


476 


226576 


107850176 


21.8174 


7.8079 


427 


182329 


77854483 


20.6640 


7-5302 


477 


227529 


108531333 


21.8403 


7.8134 


428 


183184 


78402732 


20.6882 


7-5361 


478 


22S484 


109215352 


21.8632 


7.8188 


429 


184041 


78953589 


20.7123 


7.5420 


479 


229441 


109902239 


21.8861 


7.8243 


430 


184900 


79507000 


20.7364 


7.5478 


480 


230400 


110592000 


21.9089 


7.8297 


431 


185761 


80062991 


20.760s 


7.SS37 


481 


23I361 


III284641 


21.9317 


7-8352 


432 


186624 


80621568 


20.7846 


7-5595 


482 


232324 


11198016S 


21.9545 


7-8406 


433 


187489 


81182737 


20.8087 


7-5654 


483 


233289 


112678587 


21.9773 


7.8460 


434 


188356 


81746504 


20.8327 


7-5712 


U84 


234256 


113379904 


22.0000 


7.8314 


435 


18922s 


82312875 


20.8567 


7-5770 


48s 


235225 


114084125 


22.0227 


7.8568 


436 


190096 


82881856 


20.8806 


7.5828 


486 


236196 


114791256 


22.04S4 


7.8622 


437 


190969 


83453453 


20.9045 


7.5886 


487 


237169 


I 15501303 


22.0681 


7.8676 


438 


191844 


84027672 


20.9284 


7.5944 


488 


238144 


116214272 


22.0907 


7-8730 


439 


192721 


84604519 


20.9523 


7.6001 


489 


239121 


116930169 


22.1133 


7-8784 


440 


193600 


85184000 


20.97(^2 


7.6059 


490 


240100 


117649000 


22.1359 


7-8837 


441 


I 9448 I 


85766121 


21.0000 


7.6117 


491 


24I081 


118370771 


22.1585 


7.8891 


442 


195364 


86350888 


21.0238 


7.6174 


492 


242064 


119095488 


22.1811 


7.8944 


443 


196249 


86938307 


21.0476 


7.6232 


493 


243049 


119823157 


22.2036 


7.8998 


444 


197136 


87528384 


21.0713 


7.6289 


494 


244036 


120553784 


22.2261 


7.9051 


445 


198025 


8812112s 


21.0950 


7.6346 


495 


24502s 


12128737s 


22.2486 


7.910S 


446 


198916 


88716536 


21.1187 


7.6403 


496 


246016 


122023936 


22.2711 


7.9158 


447 


199809 


89314623 


21.1424 


7.6460 


497 


247009 


122763473 


22.2935 


7.9211 


448 


200704 


89915392 


21.1660 


7.6517 


498 


248004 


123505992 


22.3159 


7.9264 


449 


201601 


90518849 


21.1896 


7-6574 


409 


249001 


1242S1499 


22.3383 


7-9317 


450 


202500 


91125000 


21.2132 


7.6631 


Soo 


250000 


125000000 


22.3607 


7-9370 



MATHEMATICS 



37 



Squases, Cubes, Square and Cube Roots of NtrMBERS from 
I to iooo 



Na 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. Cube 
Root Root 


No. 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. 
Root 


Cube 
Root 


SOI 


2SIOOI 


125751501 


22.3830 


7.9423 


551 


303601 167284151 


23.4734 


8.1982 


S02 


252004 


126506008 22.4054 


7.9476 


552 


304704 163196608:23.4947 


8.2031 


S03 


253009 


127263527 22.4277 


7-9328 


533 


305809 169112377123. 5160J 8.2o8t 


504 


254016 


128024064 22.4499 


7-9381 


534 


306916 170031464J23.5372 8.2130 


50s 


25502s 


128787625 22.4722 


7-9634 


333 


308025! 170953875; 23-5584 8.2180 


S06 


256036 


129554216 22.4944 


7.96S6 


i556 


309136. 171879616 23.5797 8.2229 


S07 


257049 


130323843 22.5167 


7-9739 


|537 


310249 172808693123.6008 8.2278 


508 


258064 


131096312 22.5389 


7-9791 


558 


311364 17374II12'23.6220, 8.2327 


S09 


259081 


I3l872229'22.56lO 


7-9843 


l5S9 


312481 


174676S79'23.6432; 8.2377 


510 


260x00 


i326siooo'22.5832 


7-9S96 


:s6o 


313600 


175616000 


23.6643] 8.2426 


S" 


261x21 


133432831 22.6053 


7-9948 


561 


314721 


176558481 


23.68541 8.247s 


512 


262144 


134217728122.6274 


8.0000 . 


562 


313844 


177504328 23.7065! 8.2524 


S13 


263160 


135005697 22.6495 


8.0032 


563 


316969 


178453547 23.7276 8.2573 


514 


264196 


135796744 22.6716 


8.0104 


564 


318096 


179406144 23.7487 8.2621 


SIS 


265225 


136590875 22.6936 


8.0156 


56s 


319225 


180362125 '23.7697 8.2670 


S16 


266256 


i37388o96|22.7is6 


8.0208 


1566 


320356 


181321406 23.790S 8.2719 


517 


267289 


138188413,22.7376 


8.0260 


1567 


321489 


i82284263'23.8iiS, 8.2768 


S18 


268324 


l3899i832;22.7S96 


8.0311 


568 


322624 


183250432123.8328; 8.2816 


S19 


269361 


139798359 22.7816 


8.0363 


569 


323761 


184220009 23.8537 8.2865 


S20 


270400 


140608000 22.8035 

1 


8.041s 


570 


324900 


185193000' 23.8747 8.2913 


S21 


271441 


141420761 22.8254 


8.0466 


571 


326041 


186169411 23.8956I 8.296a 


S22 


272484 


142236648 22.8473 


8.0517 


572 


327184 


187149248123.9165: 8.3010 


523 


273529 


143055667 22.8692 


8.0569 


373 


328329 


188132517 23-9374' 8.303g 


524 


274576 


143877824 22.8910 


8.0620 


374 


329476 


l89ii9224'23.9s83 8.3107 


523 


275625 


144703125 22.9129 


8.0671 


573 


330625 


190109375,23.9792' 8.315s 


526 


276676 


145331576 22.9347 


8.0723 


576 


331776 


I9ii02976|24.oooo 8.3203 


527 


277729 


146363183 22.9565 


8.0774 


577 


332929 


192100033 24.0208 8.3251 


528 


278784 


147197952 22.9783 


8.0825 


578 


334084 


193100552 24.0416 8.3300 


529 


279841 


14803 5889 '23. 0000 


8.0876 


579 


335241 


19410453924-0624 8.3348 


530 


280900 


148877000 23.0217 

1 


8.0927 


580 


336400 


195112000 24.0832 8.3396 
1 1 


S3I 


281961 


1 
149721 291 23.0434 


8.0978 


381 


337561 


1 
196122941 24.1039I 8.3443 


532 


283024 


15056876S 23.0651 


8.1028 


582 


338724 


I97i3736ii 24.1247! 8.3491 


533 


284089 


151419437 23.086S 


8.1079 


^P 


339889 


198155287 24.1454 8.3539 


534 


285156 


152273304 23.1084 


8.1130 


584 


341036 


199176704 24.1661; 8.3587 


535 


286225 


133130373 23-1301 


8.1180 


S8S 


342225 


200201625 24.1868 


8.3624 


536 


287296 


133990656 23.1517 


8.1231 1 


SS6 


343396 


201230056 24.2074 


8.3682 


537 


288369 


154854133 23.1733 


8.1281 i 


587 


344369 


202262003 24.2281 


8.3730 


538 


289444 


155720872 23.1948 


8.1332 . 


588 


343744 


203297472 24.2487 


8.3777 


539 


290521 


156590819 23.2164 


8.1382 


589 


346921 


204336469 '24. 2693 


8.3S2S 


S40 


291600 


157464000 23.2379 


8.1433 


590 


348100 


205379000 24.2899 


8.387a 


541 


292681 


158340421 23.2594 


8.1483 


391 


349281 


2o642507i;24.3ios 8.3910 


542 


293764 


159220088 23.2809 


8.1533 


592 


330464 


207474688 24.33111 8.3967 


543 


294849 


160103007 23.3024 


8.1583 


593 


331649 


208527857124.3516, 8.4014 


544 


295936 


160989184 23.3238 


8.1633 


594 


332836 


209584384 24.3721' 8.4061 


54S 


297025 


161878625 23.3452 


8.1683 


595 


334025 


210644875 24.3926 8.4108 


546 


298116 


162771336 23.3666 


8.1733 


596 


335216 


2il7o8736'24.4i3i 8.4155 


547 


299209 


163667323 23.3880 


8.1783 


597 


336409 


212776173 24.4336 8.4202 


548 


300304 


164366592 23.4094 


8.1833 


598 


357604 


213847192 24.45401 8.4249 


549 


301401 


165469149 23.4307 


8.1882 


599 


338801 


214021799 24.4715 8.4296 


550 


302500 


166375000 23.4521 


8.1932 


600 


360000 


216000000 24.4949 8.4343 



38 MET.AXLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Squares, Cubes, Square and Cube Roots of Numbers from 

I TO lOOO 



No. 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. 
Root 


Cube 
Root 


No. 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. 
Root 


Cube 
Root 


6oi 


361201 


217081801 


24.5153 


8.4390 


631 


423801 


275894451 


25.5147 


8.6663 


602 362404 


218167208:24.5357 


8.4437 


652 


425104 


277167808 


25.5343 


8.6713 


603 363609 


219256227 24.5561 


8.4484 


653 


426409 


278445077 


25S539 


8.6757 


604 364816 


220343864'24.5764 


8.4530 


654 


427716 


279726264 


25.5734 


8.6801 


60s 36602s 


221445125 24.5967 


8.4577 


655 


429025 


28101137s 


25.5930 


8.684s 


606 367236 


222345016 24.6171 


8.4623 


656 


430336 


282300416 


25.6125 


8.6890 


607 36S449 


22364S543 246374 


8.4670 


657 


431649 


283593393 


25.6320 


8.6934 


608 369664 


224-557l2'24.6577 


8.4716 


658 


432964 


284890312 


25.6515 


8.6978 


609 370881 


225S66529 24.6779 


8.4763 


659 


434281 


286191179 


25.67:0 


8.7022 


610 372100 


226981000 24.6982 


8.4809 


660 


435600 


287496000 


25.6905 8.7066 


611 373321 


228099131 24.7184 


8.4836 


661 


436921 


288804781 


1 
25.7099 8.7110 


612 374S44 


229220928 24 


7386 


8.4902 


662 


438244 


290117328 


25.7294! 8.7154 


6i3 375-69 


230346397 24 


7S88 


8.4948 


663 


439569 


291434247 


25.7488 


8.7198 


614 376996 


231475544 24 


7790 


8.4994 


664 


440896 


292754944 


25.7682 


8.7241 


61S 378225 


23260.S375 24 


7992 


8.5040 


,66s 


442225 


29407962s 


25.7876 


8.728s 


6i6 379456 


233744896,24 


8193 


8.5086 


'666 


443556 


293408296 


25.8070 


8.7329 


6i7 3S0689 


234885113 24 


8395 


8.5132 


667 


444889 


296740963 


25.8263 


8.7373 


618 3S1924 


236029032 24 


8596 


8.5178 


668 


446224 


298077632 


25.8457 


8.7416 


619 383161 


237176659 24 


8797 


8.5224 


669 


447561 


299418309 


25.8650 


8.7460 


620 384400 


238328000 24.8998 


8.5270 


670 


448900 


300763000 


25.8844 


8.7503 


621 385641 


239483061 24.9199 


8.3316 


671 


430241 


'3021117H 


25.9037 


8.7547 


622 386884 


240641848 24.9399 


8.5362 


672 


451584 


303464448,23.9230 


8.7590 


623 388129 


241804367 24.9600 


8.5408 


673 


452929 


304821217J25.9422 


8.7634 


624 389376 


242970624 24.9800 


8.5453 


1674 


454276 


306182024125.9615 


8.7677 


625 390625 


244140625 25.0000 


8.5499 


1675 


455625 


307546873125.9808 


8.7721 


626 391876 


245314376 25.0200 


8.5544 


'676 


456976 


308915776126.0000 


8.7764 


627 393129 


246491883 25.0400 


8.5590 


677 


458329 


310288733 26.0192 


8.7807 


628 394384 


247673152 25.0599 


8.563s 


678 


459684 


3x1663732 26.0384 


8.7850 


629 395641 


248858189 23.0709 


8.5681 


679 


461041 


313046839I 26.0576 


8.7893 


630 396900 


250047000 23.0998 

j 


8.5726 


680 


462400 


314432000 


26.0768 


8.7937 


631 398161 


251239591 I2S."97 


8.5772 


681 


463761 


313821241 


26.0960 


8.7980 


632 399424 


252435968;25.1396 


8.5817 


682 


465124 


317214568 26.1151 


8.8oa3 


633 4006S9 


253636137 25.159s 


8.5862 


683 


466489 


318611987 26.1343 


8.8066 


634 401956 


254840104 25.1794 


8.5907 


1684 


467856 


320013504 26.1534 


8.8109 


635' 403225 


256047875 25.1992 


8.5952 


685 


469225 


32141912526.1725 


8.8132 


636 404496 


257259456 25.2190 


8.5997 


^^ 


470596 


322828836 26.1916 


8.8194 


637! 405769 


258474853 25.2389 


8.6043 


687 


471969 


324242703 26.2107 


8.8237 


638 1 407044 


259694072 23.2587 


8.6088 


1688 


473344 


323660672 26.2298 


8.8280 


639! 408321 


260917119 23.2784 


8.6132 


1689 


474721 


327082769 26.2488 


8.8323 


640 


409600 


262144000 25.2982 


8.6177 


690 


476100 


328509000,26.2679 


8.8366 


641 


410881 


263374721 23.3180 


8.6222 


691 


477481 


329939371 26.2869 


8.8408 


642' 412164 


264609288 23.3377 


8.6267 


692 


478864 


331373888,26.3059 


8.8431 


6431 413449 


263847707 25.3574 


8.6312 


693 


480249 


332812357 26.3249 


8.8493 


6441 414736 


267089984 25.3772 


8.6357 


694 


481636 


334235384 26.3439 


8.8536 


64s 41602s 


268336123 25.3969 


8.6401 


695 


48302s 


335702375 26.3629 


8.8578 


646: 417316 


269586136 25.4165 


8.6446 


696 


484416 


337153536,26.3818 


8.8621 


647 1 418609 


270840023 25.4362 


8.6490 


697 


485809 


338608873 26.4008 


8.8663 


648] 419904 


27209-792 25.4558 


8.6535- 


698 


487204 


340068392 '26.4197 


8.S706 


649 421 201 


273359449 25.4755 


8.6579 


699 


488601 


341532099I26.4386 


8.8748 


650 422500 


274623000 25.4951 


8.6624 


700 


490000 


34300000026.4575 


8.8790 



MATHEMATICS 



39 



Squares. Cubes, Square and Cube Roots of Numbers from 

I TO lOOO 



No. 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. 
Root 


Cube 
Root 


Na 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. 
Root 


Cube 
Root 


701 


491401 


344472101 


26.4764 


8.8833 


7SI 


564001 


423564751 


27.4044 


9.0896 


702 


492804 


343948408J 26.4953 


8.887s 


752 


565504 


425259008 


27.4226 


9-0937 


703 


494209' 347428927 26.5141 


8.8917 


753 


567009 


426957777 


27.4408 


9.0977 


704 


495616 34S913664 26.5330 


8.8959 


754 


568516 


428661064 27.4591 


91017 


70s 


497025 350402625 26.5518 


8.9001 


175S 


570025 


43036887527.4773 


9-1057 


706 


49S436 


351895816 26.5707 


8.9043 


756 


571536 


432081216 27.4955 


9.1098 


707 


499S49 


353303243 26.589s 


8.9085 


757 


573049 


433798093 27.5136 


9-1138 


708 


501264 


354894912^26.6083 


8.9127 


7S8 


574564 


435519512:27.53x8 


9.1178 


709 


502681 


356400829I26.6271 


8.9169 


759 


576081 


437245479 27.5500 


9.1218 


710 


504100 


357911000 


26.6458 


8.9211 


760 


577600 


438976000 27.5681 


9.1258 


711 


SOSS21 


3S042S43I 


26.6646 


8.9253 


761 


S79I2I 


440711081 27.5862 


9.1298 


712 S06944 


360944128 26.6S33 


8.9295 


762 


580644 


442450728 27.6043 


9-1338 


713 


508360 


362467097 '26.7021 


8.9337 


763 


582169 


444I94947«27.6225 


9-1378 


714 


509796 


363994344 26.7208 


8.9378 


764 


583696 


443943744 27.6405 


9.1418 


715 


SI1225 


365525875 


26.7395 


8.9420 


765 


585225 


447697125 27.6586 


9-1458 


716 312656 


367061696 


26.7582 


8.9462 


766 


586756 


449455096 27.6767 


9.1498 


717 514089 


368601813 


26.7769 8.9503 


767 


588289 


451217663 27.6948 


91537 


7i3 S15524 


370146232 


26.795s 


8.954s 


768 


589824 


452984832 27.7128 


9-1577 


719 516961 


371694959 


26.8142 


8.95S7 


769 


591361 


454756609 


27.7308 


9.1617 


720 


518400 


373248000 


26.8328 


8.9628 


770 


592900 


456533000 


27.7489 


9.1657 


721 


S19841 


374805361 


26.8514 


8.9670 


771 


594441 


458314011 


27.7669 


9.1696 


722 


521284 


376367048 


26.8701 


8.9711 


772 


595984 


460099648 27.7849 


9-1736 


723 


522729 


377933067 


26.8887 


8.9752 


773 


597529 


461889917 27.8029 


9-177S 


724 


524176 


379503424 


26.9072 


8.9794 


774 


599076 


463684824 27.8209 


9-181S 


72s 


525625 


381078125 


26.9258 


8.983s 


775 


600625 


465484375 27.8388 


9-185S 


726 


527076] 382657176 


26.9444 


8.9876 


776 


602176 


467288576 27.8568 


9-1894 


727 


528529' 384240583 


26.9629 


8.9918 


777 


603729 


469097433 '2 7-8747 


9-1933 


728 529984 385828332 


26.9815 


8.9959 


778 


605284 


470910952 27.8927 


9-1973 


729 531441 


387420489 


27.0000 


9.0000 


7-9 


606841 


472729139 27.9106 


9.2012 


730 532900 


389017000 


27.0185 


9.0041 


780 


608400 


474552000 


27.9285 


9.2052 


731 334361 


390617891 


27.0370 


9.0082 


781 


609961 


476379541 


27.9464 


9.2091 


7321 535824' 392223168:27.0555 


9.0123 


782 


611524 


47S211768 


27.9643 


9-2i.?o 


733' 537289 393832837 27.0740 


9.0164 


783 


613089 


480048687 


27.9821 


9.2170 


734! 538756, 395446904 27.0924 


9.020s 


7S4 


614656 


481890304 


28.0000 


9.2209 


735 540225; 397o65373|27-ii09 


9.0246 


78s 


616225 


483736625 


28.0179 


9.2248 


736^ 541696 398688256^27.1293 


9.0287 


786 


617796 


485387656 


28.0357 


9.2287 


737; 543169' 400315553 27.147.7 


9.0328 


787 


619369 


487443403 


28.0533 


9-2326 


738; 544644' 401947272 27.1662 


9.0369 


788 


620944 


489303872 


28.0713 


9-2365 


739I S46121 


•403583419I27.1846 


9.0410 


,789 


622521 


491169069 


28.0891 


9-2404 


740 


547600 


405224000 27.2029 


9.0450 


]790 


624100 


493039000 


28.1069 


9-2443 


741 


S49801 


406869021 27.2213 


9.0491 


791 


625681 


494913671 


28.1247 


9.2482 


742 


S50564I 408518488127.2397 


90532 


792 


627264 


496793088 


28.1425 


9.2521 


743 


552049' 410172407127.2580 


9.0572 


703 


6288.19 


498677257 


28.1603 


9.2560 


744 


533536 4ii830784'27.2764 


9.0613 


794 


630436 


500366184 


28.1780 


9- 2 599 


745 


555025 41349362527.2947 


9.0654 


795 


632025 


50245987s 


28.1957 


9-2638 


746 


556516I 415160936 27.3130 


9.0694 


796 


633616 


SO4358336 


28.2135 


9.2677 


747 


558009' 416832723 27.3313 


9073s 


797 


635209 


S06261573 


28.2312 


9.2716 


748 


559504' 418508992 27.3496 


9.077s 


798 


636804 


508169592 


28.2489 


9-2754 


749 


561001! 42018974927.3679 


9.0816 


799 


638401 


510082399 


28.2666 


9-2793 


7SOJ 562500! 421875000^27.3861 


9.0856 


800 


640000 


512000000 


28.2843 


9-2832 



40 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Squares, Cubes, Square and Cube Roots of NtrMBERs from 
1 to iooo 



No. 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. 
Root 


Cube 
Root 


Na 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. 1 Cube 
Root ] Root 


8oi 


641601 


513922401 


28.3019 


9.2870 


851 


724201 


616295051 


29.1719 


9.4764 


802 643204 


S15849608 28.3196 


9.2909 


852 


725904 


618470208! 29.1890 


9.4801 


803 644809 


517781627 28.3373 


9.2948 


853 


727609 


620650477129.2062 


9.4838 


804 1 646416 


519718464 28.3549 


9.2986 


854 


729316 


622835864 29.2233 


9.4875 


80s' 648025 


521660125 28.3725 


9-3025 


85s 


731025 


625026375129.2404 


9.4912 


8061 649636 


523606616 28.3901 


9-3063 


856 


732736 


6272220l6|29.257S 


9.4949 


8071 651249 


525557943 28.4077 


9.3102 


857 


734449 


629422793 29.2746 


9.4986 


808. 652864 


52751JI12 28.4253 


9-3140 


858 


736164 


631628712 29.2916 


95023 


809 654481 


529475129 28.4429 


9.3179 


859 


7378S1 


633839779 29.3087 


95060 


810 


656100 


531441000 


28.4605 


9-3217 


860 


739600 


636056000 


29-3258 


9-5097 


811 


657721 


533411731 


28.4781 


9-32SS 


86i 


741321 


638277381 


29.3428 


95134 


812 


659344 


535387328 


28.4956 


93294 


862 


743044 


640503928 


29.3598 


9-5171 


813 


660969 


537J67797 


28.5132 


9-3332 


863 


744769 


642735647 


29.3769 


9-5207 


814 


662596 


539353144 


28.5307 


9-3370 


864 


746496 


644972544 


29.3939 


9-5244 


815 


664225 


.541343375 


28.5482 


9-3408 


865 


748225 


647214625 


29.4109 


9-5281 


816 665856 


543338496 


28.5657 


9-3447 


866 


749956 


649461896 


29.4279 


95317 


817 667489 


545338513 


28.5832 


9-348S 


867 


751689 


651714363 


29.4449 


9-5354 


818 669124 


547343432 28.6007 


9-3523 


868 


753424 


653972032 


29.4618 


9-5391 


819 


670761 


549353259 2S.6182 


9-3561 


869 


755161 


656234909 


29.4788 


95427 


820 


672400 


551368000 


28.6356 


9-3599 


870 


756900 


658503000 


29.4958 


9-5464 


821 


674041 


SS3387661 


28.6531 


9.3637 


871 


758641 


660776311 


29.S127 


9-S501 


822 675684 


555412248 


28.6705 


9-367S 


872 


760384 


663054848 


29.5296 


9.5537 


823 


677329 


557441767 


28.6880 


9-3713 


873 


762129 


665338617 


29.5466 


9-5574 


824 


678976 


559476224 


28.7054 


9'3751 


874 


763876 


667627624 29.5635 


9.5610 


825 


680625 


561515625 


28.7228 


9-3789 


875 


765625 


669921875 29.5804 


9.5647 


826 


682276 


563559976 


28.7402 


9-3827 


876 


767376 


672221376129.5973 


9.5683 


827 


683929 


565609283 


28.7576 


0.386s 


877 


769129 


674526133 


29.6142 


9-5719 


828 


685584 


567663552 


28.7750 


9.3902 


878 


770884 


676836152 


29.6311 


9-5756 


829 687241 


569722789 28.7924 


9-3940 


879 


772641 


679IS14.?9 


29.6479 


^H^l 


830 688900 


571787000 28.8097 


9-3978 


880 


774400 


681472000 


29.6648 


9-5828 


831 690561 


573856191 28.8271 


9^016 


881 


776161 


683797841 


29.6816 


0-s86s 


832' 692224 


575930368,28.8444 


9-4053 


882 


777924 


6861 28968 1 29.698s 


9-S901 


833 


693889 


578009537 


28.8617 


9-4091 


883 


779689 


688465387 29.7153 


9-. 593 7 


834 


693556 


580093704 


28.8791 


9-4129 


884 


781456 


690807104 29.7321 


9-5973 


835 


697225 


582182875 


28.8964 


9.4166 


88s 


783225 


693154125I29.7489 


9.6010 


836 


698896 


584277056 


28.9137 


9-4204 


886 


784996 


695506456,29.7658 


9.6046 


837 


700569 


586376253 


28.9310 


9.4241 


887 


786769 


697864103 29.782s 


9.6082 


838 


702244 


588480472 


28.9482 


94279 


888 


788544 


700227072 29.7993 


9.6118 


83g 


703921 


590589719 


28.9655 


9-4316 


889 


790321 


702505369 29.8161 


9-6154 


840 


705600 


592704000 


28.9828 


9-4354 


890 


792100 


704969000 29.8329 


9.6190 


841 


707281 


594823321 


29.0000 


0-4391 


891 


793881 


707347971 29.8496 


9.6226 


842 


708964 


596947688129.0172 


9-4429 


892 


795664 


709732288 29.8664 


9.6262 


843 


710649 


599077107129.0345 


9.4466 


893 


797449 


712121957129.8831 


9.6298 


844 


712336 


60121x584 29.0517 


9.4503 


894 


799236 


714516984I29.8908 


96334 


84s 


714025 


6o335ii25'29.o6S9 


9.4541 


89s 


801025 


716917375 29.9166 


96370 


846 


715716 


605495736 29.0861 


9.4578 


896 


802816 


719323136 29.9333 


9.6406 


847 


717409 


607645423 29.1033 


9.461S 


897 


804609 


72173427329.9500 


9.6442 


848 


719104 


609800192 29.1204 


9-4652 


898 


806404 


724150792 29.9666 


96477 


849 


720801 


61 1960049 29.137^ 


9.4690 


890 808201 


7 265 7 2699! 299833 


9.6513 


850 


722500 


614125000 29.1548 


9.4727 


900 810000 


729000000:30.0000 


9.6S49 



MATHEMATICS 



41 



Squares, Cubes, Square and Cube Roots of Numbers from 

I TO lOOO 



No. 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. 
Root 


Cube 
Root 


No. 


Square 


Cube 


Sq. 
Root 


Cube 
Root 


901 


8n8oi 


731432701 


30.0167 


9.6585 


951 


904401 


860085351 


30.8383 


9-8339 


902 


813604 


733870808 30.0333 


9.662a! 952 


906304 


86280140830.8545 


9-8374 


903 


815409 


736314327 30.0500 


9.6656 953 


908209 


865523177 30.8707 


9.8408 


904 


817216 


738763264 30.0666 


9.6692 954 


910116 


868250664 30.8869 


9-8443 


905 


819025 


74i2i7625'30.o832 


9.6727, 955 


912025 


870983875 30.9031 


9-8477 


906 


820836 


743677416 30.0998 


9.6763 956 


913936 


873722816 30.9192 


9-8511 


907 


822649 


746i42643'30.ll64 


9.6799 957 


915S49 


876467493 '30.9354 


9-8546 


908 


824464! 748613312 30.1330 


9.6834 958 


917764 


879217912 30.9316 


9-8580 


909 


826281! 75 1089429 '30. 1496 


9.6870,; 9^9 


919681 


8S1974079 30.9677 


9.8614 


910 


828100 


753571000:30.1662 


9.6905 960 


921600 


884736000I30.9839 


9-8648 


QH 


829921 


736058031 '30.1828 


9.6941' 961 


923521 


887503681 31.0000 


9.8683 


912 


831744 


758550528,30.1993 


9.6976 962 


925444 


890277128 31.0161 


9.8717 


913 


833569 


76104849-30.2159 


9.7012 963 


927369I 893056347 31-0322 


9-8751 


914 


835396 


76355194430.2324 


9.7047 964 


9292961 89584i344'3l-0483 


9.8783 


915" 


83722s 


766060875 30.2490 


9.7082 965 


931225' 89S632125 31.0644 


9.8819 


916 


839056 


76857529630.2655 


9.7118 966 


933156 90142S696 31.0805 


9-8854 


917 


840889 


771095213 30.2820 


9.7153 967 


935089' 904231063 31.0966 


9-8888 


918 


842724 


773620632 '30.2985 


9.7188 968 


Q37024; 907039232 31.1127 


9.8922 


919 


844561 


776151559 30.3150 


9.7224 969 


938961 909853209 31. 128S 


9-8956 


930 


846400 


778688000 


iO-33i5 


9.7259 970 


940900 


91267300031.1448 


9.8990 


921 


848241 


781229961 


30.3480 


9.7294 971 


942841 


915498611 31.1609 


9.9024 


922 


850084 


783777448 


30.3645 


9.7329; 972 


944784' 918330048 31.1769 


99058 


923 


851929 


786330467 


30.3809 


9.7364, 973 


946729' 921167317 31.1929 


9.9092 


924 


853776 


788889024 


30.3974 


9.740<:^: 974 


948676 924010424 31.2090 


9.9126 


92s 


855625 


791453125 30.4138 


9-7435 975 


930625 


926859375 31.2250 


9.9160 


926 


857476 


79402277630. 4302 


9.7470 976 


952376 


929714176 31.2410 


9.9194 


927 


859329 


796597983 '30.4467 


9-7505 977 


954529 


932574833'3i-2570 


9.9227 


928 


861 184 


799178752 30.4631 


9.7540 978 j 956484 


933441352 31-2730: 9.9261 


929 


863041 


8017650S9 30.4795 


9-7575 979 ! 958441 


938313739 31-2S90 


9-9295 


930 


864900 


804357000 30.4959 


9.761O1 980 


960400 


94119200031.3050 


9-9329 


931 


866761 


806954491 30.5123 


9.7645 981 


962361 


944076141 131.3209 


99363 


932 


868624 


809557568 30.5287 


9.7680 982 


964324 


946966168 31.3369 


9-9396 


933 


870489 8i2i66237|3o.545o 


9-7715 983 966289 


949862087 31.3528! 9-9430 


934 


8723561 8i47So504'30.56i4 


9-7750 984 


968256 


952763904 


31.3688 9.9464 


93S 


874225, 81740037530.5778 


9.7785 985 


970225 


955671625 


31.384- 9.9497 


936 


876096 82002585630.5941 


9.7819 986 


972196 


958585256 


3i.40o6j 9-9531 


937 


877969 


822656953 30.6105 


9-7854 987 


974169 


961504803 


31.4166 9.9565 


938 


879844 


825293672 30.6268 


9.7889, 9S8 


976144 


964430272 


31-4325 


9-9598 


939 


881721 


827936019 30.6431 


9.7924: 989 


978121 


967361669 


31-4484 


9.9632 


940 


883600 


830584000 30-6594 


9-7959 990 


980100 


970299000 


31-4643 


9.9666 


941 


885481 


833237621 30.6757 


i 
9-7993 991 


982081 


973242271 


31.4802 


9.9699 


942 


887364 


83589688830.6920 


9.8028 992 


984064 


976191488J31.4960 


9-9733 


943 


889249 


838561807I30.7083 


9.8063 993 


986049 


979146657 31.5119 


9.9766 


944 


891 136 


841232384 30.7246 


9.8097 994 


988036 


982107784 31.5278 9.9800 


945 


893025 843908625 30.7409 


9-8132! 995 


990025 


985074875I31.S436 9-9833 


946 


8949:6, 846590536 30.7571 


9.8167 996 


992016 


988o47936|3i-5505 9-9866 


947 


896809 


84927812330.773.1 


9.8201 997 


994009 


991026973 I3I-5753 9-9900 


948 


898704 


85197139230.7896 


9.8236 998 


996004 


994011992131-5911 9-9933 


949 


900601 


85467034930.8058 


9.8270 999 


998001 


997002999I31.6070 9-9967 


9SO 


902500 


85737SOOOJ30.8221 


9.8305 1000 1000000 

ll 1 


100000000031.6228 10.0000 



42 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

LOGAKITHMS OF NuMIJEHS 



\ 


j 1 


*■ 


3 


4 


.5 





7 


8 


9 


10 


0000 


0043 


0080 


0128 


0170 


0212 


0253 


0294 


0334 


0374 


11 


0414 


0453 


0492 


0531 


0509 


0007 


0045 


0082 


0719 


0755 


12 


0792 


0828 


0864 


0899 


0934 


0909 


1004 


1038 


1072 


1106 


13 


1139 


1173 


1200 


1239 


1271 


1.303 


1335 


1367 


1399 


1430 


14 


1401 


1492 


1523 


1553 


15&4 


1014 


1644 


1073 


1703 


1732 


15 


1701 


1790 


1818 


1847 


1875 


1903 


1931 


19.59 


1987 


2014 


16 


2041 


2008 


2095 


2122 


2148 


2175 


2201 


2227 


22.53 


2279 


17 


2304 


2330 


2;555 


23S0 


2405 


24:«) 


2455 


2480 


2504 


2529 


18 


2.-53 


2577 


2001 


2025 


2048 


2072 


2095 


2718 


2742 


2705 


19 


2788 


2810 


2833 


28r6 


2878 


2900 


2923 


2945 


2967 


2989 


20 


3010 


3032 


3054 


3075 


3096 


3118 


3139 


3160 


3181 


3201 


21 


3222 


3243 


3203 


3284 


3304 


3324 


3345 


3305 


3385 


3404 


22 


3424 


3444 


340-1 


3483 


3502 


3522 


3.541 


3500 


3579 


3598 


23 


3017 


30:J6 


3055 


3074 


3092 


3711 


3729 


3747 


3766 


3784 


24 


3802 


3820 


3838 


3856 


3874 


3892 


3909 


3927 


3945 


3962 


25 


3979 


3997 


4014 


4031 


4048 


4065 


4082 


4099 


4116 


4133 


26 


4150 


4106 


4183 


4200 


4216 


4232 


4249 


4205 


4281 


4298 


27 


4314 


4330 


4346 


4362 


4378 


4393 


4409 


4425 


4440 


4450 


28 


4472 


4487 


4502 


4518 


45.33 


4548 


4504 


4579 


4594 


4609 


29 


4624 


4039 


4654 


4669 


4683 


4698 


4713 


4728 


4742 


4757 


30 


4771 


47SG 


4800 


4814 


4829 


4843 


4857 


4871 


4886 


4900 


31 


4014 


492S 


4942 


4955 


4909 


4983 


4097 


5011 


5024 


5038 


32 


5051 


5005 


5079 


5092 


5105 


5119 


5132 


5145 


51.59 


5172 


33 


5185 


5198 


5211 


.5224 


5237 


5250 


5203 


5270 


5289 


5302 


34 


5315 


5328 


5340 


5353 


5360 


5378 


5391 


5403 


5410 


5428 


35 


5441 


5453 


5465 


5478 


5490 


5502 


5514 


• 5527 


5539 


5551 


36 


5503 


5575 


.5587 


5599 


.5011 


5023 


5035 


5647 


5058 


5(J70 


37 


5C82 


5094 


5705 


5717 


5729 


5740 


5752 


5763 


5775 


5780 


38 


5798 


5809 


.5,821 


5832 


5843 


5855 


5806 


5877 


5888 


5899 


39 


5911 


5922 


5933 


5944 


5955 


5900 


5977 


5988 


5999 


6010 


40 


6021 


6031 


C042 


6053 


0004 


6075 


6085 


0096 


0107 


0117 


41 


6128 


CI. {8 


0149 


01 CO 


0170 


0180 


0191 


0201 


6212 


0222 


42 


6232 


0243 


0253 


0203 


0274 


0284 


0294 


0304 


6314 


0325 


43 


6335 


6345 


6355 


6365 


6375 


6385 


6395 


6405 


6415 


6425 


44 


6435 


6444 


6454 


6464 


0474 


6484 


6493 


6503 


6513 


6522 


45 


6532 


6542 


6551 


6561 


6571 


6580 


6.590 


0599 


6009 


6618 


46 


6628 


6037 


6646 


6656 


6065 


6075 


6684 


0693 


6702 


6712 


47 


6721 


6730 


6739 


6749 


6758 


6707 


6776 


6785 


6794 


6803 


48 


6812 


6821 


6830 


6839 


6848 


6857 


6866 


6875 


6884 


0893 


49 


6902 


6911 


6920 


6928 


6937 


6946 


6955 


6964 


6972 


6981 


50 


6990 


C99S 


7007 


7016 


7024 


7033 


7042 


7050 


7059 


7007 


51 


7070 


7084 


7093 


7101 


7110 


7118 


7126 


7135 


7143 


7152 


52 


7160 


7108 


7177 


7185 


7193 


7202 


7210 


7218 


7226 


7235 


53 


7243 


7251 


7250 


7207 


7275 


7284 


7292 


7300 


7308 


7310 


51 


7324 


7332 


7340 


7348 


7350 


7304 


7372 


7380 


7388 


7390 



MATHEMATICS 
Logarithms of Numbers. — Concluded 



43 



X 





1 




3 


4 


- 


G 




8 


9 


55 


7404 


7412 


7419 


7427 


7435 


7443 


7451 


7459 


7466 


7474 


56 


7482 


7490 


7497 


7505 


7513 


7520 


7528 


7536 


7543 


7551 


57 


7559 


7566 


7574 


7582 


7589 


7597 


7604 


7612 


7619 


7627 


58 


7634 


7642 


7649 


7657 


7664 


7672 


7679 


7686 


7694 


7701 


59 


7709 


7716 


7723 


7731 


7738 


7745 


7752 


7760 


7767 


7774 


60 


7782 


7789 


7796 


7803 


7810 


7818 


7825 


7832 


7839 


7846 


61 


7853 


7860 


7868 


7875 


7882 


7889 


7896 


7903 


7910 


7917 


62 


7924 


7931 


7938 


7945 


7952 


7959 


7966 


7973 


7980 


7987 


63 


7993 


8000 


8007 


8014 


8021 


8028 


8035 


8041 


8048 


8055 


64 


8062 


8069 


8075 


8082 


8089 


8096 


8102 


8109 


8116 


8122 


65 


8129 


8136 


8142 


8149 


8156 


8162 


8169 


8176 


8182 


8189 


66 


8195 


8202 


8209 


8215 


8222 


8228 


8235 


8241 


8248 


8254 


67 


8261 


8267 


8274 


8280 


8287 


8293 


8209 


8306 


8312 


8319 


68 


8325 


8331 


8338 


8344 


8351 


8357 


83G3 


8370 


8376 


8382 


69 


8388 


8395 


8401 


8407 


8414 


8420 


8426 


8432 


8439 


8445 


70 


8451 


8457 


8463 


8470 


8476 


8482 


8488 


8494 


8500 


8506 


71 


8513 


8519 


8525 


8531 


8537 


8543 


8549 


8555 


8561 


8567 


72 


8573 


8579 


8585 


8591 


8597 


8603 


8609 


8615 


8621 


8627 


73 


8633 


8639 


8645 


8651 


8657 


8663 


8669 


8675 


8681 


8686 


74 


8692 


8698 


8704 


8710 


8716 


8722 


8727 


8733 


8739 


8745 


75 


8751 


8456 


8762 


8768 


8774 


8779 


8785 


8791 


8797 


8802 


76 


8808 


8814 


8820 


8825 


8831 


8837 


8842 


8S48 


8854 


8859 


77 


8865 


8871 


8876 


8882 


8887 


8893 


8899 


8904 


8910 


8915 


78 


8921 


8927 


8932 


8938 


8943 


8949 


8954 


8960 


8965 


8971 


79 


8976 


8982 


8987 


8993 


8998 


9004 


9009 


9015 


9020 


9025 


80 


9031 


9036 


9042 


9047 


9053 


9058 


9063 


9069 


9074 


9079 


81 


9085 


9090 


9096 


9101 


9106 


9112 


9117 


9122 


9128 


9133 


82 


9138 


9143 


9149 


9154 


9159 


91G5 


9170 


9175 


9180 


9186 


83 


9191 


9196 


9201 


9206 


9212 


9217 


9222 


9227 


9232 


9238 


84 


9243 


9248 


9253 


9258 


9263 


9269 


9274 


9279 


9284 


9289 


85 


9294 


9299 


9304 


9309 


9315 


9320 


9325 


9330 


9335 


9340 


86 


9345 


9350 


9355 


93G0 


9365 


9370 


9375 


9380 


9385 


9390 


87 


9395 


9400 


9405 


9410 


9415 


9420 


9425 


9430 


9435 


9140 


88 


9445 


9450 


9455 


9460 


9465 


9469 


9474 


9479 


9484 


9489 


89 


9494 


9499 


9504 


9509 


9513 


9518 


9523 


9528 


9533 


9538 


90 


9542 


9547 


9552 


9557 


9562 


9566 


9571 


9576 


9581 


9586 


91 


9590 


9595 


9600 


9605 


9609 


9614 


9619 


9624 


9628 


9633 


92 


9638 


9643 


9647 


9652 


9657 


9661 


9666 


9671 


9675 


9680 


93 


9685 


9089 


9694 


9699 


9703 


9708 


9713 


9717 


9722 


9727 


94 


9731 


9736 


9741 


9745 


9750 


9754 


9759 


9763 


9768 


9773 


95 


9777 


9782 


9786 


9791 


9795 


9800 


9805 


9809 


9814 


9818 


96 


9823 


9827 


9832 


9S36 


9841 


9845 


9850 


98.54 


9859 


9863 


97 


9868 


9872 


9877 


98S1 


9886 


9890 


9894 


9S99 


9903 


9908 


98 


9912 


9917 


9921 


9926 


9930 


9934 


9939 


9943 


9941 


9952 


99 


9956 


9961 


9965 


9969 


9974 


9978 


9983 


9987 


9998 


9996 



44 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Natural Sines and Cosines 

Note. — For cosines use right-hand column of degrees and lower line of tenths. 



Deg. "0 .0 "0 .1 I "0 .2 "0 .3 "0 .4 "0 .5 "0 .6 "0 .7 "0 .8 '0 .9 



0° 0.0000 0.0017 0.0035 '0.0052 0.007C 0.0087 0.0105 0.0122 0.0140 0.0157 



.0175 .0192 .0209 .0227 .0244 .0262 .0279 .0297 .0314 .0332 
.0349 .0366 .038410 .0401 ;0 .0419 .0436 .0454 .0471 10 .0488 .0506 
.0523 .0541 .0558:0 .0576 .0593 .0610 .0628 .0645 .0663 .0680 
.0698.0 .0715 .0732.0 .0750'0 .0767^0 .0785 .0802 .0819.0 .0837 .0854 

.0872 .0889 .0906 0.0924 .0941 .0958 .0976 .0993 .1011 .1028 
0.1045 0.1063 0.1080 0.1097 0.1115 0.1132 0.1149 0.1167:0.1184'0.1201 
0.1219 0.1236 0.1253 0.1271 0.1288 0.1305 0.1323 O.l'340'0.1357:0. 1374 
0.1392 0.1409 0.1426 0.1444 0.1461 0.1478 0.1495 0.1513 0.1530 0.1547 
0.1564 0. 1582 0.1599 0.1616 0.1633 0.1650 0.1668 0.1685 0. 1702^0 .1719 



0.1736 0.1754 
0.1908 0.1925 
.2079 .2096 
.2250 .2267 
0.2419 0.2436 

0.2588 0.2605 0. 
.2756 .2773 . 
.2924 .2940 
0.3090 0.3107 0, 
0.3256! 0.3272 0, 



,1771 0.1788 0.1805 
,1942 0.1959 0.1977 
,2113 0.21.30 0.2147 
2284 0.23r0 0.2317 
,2453 0.2470 0.2487 

I I 

2622 .2639 .2656 
2790 .2807 .2823 
2957,0.2974 0.2990 
3123 0.3140 0.3156 
3289 0.3305 0.3322 



0.1822 0.1840 0.1857,0.1874 0.1891 
0.1994 0.2011 0.2028 0.2045 0.2062 
0.2164 0.2181,0.2198 0.2215 0.2232 
.2334 .2351 J2368 .23850 .2402 
0.2504 0.2521 0.2538 0.2554!o. 2571 

III 
.2672 .2689,0 .2706 .2723 .2740 
.2840 .2857 .2874 .2890 .2907 
.3007 .3024 .3040 .3057 J .3074 
0.3173 0.3190 0.3206 0.3223 0.3239 
.3338 .3355:0 .3371 .3387|0 .3404 



0.3420 0.3437 0.3453 0.3469 0.3486 0.3502 0.3518,0.3535 0.3551 0.3567 
0.3584 0.3600,0.3616 0.3633 0.3649,0.3665 0.3681,0. 3697, 0.3714!o. 3730 
0.3746 0.3762 0.3778 0.3795 0.3811 0.3827 0.3843;0. 38.59 0.38750. 3891 
0.3907 0.3923 0.3939 0.3955 0.3071 0.3987 0.4003 0.4019 0.40.35,0.4051 
0.4067,0.4083:0.4099,0.4115 0.4131 0.4147,0.4163 0.4179 0.4195!o. 4210 




0.5000 0.5015 
0.5150 0.5165 
0.5299 0.5314 
0.5446 0.5461 
0.5592 0.5606 

I 
0.5736 0.5750 
.5878 .5892 
0.6018 0.6032 
0.61570.6170 
0.6293 0.6307 



0.5030 0.5045 
0.5180 0.5195 
.5329 .5.344 
0.5476 0.5490 
0.5621,0.56.35 

I 
0.576410.5779 
0.5906,0.5920, 
0.6046 0.6060, 
0.6184 0.6198, 
0.6320 0.6334, 



0.5060 0.5075 
0.5210,0.5225 
0.5358 0.5373 
0.5.505 0.5519 
0.5650 0.5664 

! 
.5793 .5807 
.5934 .5948 
0.6074 0.6088 
0.6211 0.6225 1 
0.63470.63611 



0.5090 
.5240 
0.5388 
0.55.34 
.5678 

0.582l'o 
.596210 
0.6101 
0.6239 
0.6374 



.5105 
.5255 
.5402 
.5548 
.5693 

.5835,0 
.5976 
.61150 
.6252 
.6388 :0 



.51200 
.5270 
.5417 
.5563 
.5707 

.5850,0 
.5990 
.61290 
.6266 
.6401 



.5135 
.5284 
.5432 
..5577 
.5721 

.5864 
.60C4 
.6143 
.6280 
.6414 



0.6428 0.6441 '0.6455, 0.6468 .6481 .6494 .6508 0.6521,0.6534 0.6547 
.6561 .6574 .6587,0 .6600;o .6613 .6626,0 .6639,0 .6652 .6665 .6678 
.6691 .6704 .6717 .6730,0 .6743 .67.56,0 .6769,0 .6782 .6794,0 .6807 
.6820 .6833 .6845 .6858 .6871 .6.884 .6896 .6909 .6921 .6934 
0.6947 0.695910.6972 0.6984 0.6997 0.7009 0.7022 0.7034 .7046 .7059 



'1.0 



"0.9 



"0.8 "0.7 



"0.6 



"0^ "0.4 '0.3 



'0.2 



°0 .1 Deg. 



MATHEMATICS 

Natural Sines and Cosines. — Concluded 



45 



Deg. °0 .0 "0 .1 °0 .2 "0 .3 "0 .4 "0 .5 °0 .6 °0 .7 ''0 .8 "0 



.7071 .7083 .7096,0 .7108 .7120 .7133:0 .7145 .7157 .7169 .7181 
.7193;0 .7206 .7218,0 .7230 .7242 .7254 .7266lo .7278 .7290 .7302 
.7314;0 .7325,0 .7337 .7349 .7361 .7373 .7385 .7396 .7408 .7420 
.7431 .74430 .7455 .7466' .7478:0 .7490:0 .7501 lO .7513 .7524!0 .7536 
.7547 .7559 .7570 .7581 iO .7593,0 .7604 .7615,0 .7627iO .7638[0 .7649 

.7660 .767210 .768310 .7694]o .770510 .7716;9 .7727iO .7738 .7749 .7760 
.7771 10 .7782,0 .7793.0 .7804 .7815 .7826,0 .783710 .7848 .7859 .7869 
.7880,0 .7891 .7902 .7912;o .7923;0 .7934,0 .7944 .7955 .7965 .7976 
.7986 , .7997 , .8007 , .801 8 , .8028 , .8039 , .8049 .8059 .8070 .8080 
.8090:0 .8100 .8111 .8121J0 .8131 .8141 .8151 .8161 .8171 .8181 

0.8192 0.8202'o.8211 0.822110.8231 0.8241,0 .825l!0. 82610.8271 0.8281 
0. 8290'0. 8300 0.8310 0.8320 0.8329'0. 8339 0.8348'0. 8358 0.8368'0. 8377 
.8387 ' .8396 .8406 .8415 , .8425 ! .8434 .8443 ' .8453 .8462 ! .8471 
.848C'0 .8490:0 .8499 .8508 .8517 .8526:0 .8536 .8545 .8554:0 .8563 
.8572'0 .8581 .8590 .8599 .8607i0 .8616,0 .8625|0 .8634 .864310 .8652 

III 
.8660 .8669 .8678,0 .8686 .8695:0 .8704:0 .8712,0 .8721 .8729 .8738 
.8746 .8755,0 .8763,0 .8771 ,0 .8780 .8788,0 .8796 .880510 .881310 .8821 
.8829 .8838,0 .8846 .885410 .8862 .8870,0 .8878:0 .8886,0 .88940 .8902 
.8910,0 .8918,0 .8926,0 .89341 .8942,0 .8949,0 .895710 .8965 .8973' .8980 
.8988 .8996,0 .9003 .9011 .9018 .9026 .9033 .9041 .9048l0 .9056 

.9063 .9070 .9078 .9085' .9092,0 .9100 .9107|0 .911410 .9121 'o .9128 
.9135I0 .9143 .9150 .9157:0 .9164 .9171 .9178 .9184!o .9191,0 .9198 
.9205'0 .9212 .9219 .9225:0 .9232 .9239,0 .9245 .925210 .9259 .9265 
.9272^0 .9278 .9285:0 .9291 ]0 .9298 .9304 .931 1 10 . 9317,0 .9323 .9330 
.9336 .9342IO .9348 .9354 .936r0 .9367,0 .9373 .9379 .9385 .9391 

0.9397 0.9403 0.940910.9415 0.9421 0.9426,0.9432,0.9438,0.9444 0.9449 
.9455 .9461 .9466;0 .9472 .9478,0 .9483 .9489 .9494 .9500 9 .9505 
.951 1 ,0 .9516 .9521 .9527 .9532,0 .9537 .9542 .9548 .9553' .9558 
.9563 .95681 .9573 , .9578 , .9583 .9588 .9593 , .9598 ' .9603 .9608 
0.9613'0.9617 0.9622 0.9627 0.9632 0.963610.9641 0.9646 0.9650 0.9655 

I I I 

.9659 .9664: .9668 .967310 .9677 .9681 .9686 .9690,0 .9694 .9699 
0.9703 0. 97070. 9711 10. 9715, 0.9720,0. 9724, 0.9728|0. 97320. 9736 0.9740 
0.9744 0.9748 0.975l!0.9755;0.9759 0.9763 0.976710.9770,0.9774 0.9778 
.9781 .9785 .9789 .9792 .9796,0 .9799 .9803,0 .9806,0 .9810 .9813 
.9816 .9820 .9823,0 .9826,0 .98290 .9833,0 .9836 .9839 .9842 .9845 

.9848 .9851 .9854 .9857 .9860 .9863 .98660 .9869*0 .9871 .9874 
.9877 , .9880 1 .9882 .9885 , .9888 1 .9890 .9893 : .9895 ' .9898 .9900 
.9903,0 .990510 .9907l0'.9910:0 .9912 .9914 .9917:0 .9919 .9921 .9923 
.9925,0 .9928: .9930 .9932 .9934 .993610 .9938 .9940 .9942 .9943 
.9945 .9947:0 .994910 .9951|0 .9952J0 .9954 .9956] .9957 jO .9959 .9960 

.9962 .9963'o .9965 .9966 .9968!o .9969 .9971 .9972,0 .9973 .9974 
.9976,0 .9977,0 .9978! .997910 .9980:0 .9981 .9982 .998310 .9984 .9985 
.9986 : .9987 .9988 1 .9989 i .9990 1 .9990 , .999 1 ; .9992 .9993 .9993 
.9994:0 .9995 .999510 .9996,0 .999610 .9997,0 .9997 .9997 .9998,0 .9998 
0.9998 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999:0.9999 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1 .OCO 



1 .0 '0 .9 "0 .8 "0 .7 "0 .6 "0 .5 °0 .4 "0 .3 "0 .2 °0 .1 Deg 



Note. — For cosines use right-hand column of degrees and lower line of tenths. 



40 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Natural Tangents and Cotangents 

Note. — For cotangents use right-hand column of degrees and lower line of 

tenths 



Deg °0.0 °0.1 °0.2 °0.3 °0.4 °0.5 "O.G "0.7 °0.8 °0 .9 



.OOOO'0 .0017 .0035 .0052 .0070 
0.0175 0.C192 0.0209 0.0227,0.0244 
.0349 .0367 .03S4 .0402 .0419 
.0524 .0542 .0559 .0577 .0594 



.008710 .0105 .0122 .0140 .0157 
.0262i0 .0279,0 .0297 .0314 .0332 
.0437 .0454 .0472 .0489|0 .0507 
.0612J0 .0629 .0647 .0664 .06^:2 



!0699,0 !0717 .'0734 !o752,0 !o769,0 ."0787J0 !oS05|0 !o822 !oS40!o !0857 

0.0875 0.0892 0.0910 0.0928 0.0945 0.0963'o. 0981 'o 0998 0.101 GO. 1033 
0.10510.1069 0. 1086 0.1104 0.1122,0.1139 0.1157,0.1175 0.1192:0.1210 
0.1228 0.1246 0.1263 0.12S1 0.1299 O.1317i0 .1334 0.1352 0.13700.1388 
0.1405 0.1423 0.1441 0.1459 0.1477 0.1495 0.1512 0.1530 0.1548 0.1566 
.1584|0 .1602 .1620,0 .1638^0 . 1655^0 .1673 .1691 .1709 .1727,0 .1745 

.1 763 .1781 'o .1799 .1817 .1835'o .1853'o .1871 .1890 .1908'o .1926 
.1944 .1962 .1980 .1998:0 .2016 .2035,0 .2053 .2071 .2089,0 .2107 
0.2126 0.2144 0.2162 0.2180 0.2199 0.22I7;0.2235 0.2254 0.2272 0.2290 
0.2309 0.2327 0.2345 0.2364 0.2382 0.2401,0.2419 0.243S 0.2456 0.2475 
.2493 .2512 .2530 .2549,0 .2568,0 .2586 .2605 .2623 .2642 .2661 

.2679'o .2698 .2717,0 .2736,0 .2754 .2773 .2792 .2811 .2830 .2849 
.2867 , .2886 , .2905 , .2924 ; .2943 .2962 , .298 1 , .3000 .301 9 , .3038 
.3057 .3076,0 .3096 .3115 .3134 .3153 .3172 .3191 .321 1 10 .3230 
0.3249 0.3269 0.3288 0.3307 0.3327 0.3346,0.3365 0.33S5 0.3404 0.3424 
.3443,0 .3463 .3482 .3502 .3522 .3541 ,0 .3561 ^0 .3581^0 .SGOOjO .3620 

0.3640 0.3659,0.3679 0.3699 0.3719 0.3739 0.3759 0.3779 0.3799 0.3819 
.3839 .3859 .3879 ,0 .3899 , .391 9 i .3939 , .3959 .3979 .4000 .4020 
0.40400. 4061 0.4081 0.4101 0.4122 0.4142 0.4163 0.41S3 .4204 0.4224 
.4245 .4265 .4286 .4307,0 .432710 .4348,0 .4369 .4390 .441 1 .4431 
.4452 .4473 .4494 .4515 .4536,0 .4557,0 .4578 .4599 .4621 .4642 

.4663 .4684 .4706 .4727 .4748 .4770,0 .4791 .4813 .4834 .4856 
.4877 .4899 .4921 ,0 .4942 .4964.0 .4986; .5008,0 .5029,0 .5051 ,0 .5073 
.5095 .5117 .5139 .5161 .5184 .5206 .5228 .5250 .5272 .5295 
.5317 .5340 .5362 .53.S4 .5407i0 .5430,0 .5452 .5475 .5498,0 .5520 
.5543,0 .5566 .5589,0 .501210 .5635,0 .5658,0 .5681 ,0 .5704 .5727,0 .5750 

.5774 .5797,0 .5820 .5844 .5867:0 .5890,0 .5914 .5938 'o .5961 10 .5985 
.600910 .6032 .6056 .6080 .6104 .6128,0 .6152;o .6176 .6200 .6224 
0.6249 0.6273 0.6297 0.6322 0.6346 0.6371 [0.6395,0.6420 0.6445 0.6469 
.6494 .6519 .6544|0 .6569 .6594 .6619,0 .6644 .6669 .6694'0 .6720 
.6745 .6771 .6796^0 .6822,0 .6847j0 .6873 .6899 .6924^0 .6950 .6976 

.7002 .7028,0 .7054 .7080'0 .7107 .7133 ,0 .7159,0 .7186 .7212!o .7239 
.7265 .7292 .7319 .7346 .7373 .7400; .742710 .7454 .7481 .7508 
0.7536 0.7563 0.7590 0.7618 0.7646 0.7673 0.7701:0.7729 0.7757 0.7785 
0.7813 0.7841 0.7869 0.7898 0.7926 0.7954 0.7983 0.8012 0.8040,0.8069 
0.8098 0.8127 0.8156,0.8185 0.8214 0.824310.8273 0.8302 0.8332 0.8361 

I I I I I I I 

0.8391 0.8421 0.8451 0.8481 0.8511 0.8541,0.8571 0.8601,0.8632 0.8662 
.8693 .8724 .8754 .8785 .8816 .8847iO .8878 .8910 .8941! .8972 
0.9004 0.9036 0.9067 0.9099 0.9131 0.9163 0.9195 0.9228 0.9260,0.9293 
.9325 .9358,0 .9391 .9424 .9457 .9490 .9523 .9556 .9590,0 .9623 
.9657,0 .9691,0 .9725 .9759,0 .9793,0 .9827 .9861 .9896 .9930 .9965 



"1.0 



"0.9 



"=0.8 



"0.7 



oQ.e 



°0.5 



"0.4 



"0.3 



°0.2 



"0.1 



MATHEMATICS 47 

Natural Tangents and Cotangents. — Coricluded 



Deg. 


°0:0 


"0.1 


°0.2 


°0.3 


°0.4 


°0.5 


°0.6 


°0.7 


°0.8 °o:9 




45 


1. 0000 ' 1.0035 


1.0070 1.0105 


1 1 1 1 1 
1 .0141 1 .0176 1 .0212 1 .0247 1 .0283:1 .0319 


44 


46 


1 .0355 1 .0392 


1 .0428 1 .0464 


1 .0501 1 .0538 1 .0575 1 .0612' 1 .0649 1 .0686 


43 


47 


1 .0724 1 .0761 


1 .0799 1 .0837 


1 .0875 1 .0913 1 .0951 1 .0990 1 .1028 1 .1067 


42 


48 


1.1106 l.lUo 


1.1184 1.1224 


1 .1263 1 .1303 1 .1343 1 .1383 1 .1423 1 .1463 


41 


49 


1 .1504| 1 .1544 


1.15S5 1.1626 


1 .1667 1 .1708 1 .1750 1 .1792 1 .1833 1 .1875 

1 1 1 1 


40° 


50° 


1.191S 1.1960 


1.2002 1.2045 


1 .2088 1 .2131 1 .2174 1 .2218 1 .2261 1 .2305 


39 


51 


1 .2349 1 .2393 


1 .2437 1 .2452 


1 .2527 1 .2572 1 .2017 1 .2662 1 .2708 1 .2753 


38 


52 


1.2799 1.2846 


1.2892 1.2938 


1 .39851 .3032 1 .3079 1 .31271 .3175 1 .3222 


37 


53 


1 .3270 1 .3319 


1 .3367 1 .3416 


1 .3465 1 .3514 1 .3564 1 .3013 1 .3663 1 .3713 


36 


54 


1 .3764 1 .3814 

1 


1.3865 1.3916 


1 .3968 1 .4019 1 .4071 1 .4124 1 .4176 1 .4229 


35 


55 


1.4281 1.4335 


1 .4388 1 .4442 


1 .4496 1 .4550 1 .4605 1 .4659 1 .4715 1 .4770 


34 


56 


1.482611.4882 


1. 4938' 1.4994 


1 .5051 1 .5108 1 .5166 1 .5224 1 .5282 1 .5340 


33 


57 


1.5399 1.5458 


1 .5517 1 .5577 


1 .5637 1 .5697 1 .5757,1 .5818 1 .5880 1 .5941 


32 


58 


1.6003 1.6066 


1.6128 1.6191 


1.6255 1.6319 1.6383 1.6447 1.6512:1.6577 


31 


59 


1.6643 1.6709 


1 .6775 1 .6842 


1 .6909 1 .6977 1 .7045 1 .7113,1 .7182 1 .7251 

III 


30° 


60° 


1 .7321 1 .7391 


1 .7461 1 .7532 


1 .7603 1 .7675 1 .7747 1 .7820 1 .7893 1 .7966 


29 


61 


1.8040 1.8115 


1 .8190 1 .8265 


1 .8341 1 .8418 1 .8495,1 .8572,1 .8650:1 .8728 


28 


62 


1 .8807 1 .8887 


1. 8907 1 1.9047 


1 .9128 1 .9210 1 .9292 1 .9375 1 .9458 1 .9542 


27 


63 


1.9626 1.9711 


1 .9797 1 .9883 


1 .9970 2 .0057 2 .0145 2 .0233 2 .0323 2 .0413 


26 


64 


2 .0503 2 .4059 

1 


2.0686 2.0778 


2.0872 2.0965 2.1060 2.1155 2. 1251 '2 .1348 

III 


25 


65 


2 .1445 2 .1543 


2.1642 2.1742 


2 .1842 2 .1943 2 .2045 2 .2148 2 .2251 2 .2355 


24 


66 


2 .2460 2 .2566 


2.2673 2.2781 


3 .2889 2 .2998 2 .3109 2 .3220 2 .3332 2 .3445 


23 


67 


2 .3559 2 .3673 


2 .3789 2 .3906 


2 .4023 2 .4142 2 .4262 2 .43,83 2 .4504 2 .4627 


22 


68 


2 .4751 2 .4876 


2.5002 2.5129 


2 .5257 2 .5386 2 .5517 2 .5649 2 .5782 2 .5916 


21 


69 


2.6051 2.6187 


2 .6325 2 .6464 

1 


2 .6605,2 .6746 2 .6889,2 .7034 2 .7179,2 .7326 

1 1 


20° 


70° 


2.7475 2.7625 


2.7776 2.7929 


2 .8083 2 .8239 2 .8397 2 .8556 2 .8716 2 .8878 


19 


71 


2 .9042 2 .9208 


2 .9375 2 .9544 


2.9714,2.9887,3.0061,3.0237 2.0415 3.0595 


18 


72 


3 .0777 3 .0961 


3.1146 3.1334 


3.1524 2.1716 3.1910 3.2106 3 .2305 3 .2506 


17 


73 


3 .2709 3 .2914 


3 .3122,3 .3332 3 .3544 3 .3759 3 .3977 3 .4197 3 .4420 3 .4646 


16 


74 


3 .4874 3 .5105 

1 


3.5339 3.5576 

j 


3 .5816,3 .6059,3 .6305 3 .6554 3 .6806 3 .7062 
II 


15 


75 


3.7321 3.7583 


3.7848 3.8118 


3.8391,3.8667 3.8947 3.9232 3.9520,3 .9812 


14 


76 


4.0 108 4.0408 


4.0713,4.1022 


4.1335 4.1053 4. 19764. 2303'4. 2635:4 .2972 


13 


77 


4.3315 4.3662 


4 .4015 4 .4374 


4.4737 4.5107 4.5483 4.5864 4.6252,4.6646 


12 


78 


4.7046 4.7453 


4.786714.8288 


4 .8716 4 .9152 4 .9594 5 .0045 5 .0504 5 .0970 


11 


79 


5.1446 5.1929 


5 .2422 o .2924 


5 .3435 5 .3955 5 .4486 5 .5026 5 .5578^5 .6140 


10° 


80° 


5.6713 5.7297 


5.7894'5.8502 


5.9124 5. 975S 6. 04C5'6. 1066 6.1742 6.2432 


9 


81 


6.313816.3859 


6.4596,6.5350 


6.6122 6. 6912, 6. 7720 '6. 8548 6.9395 7.0264 


8 


82 


7.11547.2066 


7.3002,7.3962 


7.4947 7.5958 7.6996 7. 8062 '7. 9158 8.0285 


7 


83 


8 .1443 8 .2636 


8 .3863 8 .5126 


8 .6427 8 .7769 8 .9152 9 .0579 9 .2052 9 .3572 


6 


84 


9.5144 


9.677 


9.845 10.02 


10.20, 10.39 10.58 


10.78 


10.99 11.20 


5 


85 


11.43 


11.66 


11.91 12.16 


12.43 12.71 13.00 


13.30 


13.62 13.95 


4 


86 


14.30 


14.67 


15.06 15.46 


15.89 16.35' 16.83 


17.34 


17.89 18.46 


3 


87 


19.08 


19.74 


20.45| 21.20 


22.02 22.90' 23.86 


24.90 


26.03 27.27 


2 


88 


28.64 


30.14 


31.82; 33.69 


35.80 38.19, 40.92 


44.07 


47.74 52.08 


1 


89 


57.29 


63.66 


71.62 


81.85 


95.49 


114.6 143.2 


191.0 


286.5 


573.0 


0° 




°1.0 


"0.9 


°0.8 


°0.7 


°0.6 


°0.5 °0.4 


°0.3 


°0.2 


°0.1 


Deg. 



Note. — For cotangents use right-hand column of degrees and lower line of 
tenths. 



48 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 

The Straight Line. — The equation of the straight Hne iu its 
X y 
simplest form is — h r = 1, where a and 6 are the intercepts 

of the Hne on the axes of A' and }' respectively. 

The other useful equations of the straight line are: ?/ = w.r -|- 
b, where m is the tangent which the line makes with the axis of 
X. The equation of a line passing through a given point 
(xi, yi) is y — ?/i = m{x — Xi) where m is entirely indetermi- 
nate, since any number of lines may pass through a point. The 
equation of a line passing through two points is 

yi — Vi, s 

y - Ui =- -i^ - ^i) 

Xi — Xi 

The distance between two points Xi, j/i and Xj, yi is": 

D = V(X2 - xi)= + {y, - y,)' 
Distance from a point Xi, i/i to a line ax -f 6i/ + c = is: 
^^ ^ axi + byi + c 
Va- + b- 
The equation of an angle 4> between two lines y = mx + b 
and y = m'x -j- b' is: 

. - m' - m 

tan * = -T— , 

1 -f mm 

The Circle. — The circle is the locus of all points in a plane 
equidistant from a given point. 

The equation of a circle whose center lies at the origin is. 

X- + y- = r'. 
If its center lies at (a, 6): 

(x - ay + (y - by = r* 
If the origin lies on the left extremity of the diameter, the 
equation is: 

(x — ry + iy — Oy = r- (as above) 
or simplifying 

y- = 2rx — X- 
The Ellipse. — The ellipse is the locus of a point moving in a 
plane so that the sum of its distances from two points in the 
plane is a constant. The ratio of the constant sum (the major 
diameter) to the distance between the foci is known as the 
eccentricity, e. 

The area of an ellipse = r times the product of the semi-diam- 
eters. 

The equation of the ellipse is 

x^ t/^ 

— t -|- r:; = 1 (center at the origin) 

a^ 0^ 

The tangent to the above ellipse through the point of tan- 

gency Xi, j/i is 

xxi yyi _ 

a'- ^ b-' ~ 



MATHEMATICS 49 

The Parabola. — The parabola is the locus of a point moving 
in a plane so that its distance from a point (the focus) in the 
plane is always equal to its distance from a line (the directrix) 
in the plane. Its equation, the curve passing through the 
origin and its focus lying on the axis of X ia y^ = 4px, polar 

ro5rdinates p = p sec^ — , where 4p is the double ordinate 

through the focus. A tangent to a parabola through the point 
of tangency Xi,yi, is yyi = p{x + Xi). 

The tangent at any point makes equal angles with the axis 
and a Hne from the point of tangency to the focus. The parab- 
ola has no finite asymptotes. 

The Hyperbola. — The hyperbola is the locus of a point mov- 
ing in a plane so that the differences of its distances from two 
fixed points in the plane is a constant. Its equation, with its 
center at the origin and its foci on the axis of x is 

£! _ ^ = 1 
a'- b"- 

Equilateral hyperbola: x- — y'^ = a^. 

Equilateral hyperbola referred to its axes as asymptotes: 
xii = c- (This is the isothermal curve of pressure and volume 
in gases). 

Equation of the asymptotes 

X _y X _ y 
a b ' a b 

The tangent to a hyperbola bisects the angle formed by the 
two lines drawm from the point of tangency to the foci. 

The Cycloid. — The cycloid is the curve generated by a point 
in the circumference of a circle roUing on a straight line. It 
consists of an infinite number of equal arches. 

_,a - y AS ; x = a{d - sin 6) ] 

X = a cos ' — v2a?/ — u^ot ), \ '> 

a -^ ^ y = a{l - cos d) j 

The Epicycloid and Hypocycloid. — The epicycloid is generated 
by a point in the circumference of a circle rolling upon another 
circle. The hj^jocycloid is the curve generated by a point on 
the circumference of a, circle rolling inside another circle. 



Epicycloid 



Hypocycloid 



/ . I.N /, 1, a + b 

X = (a -f- o) cos d — b cos — r — - I 

o 

/ , I ■ ^ I • (1 -\- b 

y = [a + b) sm 6 — b sm 

X = (a — b) cos d + b cos 

y = (a ~ b) sin $ — b sin 



b 
- b 



where a is the radius of the main circle, and 6 of the generat- 
ing circle. 

Cubical Parabola. — Formula, a'^y = x^. 
Semicubical Parabola. — Formula, ay- = x^. 
4 



50 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

80' 



Witch of Agnesi.— Formula, y = 



+ 4a-' 
x3 



Cissoid of Diodes. — Formula, ij- = .^ 

p = 2a tan sin 6. 
This and the conchoid were invented to solve the problems 
of the duplication of the cube, i.e., given a cube, a', whose side 
is 11. to construct tlie side of a cube, 2a'. 

Lemniscate of Bernouilli. — Formula, (x' + y^)^ = a'^{x- — y-) 

p^ = a^ cos 0. 
This and the following have a singular point at 0, 0. 

Strophoid. — Formula, ;/" = -i^M — ; — I 

\a + x] 

p = a (cos d — sin tan 0). 

Cardioid. — Formula, x- + y^ + ax = aV'x'^ + y^ 
I X = a cos d {I — cos 0) 
\y = a sin $ {I — cos 6) 
p = a(l — cos 0) 
This is a special case of the epicycloid in wliich the generating 
circles are equal. 

The Probability Curve. — Formula, y = e~*^. 
The Caternary. — The caternary is the curve assumed by 
a uniform, completely flcxil)le cord supported at its two ends. 
Its equation is 

y = 2 (e<» + e ") 

where e is the base of the Napierian system of logarithms. 

The Involute. — The involute is the curve described by a point 
in a string which is being kept taut and unwound from -a 
cylinder. 

= o(cos 9 + 9 sin 9) 
y = a (sin d -\- 6 cos 9) 

or \/p^~^=^ ^ _, Vp^ - o' 

9 = — tan ' 

a a 

The Spiral of Archimedes is a curve described by the extrem- 
ity of a radius vector which lengthens in proportion to the angle 
traversed. That is, the turns are equidistant from each other. 
p = a9 
Hyperbolic Spiral. — Formula, pO = a. 
Logarithmic Spiral. — Formula, p = e"^. 
Lituus. — Formula, p'-9 = a-. 

CALCULUS 
Elementary Differentials 



d(c) 


- 





d{x) 


= 


1 


d(cu) 


= 


cdu 


d{cx) 


= 


c 



MATHEMATICS 51 

d{u + V ± w . . . ) = du ± dv ± dw . . . 

d{uv) = vdu + udv 

d(uvw) = vwdu + vwdv + uvdw 

d(uvw) _ du dv dw 

uvw u V w 

d{u") = nW'^du; d{x") = rix''"^ 

, u vdu — udv 
a — = 

V 

(/(sin x) = cos X .d(tan x) = sec^x 

d{sec x) = sec x tan x d(cos x) = — sin x 

d{cot x) = — csc^x d{csc x) = — esc x cot x 

a sin ^u = — . a tan '« = 



^^©=$^^© = 4 



Vl - u^ 1 + w2 

a sec 'u = ; — a cos ' « 



Vl - u^ 

d COt~'M = — ; , d CSC~' U = ; — 

1 + w^ mV«^ - 1 

d logo w = logo e- — ; d logo x = logo e = — 

a loge M = — 
u 

da" = a" loge adu 
de" = e"du 

Fundamental Integrals' 

J'adx = ax 
J'af{x)dx = aJ'J{x)dx 

f^ = logx 

fx'^dx = -— , when /« is different from — 1 

TO + 1' 

fe'dx = e* 

ya' log arfz = a* 

y^ — i — = tan~i X 




. = vers"' X 

V2x -x2 

' For the more complicated integrals, see B. O. Pierces' "Short Table 
of Integrals" and the various works on integral calculus. 



52 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

yco3 xdx = sin x 
J'ain xdx = — cos x 
J'cot xdx = log sin x 
ytan xdx = — log sin x 
ytan X sec xdx = sec x 
J'sec- xdx = tan x 
/ csc^ xdjc ^ ^ cot X 

f\S{x) •^<e{x) + ^(X)]dx = ff{x)dx + y^(x)£/x + 

fxp{x)dx 
Sudv = uv — J'vdu where '/ and ;• are functions of x 

^ dv , du 

fuj-^dx==uv- fv-^-^dx 

ff{y)d y 

ff{y)dx = dy_ 

dx 

Ss'm'^ xdx = — ^•^ cos x-sin ;r + ^ix 

J'sin^xdx = — H cosxCsin^x + 2) 

/, . „ , sin"~' X cos X , n — 1 C . „ , 

y sin" xdx = 1 ■ — — I SHI""- xdx 

n n J 

J'cos^ xdx = }i sin x cos x + yi-""- 
ycos' xdx = I'i sin x(cos* x + 2) 

/» „ J cos"~i .r sin x , n — 1 T 

J cos" xdx = 1 I cos""- 

n n J 

J'sin X cos xdx = ^^ sin^ x 
ytan- xdx = tan x — x 

ytan" xdx = —- — j tan»~- xdx 

n — 1 J 

J'cot^ xdx = — cot X — X 

ycot" xdx = — ~ — I cot""^ xdx 

71 — 1 J 

ysin~i xdx = X sin~i X + Vl — x^ 
Xcos'^ xdx = X cos"' X — ^/l — x* 
ytan~i xdx = x tan"' a; — H log (1 + x^) 
ycot"' xdx = X cot"' X + ^ log (1 + X-) 

fe^'dx = — 
a 

e = 2.718281828459 
log.x = 2.3025851 logio a; 



II 



xdx 



SECTION II 

METALLURGICAL PRICE AND PRODUCTION 
STATISTICS 



Metal Prices 



For the current figures on metal prices it is, of course, neces- 
sary to refer to the "Engineering and Mining Journal." But it 
is often convenient to have the figures for some years back, for 
instance in computing mine valuations, or in calculations on 
metallurgical processes where the value of a metal over a term 
of years enters into the problem. For that reason I have 
introduced the following tables. 



Monthly Prices of Electrolytic Copper at New York 
FOR THE Last 10 Years 

(In Conts pr-r Pound) 



1908 1909 



1910 



1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 



.Ian '13.726 13.893 13.620 12.295,14.094 



16.488 14.223 13.641 



24.008 28.673 



Feb ,12. 905.12. 949ll3.332il2. 256, 14. 084 14.971 14.491:14.394 



26.440 



31.750 



March 12. 704il2. 387 13.255,12.139,14.698 14.713 14.131114.787 



26.310 



31.481 



April 12. 743,12.562:12. 733,12. 019 15.741 



15.291 14.211 16.811 



27.895 



27.935 



May. 



12.598112.893,12.550,11.989 16.031 



15.436,13.996 18.506 



June. 



12.675,13.214 12.404 12.385 17.2.34 



14.672 13.603 19.477 



26.601 



29.962 



July 12.702,12.880,12.215,12.463 17.190 



14.190,13.223 18.796 



23.865 26.620 



Aug 13.462il3.007 12.490 12.405 17.498 



16.941 



26.120,25.380 



Sept Il3.388!l2.870;i2.379 12.201 17.508 



16.328 



17.502 



26.855 25.073 



Oct '13.35412. 700 12.553 12.189 17.314 16.337 



17.686 



27.193 23.500 



Nov. 



14.1.30,13.125 12.742 12.616 17.326:15.182111.739 18.627 



30.625,23.500 



Dec. 



14.11l!l3.298,12.581 13.552 17. 376114.224112.801120. 133 



31.89023.500 



Year's aver- 13.208'l2.982 12.738 12. 376:16.341 15.269 13.602'l7.275 
age I I I I 



27.202127.180 



These figures from the Engineering and Mining Journal. 
• No quotations. 

63 



54 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Average Monthly Prices of Copper Manufactures 

(In Cents per Pound) 



1911 



1913 



Jan.. . . 
Feb 
M rch. 
April. . . 
^lay. . 
June. . 
July . . 
Aug. . . 
Sept. . . 
Oct. . . . 
Nov.. . 
Dec... 

Vear 



Copper 
wire 



14.06 
13.50 
13.25 
13.75 
13.75 
13.75 
13 90 
13.81 
13.75 
13.50 
13.75 
14.94 



Sheet 
copper 



18.50 
18.50 
18.50 
18.50 
18.50 
18.50 
18.50 
18.50 
18.50 
18.50 
18.63 
19.13 



13.81 18.56 



Copijer 
wire 



15.75 
15.25 
16.03 
17.06 
17.30 
18.68 
19.13 
19.13 
19.13 
19.13 
19.13 
19.13 



17.96 



Sheet 
copper 



19.50 
19.50 
20.30 
21.50 
21.63 
22.50 
22.50 
22.75 
23.50 
23.50 
23.50 
23.50 



22.02 



Coppe 
wire 



19.09 
16.38 
16.39 
16.50 
16.50 
16.18 
15.88 
16.60 
17.84 
17.75 
17.28 
15.79 



Sheet 
copper 



23 . 50 
22.50 
21.50 
21.50 

21 . 50 
21.10 

20 . 50 

21 . 50 

22 . 50 
22 . 50 
21.15 
20 . 50 



16.85 21.69 





1914 


1915 


1916 




Copper 
wire 


Sheet 
copper 


Copper 
wire 


Sheet 
copper 


Copper 
wire 


Sheet 
copper 


Jan 

Feb 


15.94 
15.88 
15.60 
15.25 
15.23 
15.03 
14.88 
14 03 
14.34 
13.34 
12.50 
14.25 


20.75 
20.50 
20.35 
20.25 
19.90 
19.56 
19.38 
18.80 
18.00 
17.38 
17.50 
18.88 


14.80 
15.19 
16.09 
18.03 
19.95 
21.13 
21.63 
19.25 
19.34 
19.28 
19.84 
21.81 


19.50 
20.25 
20.63 
22 . 38 
24.50 
25.25 
25.50 
23.90 
23.50 
23.50 
24.44 
26.00 


25.70 
28.66 
29.13 
31.10 
33.75 
32.50 
30.25 
31.38 
32.00 
32.35 
35.56 
37.00 


31.00 
34 50 
34 . 50 


April 


36.00 
37.88 


June 

July 


38.00 
38 00 




37.00 


Sept 


38.00 


Oct 


38.00 


Nov 


40.37 


Dec 


42.00 


Year 


14.74 


19.24 


19.21 


22.93 


31.01 


37.10 







Monthly Pripes of Lead at New York foh the Last 10 
Years 

(In Cents per Pound) 



1908 I 1909| 1910| 191lj 1912| 1913| 1914| 1915| 1916| 1917 



Jan.. . . 
Feb.... 
March. 
April.. . 
May.. . 
June. . . 
July.... 

Aug 

Sept.... 

Oct 

Nov. . . . 
Dec... . 



3.691 4 
3 . 725 4 
3.838 3 
3.993 4 
4 . 253 4 
t.4f.O 4 
4.447 4 
4 . 580 4 
4.515 4 
4.351 4 
4 . 330 4 
4.213 4 



.1754. 

.018 4. 
. 980 4 , 
.168 4. 
.287 4. 
. 3.50 4 . 
.321 4. 
. 30.3 4 . 
.342 4. 
.341 4. 
. 370 4 . 
.560 4, 



70D4 
013 4, 
459 4, 
370 4 . 
31."j 4, 
3t.J 4, 
4at 4, 
400 4. 
400 4, 
400 4, 
422I4, 
500 4, 



483 4. 

440 4. 
304 4. 
412 4. 
37.'5 4 . 
43.') 4 . 

499 4. 

500 4. 
485 5. 
205 5 . 
298 4. 
450 4. 



435 4, 
02*i 4 , 
073 4, 
200 4, 
191 4, 
392 4 . 
720 4 , 
509 4 , 
048 4, 
071 4, 
615 4, 
303 4, 



321 4 
325 4 
327,3 
381 3 
342 3 
325 3 
353 3 
624 3 
698 3 
402 3 
293 3 
047 3 



,11113 
04Si3 
970,4 



729 5 

827 6 



810 
900 
900 
891 



.875 4 



828 
528 
083 
800 



Year's av- I I I I I I 

erage. ... 4 . 200 4 . 273 4 . 446'4 . 420 4 .471 ^4 . 370 3 . 862 



053 

221 

274 

932 

659 

656 

610;6 

600 7 

155:7 

355 7 



921 7.626 
246 8.636 
136 9.199 
630 9.288 
463 10.207 
936' 11. 171 
352 10.710 
244 10.594 
810i 8.680 
6.710 
6.249 
6.375 



000 
042 
513 



4.6286.858 8.787 



These figures from the Enyineeriag and Mining Journal. 



PRICE AND PRODICTIOX STATISTICS 55 

-Monthly Phices of Silver at New York for 10 Years 

(In Cents per Fine Ounce) 



1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 ' 1913 1914 1915 1916 



-March. 



April 
-Mav 



June. 



55. 678, 51. 75o'52.375'53. 795 56.260 62.938 57.572 48.855 .56.775! 75.630 



56.000 51.472 51.534 52.222 59.043 61.642 57.506 48 477 56.755| 77.585 
55.365 50.468 51.454 52.745 58.375 57.870 58.067 .50.241 57.935 73.861 



54.505 51.428 53.221 .53.325 .59.207 59.490 58.519 50.250 64.415 73.875 



52.795 .52.905 .53.870 53.308 60.880 60.361 58.175 49.915 74.269 74.745 



.53.663 52.538 .53.462 53.043 61.290 .58.990 56.471 49.034 65.024 76.971 



.53.115 51.043 .54.150 .52.6.30 60.654 .58.721 54.678 47.510 62.940, 79.010 



51.683 51.125 52.912 .52.171 61.606 .59.293 .54.344 47.163 66.0S3 85.407 



51.720 51.440 53.295 52.440 63.078 60.640 53.290 48.680 68.515 100.740 



51.431 50.923 .55.490 53.340 63.471 60.793 50.654 49.385 67. 855 i 87.332 



49.647 50.703 55.6.35 55.719 62.792 58.995 49.082 51.714 71.604, 85.891 



48. 769152. 226,54. 428 54.905 63. 365l57.760|49.375|54. 971 75.765 85.960 



V'-ar'.s aver- 



age 52.864 51.502 53.486 53.304 60.835 59.791 54.811 49.684 65.661' 81.417 

Note. — Silver in New York is sold by the fine ounce, 999, in London by the 
standard ounce, 925 fine. 



Average Prices of Alvmixum, Quicksilver, Antimony and 
Pl.\ti.\u-m for the Last 12 Years 





-\lumi- 

num, 

cents per 

pound 


Quicksilver, 
dollars per flask 
(flask = 75 lb.) 


Antimony, cents 
per pound 


Plati- 
num, 
dollars 














per 




No. 1 


.San ^- Y 
Francisco * " 


Cook- 


Hal- 


Ordi- 


ounce 




son's 


letts' 


naries 




1906 


35.75 


39.46 


40.90 


22.78 


21.94 


21.73 


28.04 


1907 


41.51 


39.60 


41.50 


16.97 


15 . 53 


14.84 


26.18 


1908 


31.00 


44.17 


44.84 


8.70 


8.42 


8.00 


22.62 


1909 


22.40 


45.45 


46.30 


8.30 


8.02 


7.47 


24.87 


1910' 


22,85 


46.51 


47.06 


8.25 


7.88 


7.39 


32.70 


1911 


20 07 


46.01 


46.54 


8.59 


8.16 


7.54 


43.12 


1912 


22.01 


42.05 


42.49 


8.90 


8.26 


7.76 


45.55 


1913 


23.64 


39.28 


39.54 


8.73 


8.22 


7.52 


44.88 


1914 


18.63 


48.68 


48.31 


10.732 




8.76 


45.14 


1915 


33 . 98 
60.71 
51.59 


81.23 


87 01 






40.06 
25.37 
20.69 


47.13 


1916 


125.25 125.49 
104.36 106 .30 






83.40 


1917 






102.82 























These figures from the Engineering and Mining Journal. 



o() METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Monthly Prices of Spelter at St. Louis for tub Last 10 
Years 

(In Cents por Pound) 





1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


.Ian 


4.363 


4.991 


5". 951 


5.302 


6.292 


6.854 


5.112 6.211 


16.745 


9.449 


Feb 


4.638 


4.739 


5.419 


5.368 


6.349 


6.089 


5.228 8.255 


18.260 


9.875 


Mar 


4.527 


4.607 


5.487 


5.413 


6.476 


5.926 


5.100 8.366 


16.676 10.1.30 


Apr 


4.495 


4.815 


"5.289 


5.249 


6.48i; 


5.491 


4.963 9.837 


16.525 


9.289 


May 


4.458 


4.974 


5.041 


5.198 


6.529 


5.256 


4.924 14.610 


14.106 


9.192 


Juno 


4.393 


5.252 


4.978 


5.370 


6.727 


4.974 


4.850 21.038 


11.582 


9.201 


July 


4.338 


5.252 


5.002 


5.545 


6.966 


5.128 


4.770 


18.8.56 


8.7.55 


8.473 


Aug 


4.556 


5.579 


5.129 


5.803 


6.878 


5.508 


5.418 


12.611 


8.560 


8.190 


Sept 


4.619 


5.646 


5.364 


5.719 


7.313 


5.444 


5.230 


13.270 


8.820 


7.966 


Oct 


4.651 


6.043 


5.478 


5.951 


7.276 


5.188 


4.750 


12.596 


9.6.59 


7.813 


Nov 


4.909 


6.231 


5.826 


6.223 


7.221 


5.083 


4.962J15.792J11.422 


7.672 


Dec 


4.987 


6.099 


5.474 


6.151 


7.081 


5.004 


5.430 


15.211 10.495 


7.510 


Year's avcr- 
flKo 


4.578 


5.352 


5.370 


5.608 


6.799 


5.504 


5.061 


13. 054 [12. 634 


8.730 



Monthly Prices of Tin at New York for the La.st 10 
Years 



1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 



Jan. 



27.380 28.060 .32.700 41.255 42.529,50.298 37.779 34.200 41.825 44.175 



Feb. 



28.978,28.290,32.920:41.614 42.962'48.766 



37.415 42.717 51.420 



Mar. 



30.577:28.727 32.403 40.157 42.577 46.832 



Apr. 



May . 



31. 702129. 445 32.976 42.185 



30.015 29.225 33.125 43.115 



38.038 



.426 50.741 54.388 



43.923 49.115 36.154 47.884 51. 230|55. 910 



46.0.53 49.038 33.360 38.790 49.125 63.173 



June. 



28.024:29.322 



32.769,44.605 



45.815 44.8201.30.577 40.288 



42.231:62.053 



July. 



29.207 29.125 



32.695 42.406 



44.519 40. 2G0'31. 707 37.423 



38.510 62.570 



Aug 



29.942 29.966 33.972 43.319 45.857,41.582 (a) 



34.389 



38.565 



62.681 



Sept 28.815 30.293 34.982 .39.755 49.135 42.410 32.675 33.125 38.830 61.542 



Oct 29.444,30.475 36.190 41.185 50.077 40.462,30.284 33.080 41.241 61.581 



Nov. 



30.348 30.869 



36.547 43. 125149. 891 39. 810l33. 304 



39.224 



44.109 74.740 



Dec. 



28.144 32.913 38.199 44.655 49.815 37.635:33. 601 



38.779 



42.635i87.120 



Year's aver- I 

age 29.465 29.725|34.123!42.281 46. 096144.252 34.300 38.590 43.480 61.802 



I [ I 

These figures frcn the Engineering and Mining Journal 
(n) No quotations. 



PRICE AND PRODUCTION STATISTICS 



57 



Metal Production Figures 

For the latest production figures the reader is referred to the 
annual statistical number of the Engineering and Mining Jour- 
nal and to the " Mineral Industry." However, despite the fact 
that the following figures are somewhat out of date they are 
offered as useful guides. 

Production' of Metals in the United States^ 



Metal 



Unit 



1916 



1917 



Copper (a) Pounds 

Ferromanganese, Long tons 

Gold (6) Dollars 

Iron Long tons 

Lead (c) I .Short tons 

Nickel (e) Pounds 

Quicksilver Flasks 

Silver (6) Troy ounces 

Zinc ((i) : Short tons 



1,423,608.160' 1.942,776,309 

226,957, 

101,035,700! 

29,916,213 

535,922 

44,139,826 

(/) 21,033 

67,485,600 

492,495, 



92,590,300 

39,434,797 

592,241 

72,611,492 



74,414,802 
680,018 



1,888,395,945 



84,456,600 

38,367,853 

580,464 

56,807.613 



74,244,500 
685,436 



fa) Production from ore originating in the United States, (h) The statistics 
for 1915 and 1916- are the final and those for 1917 are the preliminary sta- 
tistics reported jointly by the directors of the Mint and the U. S. Geological 
Survey, (c) Production of refined lead ore and scrap originating in the 
United States: antimonial lead is included, (rf) Total production of smelters, 
except those treating dross and junk exclusively; includes spelter derived 
from imported ore. (e) Imports; for 1917, first 10 months only. This 
nickel is refined in the United States for the production of metal, oxide and 
salts. (/) As reported by U. S. Geological Survey. 



Production of Mineral and Chemical Substances 



Substance 


Unit 1914 1915 


1916 




Pounds 8,651,940' 




Coal, anth. (a) 

Coal, bitu. fa) 

Coke (a) 


Short tons 90,821,507 88,912,000 
Short tons 422,703,970 432,500,000 
Short tons i 34,555,914 41,600,000 
Long tons ' 31,776,670 . . 


88,500,000 

509,000,000 

54,300,000 






Iron ores 


Long tons 42,911,897 58,843,804 


81,095,000 



(a) The coal and coke statistics are the estimates of Coal Age. 
I As tabulated in the Engineering and Mining Journal. 



World's Production of Nickel 

fin Metric Tons) 



1912 



1913 



United States and Canada . . I 15,000 

England I 4,500 

Germany 5,000 

France I 1,200 

Others j 1,000 

Totals ! 26,700 



21,000 
5,200 
4,000 
1,700 
1,200 



23,000 
5,500 
4,500 
1,500 
2,500 



33,100 I 37,000 



58 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
World's Production of Quicksilver 

(In Metric Tons^ 

1911 I 1912 i 1913 



United States: 

a. California («) 

b. Texas 

c. Other states . . 



United States 

Spain (6) 

Austria-Hungarv. . . 

Italy " 

Mexico (estimated). 

Total 



578 


701 


578 


116V 
37/ 


154 


136 


731 


855 


714 


1486 


1256 


1246 


793 


783 


855 


931 


986 


1004 


150 


150 


150 



4100 



4030 



3969 



(a) Eng. and Min. Journ. (b) Exports. 

World's Consumption of Aluminum 

(In Metric Tons) 
(From statistical report of the Metallgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main') 

1913 



United States (a) . 

France 

England 

Italy 

Other countries. . . 
Totals 



20,900 

5,000 

3,000 

900 

17,000 

46,800 



29,800 
6,000 
4,000 
1,000 

22,100 



62,900 



32,800 
7,000 
5,000 
1,000 

21,000 



66,800 



(a) U. S. Geological .Survey. 

World's Production' ok Aluminum 

(In Metric Tons) 
(From statistical report of the Metallgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main) 



1911 



1912 



1913 



United States 18,000 

Canada (exports) 2,300 

Germany | 

Austria-Hungarj' \ 8,000 

Switzerland j 

France i 10,000 

England '< 5,000 

Italy I 800 

Xorwav 900 



Totals 45,000 



19,500 
8,300 

12,000 

13,000 

7,500 

800 

1,500 



62,600 



22,, 500 
5,900 

12,000 

18,000 

7,500 

800 

1,500 



68,200 



Xo reliable foreign statistica for 1914 et seq. 



PRICE AND PRODUCTION STATISTICS 



59 



World's Production of Pig Lead 

(In Metric Tons) 
(From statistical report of the Metallgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main) 



1911 



1912 



1913 



Spain (o) 

Germany 

France 

Great Britain 

Belgium 

Italy 

Austria-Hungary .... 

Greece 

Sweden and Norway 

Russia 

Asiatic Turkey 



Total Europe (6). 

United States 

Mexico 

Canada 



Total North America. 

Japan 

Australia 

Other countries 



175,100 

164,400 

23,600 

26,000 

44,300 

16,700 

19,600 

14,300 

1,100 

1,000 

12,400 



186,700 

176,600 

31,100 

29,200 

51,200 

21,500 

21,400 

14,500 

1,300 

(c) 1,000 

12,500 



203,000 

181,100 

(c)28,000 

30,500 

50,800 

21,700 

24,100 

18,400 

1,500 

(c) 1,000 

13,900 



498,500 

377,900 

124,600 

10,700 



547,000 

387,300 

(c) 108,000 

16,300 



574,000 

407,800 

(c)62,000 

17,100 



513,200 

4,200 

99,600 

20,500 



511,600 

3,600 

107,400 

12,200 



486,900 

(c)3,600 

116,000 

6,200 



Total world's production 1,136,000 1,181,800 1,186,700 



(o) Exports. (6) Including Asiatic Turkey, (c) Estimated. 



Production of Le 

(In 


AD (Refinery Statistics)^ 

Tons of 2000 Lb.) 


(a) 


Domestic: ' 1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


Desilverized. . . 
Antlmonial. . . . 
S. E. Missouri . 
S. W. Missouri . 


261,616 
16,345 

133,203 
22,312 


318,697 

17,177 

177,413 

25,448 


.305,160 .330,189 
24,601 ! 22,819 

185,849 206,105 
20,312 i 33,128 


317,952 
17,068 

204,869 
40,575 


Totals 

Foreign : 

Desilverized . . . 
Antimonial . . . 


433,476 

54,774 
2,300 


538,735 

28,475 
1,119 


535,922 

43,301 

2,883 


592,241 

17,832 
3,304 


580,464 

49,213 

1,858 


Totals 

Grand totals 


57,074 29,594 46,184 j 21,136 
490,550 568,329 582,106,613,377 


51,071 
631,535 



' As reported by the Engineering and Mining Journal. 
(a) These figures include the lead derived from scrap and junk by primary 
smelters. 



60 MET.\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
World's Consumption of Lead 

(In Metric Tons) 
(From statistical report of the Metallgoselischaft, Frankfurt am Main) 



1911 



1012 



1913 



Germany 

Great Britain 

France 

Russia 

Belgium 

Italy 

Austria-Hungary 

Holland (a)....'. 

Switzerland 

Other European countries, 

Total Europe 

United States 

Canada 

Japan 

Australia 

Other countries 



232,900 

193,300 

99,600 

42,900 

43,000 

36,300 

36,200 

6,800 

5,000 

3,500 



704,500 

364,400 

21,100 

18,900 

9,100 

31,200 



Total world's consumption, 1,149,200 



232,100 

196,300 

104,700 

45,600 

44,900 

33,000 

37,800 

6,300 

6,400 

4,400 



711,500 
398,400 
30,000 
21,800 
10,100 
30,000 



1,201,800 



223,500 

191,400 

107,600 

58,800 

42,900 

32,600 

35,500 

9,500 

5,800 

6,300 



713,900 

401,300 

22,900 

(a) 18, 500 

9,600 

(a)30,000 



1,196,200 



(o) Estimated. 

World's Production of Spelter 

(In Metric Tons) 
(From statistical report of the MetallResellschaft, Frankfurt am Main) 



1911 



1912 



1913 



Germany 

Rheinland- Westphalia. 

Silesia 

Other districts 

Belgium 

Holland 

Great Britain 

France and Spain 

Austria and Italy , . 

Russia 

Norway 

Sweden 



81,458 

156,174 

12,761 

195,092 

22,733 

66,956 

64,221 

16,876 

9,936 

6,680 



86,619 

169,088 

15,357 

200,198 

23,932 

57,231 

72,161 

19,604 

8,763 

8,128 



Europe ! 632,887 

United States j 267,472 

Australia 1,727 



661,081 

314,512 

2,296 



Total 902,100 j 977,900 



92,852 

170,119 

20,142 

197,703 

24,323 

59,146 

71,023 

21,707 

7,610 

9,287 



673,912 , 
320,283 
3,724 



997,900 



PRICE AND PRODUCTION STATISTICS 



61 



ZlNC-SAIELTING CAPACITY OF THE UnITED StATES^ 
(Number of Retorts at End of Years) 



Name 



Situation 



1916 



1917 



American Spelter Co. (a) 

American Steel & Wire Co 

American Zinc and Chem. Co. (a) . . . . 

American Zinc Co. of 111 

American Zinc, Lead and Smg. Co. (a) 
American Zinc, Lead and Smg. Co. (a) 
American Zinc, Lead and Smg. Co. 

W (a) 

American Zinc, Lead and Smg. Co. (c). 
Arkansas Zinc and Smelting Corpn. . . 

Athletic Min. and Smelting Co 

Bartlesville Zinc Co 

Bartlesville Zinc Co 

Bartlesville Zinc Co 

Bartlesville Zinc Co., Lanyon-Starr 

Branch 

Chanute Spelter Co. (a) 

Collinsville Zinc Co. (a) 

Eagle-Picher Lead Co 

Edgar Zinc Co 

Edgar Zinc Co 

Fort Smith Spelter Co 

Grasselli Chemical Co 

Grasselli Chemical Co 

Grasselli Chemical Co 

Hegeler Zinc Co 

Henryetta Spelter Co 

Illinois Zinc Co 

lola Zinc Co. (h) 

Joplin Ore and Spelter Co 

J. B. Kirk Gas and Acid Co. (o) 

Kusa Spelter Co 

La Harpe Spelter Co 

Lanyon Smelting Co 

Robert Lanyon Zinc and Acid Co. . . . 

Lanyon-Starr Smelting Co. (e) 

Matthiessen & Hegeler Zinc Co 

Mineral Point Zinc Co 

Missouri Zinc Smelting Co (a) 

National Zinc Co 

National Zinc Co 

Nevada Smelting Co 

New Jersey Zinc Co. of Penn 

Oklahoma Spelter Co 

Owen Spelter Co v 

Pittsburg Zinc Co 

Prime Western Spelter Co 

Quinton Spelter Co 

Sandoval Zinc Co 

Tulsa Fuel and Manufacturing Co. . . 

United States Smelting Co. (a) 

United States Smelting Co 

United States Smelting Co 

United States Zinc Co. (l) 

United States Zinc Co 

United States Zinc Co 

United Zinc Smelting Corpn 

United Zinc Smelting Corpn. (0 

Weir Smelting Co 



Pittsburg, Kan. 
Donora, Penn. 
Langeloth, Penn. 
Hillsboro, 111. 
Dearing, Kan. 
Caney, Kan. 

Neodesha, Kan. 
E. St. Louis, 111. 
Van Buren, Ark. 
Fort Smith, Ark. 
Bartlesville, Okla. 
Blackwell, Okla. 
Collinsville, Okla. 

Bartlesville, Okla. 
Chanute, Kan. 
Collinsville, 111. 
Henryetta, Okla. 
Carondelet, Mo. 
Cherryvale, Kan. 
Forth Smith, Ark. 
Clarksburg, W. Va. 
Meadowbrook, W. Va. 
Terre Haute, Ind. 
Danville, 111. 
Henryetta, Okla. 
Peru, lU. 
Concreto, Kan. 
Pittsburg, Kan. 
lola, Kan. 
Kusa, Okla. 
Kusa, Okla. 
Pittsburg, Kan. 
Hillsboro, 111. 



La Salle, 111. 
Depue, 111. 
Rich Hill, Mo. 
Bartlesville, Okla. 
Springfield, 111. 
Nevada, ^lo. 
Palmerton, Penn. 
Kusa, Okla. 
Caney, Kan. 
Pittsburg, Kan. 
Gas City, Kan. 
Quinton, Okla. 
Sandoval, 111. 
Collinsville, Okla. 
Altoona, Kan. 
Checotah, Okla. 
La Harpe, Kan. 
Henryetta, Okla. , 
Sand Springs, "Okla. 
Pueblo, Colo. 
Moundsville, W. Va. 
Clarksburg, W. Va. 
Weir, Kan. 



Totals 212,614 



(6) 896 
9,120 
7,296 
4,864 
4,480 
6,080 

3,760 
4,864 
2,400 
(rf) 
7,488 
8,800 
13,440 

3,456 
1,280 
1,984 
3,000 
2,000 
4,800 
2,560 
5,760 
8,544 
(d) 
5,400 
3,000 
4,640 
(6) 660 
(J) 1,792 
3,440 
3,720 
4,000 
448 
3,200 



(6) 896 
9,120 
7,296 
4,864 
4,480 
6,080 

3,760 
5,620 
3,200 
1,664 
5,184 
9,600 
13,440 

3,456 

(ff) 

(6)1,984 

(6)3,000 

1,982 

5,040 

2,560 

5,760 

8,520 

3,360 

5,400 

(a) 3,000 

(6)4,640 

(6) 660 

(g) 

3,440 
7,520 

(k) 
(h) 448 
(6) 3,200 



6,168 
9,068 
(j) 448 
4,970 
3,800 

672 

7,200 

(j) 1,600 

1,920 

910 
4,866 
1,340 

672 
6,232 
4,600 
4,480 
1,926 
1,200 
8,000 
1,984 
(d) 
3,648 

448 



6,168 

9,068 

(ff)448 

4,256 

4,480 

(6) 672 

7,200 

(A) 1,600 

1,920 

(h) 910 

4,866 

2,016 

(a) 

6,232 

4,640 

5,120 

(9) 

2,400 
8,000 
2,200 
(m) 1,728 
3,648 
(a) 448 



217,194 



' As reported by the Engineering and Mining Journal. 

(a) Closed during latter part of 1917. (6) No report received; entered the 
same as previous year, (c) Formerly Granby Mining and Smelting Co. (d) 
Under construction, (e) See Bartlesville Zinc Co. (g) Dismantled, end of 1917. 
(h) Idle all of 1917. (i) Formerly Clarksburg Zinc Co. (;) Idle latter part of 



62 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Production of Spelter' 

(In Tons of 2000 Lb.) 
(By Ore .'^moltcrs Only (M) 



States 


I9i3r 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 










7,637 
8,908 
181,495 
154, .390 
109,004 
10.903 
147.555 


25,715 




8.637 
111,551 

85,1.57 
83,230 


8.152 

130.587 

.53.424 

92,407 


8,984 
161.605 
111.052 
111,405 


8,488 




176.106 




86,227 




204.720 




29.451 




69.087 


85,082 


114.036 


154.729 






Totals 


358,202 


370.312 


507.142 


680.018 0S5.43fi 















Id) Includes some works that smelt dross and scrap as well as ore, but 
does not include works that smelt dross and scrap only. Discrepancies 
among statistical reports of the spelter production of the United States arise 
larcely on account of the difference in the dividing line that is drawn in this 
respect. 



A.MERICAX SlLVER-LE.\D SmELTING WoRKS' 



Company 



Place 



Fur- 
naces 



Annual 
capacity 

(a) 



American Smelting and Refining Co.. . 
American Smelting and Refining Co... 
American Smelting and Refining Co... 
American Smelting and Refining Co... 
American Smelting and Refining Co... 
American Smelting and Refining Co... 
American .Smelting anfl Refining Co... 
American .Smelting and Refining Co... 
Cons. Kansas City Sm. and Ref. Co.. . 
Bunker Hill & Sullivan Min. and Con- 
centrating Co 

Selby Smelting and Lead Co 

Ohio & Colorado Smelting Co 

Ignited States ."^melting Co 

Nortliport ."^melting and Refining Co. 
Penn.sylvania Smelting Co. . . 
International Smelting Co 



Totals, United States. 



American Smelting and Refining Co.. . 
American Smelting and Refinitig Co... 
American .Smelting and Refining Co.. . 

American .Smelters .Securities Co 

Compafiia Metalurgica Mexicana. . . . 
Compaf5ia Metalurgica do Torreon. . . 
Compafiia Mincra-de fefioles 



Denver 
Pueblo 
Durango 
Lead villa 
Murray 
East Helena 
Omaha (h) 
Perth Amboy (b) 
El Paso 

Kellogg. Ida. 
Selby, Calif. 
.Salida. Colo. 
Midvale. Utah 
Northport, Wash. 
Carnegie, Penn. 
Tooele, Utah 



Totals, Mexico 

Consolidated Mining and Smelting Co. 



Monterrey 

Aguascalientes 

Chihuahua 

Velardena 

.San Luis Potosi (f) 

Torreon 

Mapimi 



Trail, B. C. 



7 
7 
4 
10 
8 
4 
2 
4 
6 

3 
3 
4 
7 
2 
2 
5 



78 

10 
1 
7 
3 

10 
8 
6 

45 

4 



510,000 
380,000 
210,000 
510,000 
657,000 
306,000 
82,000 
170.000 
380,000 

600,000 
210,000 
345,000 
530,000 
216,000 
60,000 
600,000 



5,766,000 

584,000 
40,000 
400,000 
150.000 
250.000 
360.000 
325,000 



2,109,000 
140,000 



(a) Tons of charge. (6) .Smelt chiefly refinery between-products. 
being operated, but plant is expected to start in the near future. 
' Engineering and Alining Journal, Jan. 12, 1918. 



(c) Not 



PRICE AND PRODUCTION STATISTICS 



63 



World's Consumption of Copper 

(In Metric Tons) 
(From statistical report of the Metallgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main) 



Europe 



1911 



1912 



1913 



Germany 

Great Britain 

France 

Austria-Hungary 

Russia 

Italy 

Belgium 

Netherlands. 

Other European countries ... 

Total consumption in Europe 
America 

United States 

Others in America 



222,500 
159,100 
95,700 
38,500 
32,800 
29,400 
13,500 
1,000 
10,000 



Total,consumption in America 

Asia, Australia, Africa 
Production Japan and Aus- 
tralia 

Imports from Europe 

Imports from America 



602,500 

321,900 
3,000 



324,900 



95,000 
500 



Total 

Exports to Europe and Amer- 
ica 



Consumption in Asia, Aus- 
tralia and Africa 



World's consumption . 
World's production. 



95,500 

68,800 



26,700 



954,100 

893,800 



231,700 
144,700 
98,500 
48,200 
40,000 
34,200 
15,000 
1,000 
10,200 



623,500 

371,800 
3.000 



374,800 

111,900 

1,400 

500 

113,800 

73,400 



40,400 



259,300 

140,300 

103,600 

39,200 

40,200 

31,200 

15,000 

1,000 

(o) 13,300 



643,100 

348,100 
3,000 



351,100 



119,000 

1,000 

80 



1,038,700 

1,018,600 



120,100 
69,800 

50,300 
11,044,500 
; 1,005,900 



(a) Estimated. 



04 MET.\LLL'RGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
World's Production of Copper (a) 

(In Metric Tons) 



ir 



Country 



191C 



United States 

Mexico 

Canada 

Cuba 

Australasia 

Peru 

Chile 

Bolivia 

Japan 

Russia 

Germany 

Africa 

Spain and Portugal 
Other Countries 

Totals 



525.529 

36.337 

34.027 

6.251 

37,592 

27.090 

40,876 

1.306 

(c) 71,046 

32.262 

(6) 30.480 

24.578 

(6) 37.099 

(6)25,176 



929.649 



646.212 

30.969 

47.202 

8.836 

32.512 

(f) 32.410 

47,142 

(e) 3,000 

(c) 76.039 

25.881 

(e) 35,000 

27.327 

(e) 40.200 

(e) 25.000 



881.237 

■ 55,128 

47,985 

7,816 

35,000 

(f) 41,625 

64,636 

(f) 4,000 

(c) 101,467 

20.887 

(e) 45.000 

34.572 

(«) 42.000 

(e) 25.000 



856. 

43 

50. 

9, 

38. 

(/) 45, 

(g) 75, 

(e) 4, 

(ff)124. 

(e) 16, 

(e) 45, 

(e)37 

(c)4 

(e) 25 



570 
827 
351 
622 
100 
620 
345 
000 
306 
000 
000 
315 
.000 
000 



1,083.730 l,t00.353 . 1.413,056 



iff 



(d) The statistics in this table are Engineering and Mining Journal com- 
pilations, except where specially noted to the contrary, (h) As reported by 
Henry R. Merton & Co. (c) .\s officially reported, (rf) Privately com- 
municated to us from Japan, (y) Estimated on basis of nearly complete 
reports. 



Smelters' Production of Copper in the IJjiiTED States^ 

(In Pounds) 



1014 



1915 



1010 



1917 



Alaska 


24,2S.S,OO0 


72.621,844 


115,933,315 


91,918.000 


Arizona 


387,978.852 


444,089,147 


092,630,286 


692,923.722 


California. ... 


29,51.0,488 


37.935.893 


51.358,.334 


46.881.089 


Colorado 


10.104.579 


8.126,000 


9,802,183 


12,028,000 


Idaho 


4.856,460 


5,603.000 


6,741,001 


5,020.000 


Michigan 


157.089.705 


211,123,404 


270,058.601 


273.4 1 5,747 


Montana 


243,139,737 


268,027,5.57 


351,995,0.58 


274,790,.545 


Nevada 


60,078,095 


66,. 39 4, 900 


100.143,431 


103,719.442 


New Mexico.. . 


64,338.892 


75,515.1.38 


83.013,805 


101.951.598 


Utah 


153.555.902 


180,951.174 


225,396.808 


244.398.684 


Washington. . . 


165.023 


(a) 


(a) 


(a) 


East and South 


19.213.965 


18.8.58,677 


20.018,261 


23.692.274 


Other States.. . 


4.257.088 


(b) 4.4.52,420 


(6) 15,685,226 


(6) 17.617,844 



Totals. 



1,158,581.870, 1,423.698.100 1.042,770,.309' 1,888,395.945 



' As reported by the Engineering and Mining Journal. 

(a) Included in "Other States." (6) Includes copper originating in states 
other than those enumerated and also copper whose origin could not be cor- 
rectly distributed at this early date. Indeed, the distribution for 1916 in 
several cases in this table must be regarded as merely provisional. Thus. 
Utah is undoubtedly credited with more or less copper that belongs to Idaho 
and Nevada. 



PRICE AND PRODUCTION STATISTICS 



65 



Smelters' Production — (Continued) 



Source 



American ore. . 
1 ore 



Totals 

3 foreign refiners. 



3 American refiners. . . 
rude copper imported. 



1,327,488,479 
50,101,.308 
20,894,559 



1,398,484,346 
36,765,920 



1,361,718,426 
131,125,076 



crude copper. . . ; 1.492,843,502 



1,612.4.50,828 
44,749,105 
29,827,203 



1,687,027,136 
39,734,120 



1,647,293,016 
140,4 1.5,.341 



1,787,708,357 



2,187,328,864 2,117,235,708 
73,.391,517 76,078,047 
37,380,759 ; 38,854,053 



2^98,101,140, 2,219,066,922 
38.423,577 j 33,266,348 



2,259,677.563 ! 2,198,901.460 
152,770,5.36 !(a)281.211,588 



1,412,448,099 2,480,113.048 



{a) Estimated on basis of nine months' returns. 



World's Production of Silver 

Smelters' Production — In Metric Tons 
(From statistical report of the Metallgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main) 



1911 



1912 



1913 



reat Britain 

■ermany 

elgium 

pain and Portugal. 



ustria-Hungary . 

:aly 

Norway 

lussia 

'urkey (a) 

weden 



Total Europe . 



Wted States '. 

lexico 

lentral and South America (a) . 
Canada 



Total America. 
Asia (Japan) . . 

Australia 

"otal production . 



536.1 1 

420.0 

264. 7| 

134.9 

53.0 

63.1 

14.2 

7.2 

4.9 

1.5 



499. 

476, 

252. 

117. 

47. 

61. 

12. 

7. 

(a) 5. 

1. 

1. 



395.1 

537.9 

280.0 

(a) 130.0 

(a)47.0 

58.9 

14.4 

(a)8.0 

(o)5.0 

1.5 

0.9 



1055.6 61063.2 

200.01 200.0 

509.2 593.4 



1499.6 1481.2' 1478.7 

3891.9 4073.0 4059.1 
61159.2 
200.0 
546.5 

5974.8 

148.9 

143.0 

7427.0 7685.3 7745.4 



5656.7 5929.6 


141.6 138.1 
129.1 136.4 



(a) Estimated. (6) Fiscal years 1910-1911 and 1911-1912. 
5 



66 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMLSTS" HANDBOOK 



SiLVEH PkODUCTION IN THE UnITED StATES 
(In Fine Ounces) 



1915 



Alaska 

Arizona 

California 

Colorado 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Maryland 

•Mic'hi}:;an 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nevada 

New Hamp.shire. 
New Mexico .... 
North Carolina. . 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

South Carolina. . 
South Dakota. . . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Virginia 

Vermont 

Washington 

Wyoming 



Continental U. S. 

Pliilippines 

Porto Rico 

Total 



1,0.54.634 

5,66o,G72 

1,689,924 

7,199,745 

141 

13,042,466 

3,892 

100 

581,874 

55.534 

14,423,173 I 

14,453,085 



1.266,317 
6,680.252 
1,936,910 
7,551,761 



2,337,064 
1,496 



125,499 



197,569 

99,171 

724,580 

13.073,471 



11,570.399 

5.782 

153 

759,068 

128,860 

14.046,054 

13,682,067 

935 

1,729,917 

1,738 

606 

221,887 



150 

213,877 

2,910 



210,100 

93,837 

664,319 

13,545,802 

508 

1,964 

294,516 

3,407 



1,351,100 
8,183,200 
1,989.800 
8,163,600 



11,683,100 

3,300 

1,100 

686,700 

21.100 

13,711.100 

11,441.000 



1,313.700 
2,800 



215,700 



191,100 

99,300 

583,200 

14,315,300 

9,400 

400 

257.000 

4,900 



74,945,927 | 74,397,159 I 74,227,900 
15,148 17,643 | 16,600 



74,961,075 ; 74,414,802 74,244.500 



As reported by the Director of the Mint and the U. S. Geological Survey. B' 



PRICE AND PRODUCTION STATISTICS 



Gold Production of the World for 21 Years^ 



1^95 S198,99o.741 

1S96 211,242,081 

1S97 237,833,984 

1898 287,327.833 

1899 311,505,947 

1900 258,829,703 

1901 260,877,429 

1002 298.812,493 

1903 329.475,401 

1904 349,088,293 

1915. . . 



1905 8378,411,054 

1906 405,551,022 

1907 411.294,458 

1908 443,434,527 

1909 459,927,482 

1910 454,213,649 

1911 459.377.300 

1912 474,333.268 

1913 462.669.658 

1914 451,582,129 

.473,124,590 



* A3 tabulated in the Engineering and Mining Journal. 



Gold PRonucTiox of the World 



Transvaal . §188,599,260 8181.889,012 §173,176,133 



Rhodesia . 

West Africa 

Madagascar, etc. 



Total Africa 

United States 

Mexico 

Canada 

Central America, etc. . . 

Total North America . 
Russia, inc. Siberia. . . . 

France 

Other Europe 



13,166,2.30 13,935,681 17,745.980 
7,386,028' 7,846,560 8,671.-371 
2,925,000! 2,044,600 1,980,000 



8212,076,518 8205,715,6.53 8201,573,484 

893,451, .500 888.884,400' 94,-531.800 

22,500,000 20.-500,000 18.185.000 

12,.559,288 16,216.131 15,925.044 

3,632,500| 3,030,400 3,500,000 



Total Europe 

British India 

British and Dutch E. 

Indies 

Japan and Chosen 

China and others 

Total Asia, not inc. 
Siberia , 



South America. 
Australasia .... 



8132,143,288 8128,630,931 8132,141,844 



827,635,500 
1,847,000 
3,615,000 



829,-500.000 26,763,000 
1,812, lOOi 1,4-50,000 
2,950,000 2,350,000 



8-33,097,500 834,262,100 830,-563,000 
812,11-5,162 812,176,783 812,327,980 



4,925,000 
7,165,000' 



4,739,100! 
7,394,300' 



4,690,000 
7,476,.500 



3,750,000 3,658,900, 3,625,000 



827,955, 162j $27,969,083: $28,119,480 

812,425.000 813,058,400 813,52-5,000 
56,635,800 53,033,-391 45,695,271 



Total for the world.. . 8474,333,268 8462,669,558 8451,582,129 



Official returns of the various countries and reports of the Director of the 
U.S. Mint. 



68 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Gold PiioDrcTiox i\ the United States 

(Values) 



1910 



1917 



Alabama 

Alaska , 

Arizona 

California 

Colorado 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Maryland 

Montana 

Nevada 

New Mexico . . . 
North Carolina. 

Oregon 

South Carolina. 
South Dakota. . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington . . . . 
Wyoming 



Continental U. S. 

Philippines 

Porto Rico 



S5,100 

16.710,000 

4,555,900 

22,547,400 

22,530,800 

34,800 

1,170,600 



S7,400 

16,124,800 

4,092,800 

21,980.400 

19,185,000 

20,400 

1,058,300 



4,978,300 
11,883.700 

1,460,100 
170,700 

1,867,100 
3,600 

7,403,500 
6,800 
1,800 

3,907,900 



500 

461,600 

13,900 



4,328,400 

9,064.700 

1,350,000 

23,000 

1,901,500 

300 

7,471,700 

5,700 

500 

3,859,000 

300 

500 

580,600 

20,200 



$4,200 

15.171,300 

5,. 533, 800 

20.815,900 

15,955,100 

6,000 

711,500 

100 

3,756,500 

6,922,900 

1,025,100 

15,700 

1,677,400 

1,100 

7,392,600 

5,300 

900 

3,620,300 



$99,714,100 

1,320,900 

700 



$91,075,500 
1,514,200 
600 



Totals $101,035,700 $92,590,300 $84,456,600 



1,700 

434,900 

200 



$83,052,500 

1,404,000 

100 



As reported by the Director of the Mint and the U. S. Geological Survey. 



E.STIMATE OF WoKLD's PRODUCTION OF CuUDE PlATINUM ' 



Country 


1912 


191.3 


1914 


191.5 


Borneo and Sumatra. . 

Canada 

Colombia 

New South Wales 

Ru.ssia 


200 

30 

12,000 

778 

300,000 

721 


200 

50 

15,000 

1,275 

250,000 

483 


* 

30 

17,500 

1,248 

241,200 

570 


* 

100 

19,000 

t56 

124,000 


United States 


742 








313,729 


267,008 


260,548 


143,898 



• No basis for estimate', t Mo figures from Tasmania available. 
1 Estimates by U. .S. Geological .Survey. 



PRICE AND PRODUCTION STATISTICS 



69 



U. S. Pig Iron* Production for 15 Years' 

(In Long Tons) 



1903. 
1904. 
1905. 
1906. 
1907. 



18,009,252 
16,497,003 
22,992,380 
25,307,391 
25,781,381 



1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 



15,936,918 
25,795,471 
27,303,567 
23,649,547 
29.726,937 



1913. 
1914. 
1915. 
1916. 
1917. 



30,966,162 
23,332,244 
29,916,213 
39,434,797 
38,367,853 



U. S. Iron Ore Production and Consumption' 

(In Long Tons) 



Lake Superior shipments. . . 

Southern ore mined 

Eastern and other local ores 

Total production 

Imports 

Total supplies 

Exports 

Approximate consumption . 



48,211,778; 49,947,116 33,721,897 
7,500,000i 7,950,000 6,175,000 
3,485,000j 3,950,000 3,015,000 



59,196,778 61,847,116 
2,104,576 2,594,876 



42,911,897 
1,455,000 



61,301.354 
1,195,742 



64,441,992 
1,042,151 



60,105,612j 63,399,841 



44,366,897 
660.000 



43,706,897 



Production of Crude Petroleum in the United States' 

(In Barrels of 42 Gal.) 



Field 


1912 


191.3 


1914 


California 


• 84,823,992 

200,000 

11,778,324 

9,791,896 

28,400,000 

1,200,000 

3,000,000 

52,771,603 

500,000 

26,000,000 

500,000 

5,000 


96,881,967 

220,000 

15,544,046 

12,901,703 

(6)23,893,899 

1 4,750,000 

64,556,000 

500,000 

25,673,000 

2,354,000 

50,000 


100,093,568 


Colorado 


(/)200,000 


Texas (a) 


20,586,377 


Louisiana 


16,860,235 


Illinois 


21,500,000 


T ;^„ / Indiana 

L'^MOhio 

Mid-continental (6) . 
Kentucky-Tennessee 

Appalachian (c) 

Wyoming 


2,900,000 

(rf) 97, 400. 000 

580,000 

23,800,000 

4,100,000 


Others 


(/)50,000 






Total 


218,970,815 


247,321,615 


288,070,180 



(a) Includes Panhandle field of Texas. _ (6) Kansas and Oklahoma, only, 
(c) Pennsylvania, New York, West Virginia and eastern Ohio, (rf) Estimate 
of Db. D.wid T. D.\y, in "Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter," Jan. 2, 1915. 
(e) U. S. Geol. Survey. (/) Estimated. 

' As reported by the Engineering and Mining Journal. 



7U METALLnU'.LSTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Tin' Productio.v and Consumption 

(In LonK Tons) 



19i: 



Exports, Straits and Malay Peninsula. 

Exports, Australian 

Banka and Billiton sales 

Chinese exports and production' 

Bolivian exports' 

South African production' 

Nigerian production' 

Cornwall production' 



62,242 
3,253 

17,142 
8,200 

22,719 
1,900 



4,900 



61,986 
1,771 

10,975 
8,255 

24,844 
2,276 
1,962 
4.500 



66,760 
2,275 

15,093 
7,097 

18,800 
2.158 
1.899 
4,000 



Total 120,356 

U. S. imports and consumption I 45,900 

Great Britain, imports and consumption j 28,736 

Holland, imports I 16,573 

- 21,250 

1,000 
6,500 



Other Europe, imports. 

Australian consumption 

China and India consumption. 



Totals 

Visible stocks, Dec. 1 . 



116,569 

42,995 
30,531 
15,810 
18,633 
1,050 
6,400 



119,959 115,419 116,342 
16,045! 13,432 14,53.5 



118,082 

49,480 

39,937 

7.625 

11,550 

1,100 

6,650 



'Xotin "Statistics." 

World's Production of Tin 

(In Metric Tons) 
(From statistical report of the Metallgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main) 



1911 



1912 



1913 



Straits Settlements 

Great Britain: 

From home ores 

From other ores (a) 

Germany (a) 

France 

Banca (sold in Holland) . . . . 
Billiton (sold in Holland and 

Java) 

Australia 

China (exports) 

Bolivia (b) 



57,944 



61,528 



65,640 



4,950 


5,338 


(c)5,300 


13,850 


13,600 


16,700 


11,378 


11,000 


(c)ll,500 


500 


500 


1,200 


15,147 


16,111 


15,173 


2,240 


2,243 


2,243 


5,150 


5,130 


4,870 


6,050 


8,782 


(c)6,000 


400 


500 


300 



117,600 124,700 I 128,900 



(o) Mainly from Bolivian ores, (fc) Importation of Bolivian crude tin into 
Great Britain, (c) Estimated. No later statistics available. 



PRICE AND PRODUCTION STATISTICS 



71 



World's Consumption of Tin 

(In ISIetric Tons) 
(From statistical report of the Metallgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main) 



1911 



1912 



1913 



Great Britain 

Germany 

France 

Austria-Hungary 

Belgium 

Russia 

Italy 

Switzerland 

Spain 

Scandinavia 

Holland 

Other European countries 

Total Europe 

United States 

Other America 

Australia 

Africa 

China (imports) 

Other Asia 

World's consumption 

World's production 



21,900 

18,300 
7,400 
4,000 
1,700 
1,900 
2,400 

-1,200 
1,200 
1,400 

(a) 250 
1,200 



62,800 

48,000 

2,300 

(a)900 

(a)500 

1,993 

3,000 



119,500 
117,600 



21,800 
20,200 
7,500 
3,800 
1,500 
2,600 
2,500 
1,400 
1,300 
1,500 
(a) 250 
1,100 



65,500 

51,700 

3,300 

(a) 1,200 

(a)600 

2,427 

3,000 



127,700 
124,700 



24,400 
19,300 
8,300 
3,200 
2,300 
2,700 
2,900 
1,400 
1,300 
1,600 
(a)250 
1,200 



68,900 

45,000 

3,400 

(a)l,400 

(a)500 

(a)2,400 

3,300 



124,900 
128,900 



(a) Estimated. No later statistics available. 



World's Consumption of Spelter 

(In Metric Tons) 
(From statistical report of, the Metallgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main) 



1911 



1912 



1913 



United States 

Germany 

Great Britain 

France 

Belgium 

Austria-Hungary 

Russia 

Italy 

Spain 

Holland (estimated) 

Other countries (estimated) 

Total 



251,600 

219,300 

175,700 

82,000 

73,700 

43,500 

28,900 

10,100 

4,800 

4,000 

17,800 



911,400 



312,900 

225,800 

185,200 

82,000 

77,200 

46,800 

27,900 

10,700 

4,700 

4,000 

19,700 



313,300 

232,000 

194,600 

81,100 

76,400 

40,400 

33,300 

10,900 

5,900 

4,000 

20,900 



996,900 1,012,700 



72 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



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PRICE AND PRODUCTION STATISTICS 



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74 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



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SECTION III 
PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



The Fundamental Laws of Physics 

Force = mass X acceleration; / = ma 

Momentum = mass X velocitj'; M = mv 
Energy = ^i mass X velocity 2; E = ]4, mv' 

Work = force X distance = fs = mas 

Harmonic motion, period = Stta / ~^ — -, — , or in a pendu- 

\ acceleration 

lum 



T-2,^ 



Laws of a falling body: v = velocity at end of t seconds, S = 
space traversed in t seconds, St = space traversed from t to 
{t + 1) seconds 

V = gt 

S = Vigt' 

St = yzg{2t + 1) 
" Centrifugal force " = mrco', where w = angular velocity. 

/ 211 

Torsional pendulum : T = 27r\/ 

M-n-nr* 
where T = period, I = length, I = moment of inertia of mass 
on end, n = coefficient of rigidity, r = radius of wire. 
Young's modulus, coefficient of elasticity: 

, ' At wr'Al' 
I 
I — length, Al = change in length. 

Pressure in liquids = pgh, where p = density and h = height 
of column. 

Speed of escape of a liquid from an orifice, if there were no 
viscosity, 

- = V? ■ 

Boyle's law, behavior of perfect gases under varying volumes, 
pressures and temperatures : 

pv = RmT, where R is the so-called gas constant and T is 
absolute temperature. 

Under changes so sudden that the heat generated by com- 
pression (or absorbed by expansion) cannot radiate or be 
absorbed from external objects: 

pv''^ = Rmt (7= 1.406 approx.) 

75 



7G METALLURGISTS AND CHEMLSTS' HANDBOOK 



Electricity: Ampere, the unit of current strength, /; volt, 
the unit of electromotive force, E; ohm, the unit of resistance, 
R; coulomb, the unit of quantity, Q; wait, the unit of power, 
P; joule, the unit of work, J; farad, the unit of capacity, C; 

henr^-, the unit of inductance, /. I = seconds. J = ^ (Ohm's 
law); Q = n, C =% W = QE, P = IE, P = ^ = PR =^ 



W 

I 



QE 

t 



E' 



R 



Heating effect of a current, J = I-Rt = 



EH 
R ' 



COMPOSITIOX OP THE AlR^ 



By weight 



Ry volume 



Expired air 
by volume 



Oxygen . 
Nitrogen 
Argon- . . 
CO. 



23.024 

75.539 

1.337 

n.040 



20.941 

78. 122 \ 
0.937/ 



15.4 
70.2 
4.33 



PYSCHROMETRIC TABLES^ 

Measurement of Atmospheric Moisture. — The quantity of 
moisture mixed with the air under different conditions of tem- 
perature and degree of saturation may be measured in several 
distinctly different waj's. Many of these, however, arc not 
practicable methods for daily observations, or are not suffi- 
ciently accurate. Probably the most convenient of all methods 
and the one most generally employed is to ob.serve the tempera- 
ture of evaporation — that is, the difference between the tem- 
peratures indicated by wet- and dry-bulb thermometers. The 
most reliable instrument for this purpose is the sling, or whirled 
psychrometer. In special cases, rotary fans or other means 
may be employed to move the air rapidly over the thermometer 
bulbs. In any case satisfactorj' results cannot be obtained 
from observations in relatively stagnant air. A strong ven- 
tilation is absolutely necessar\' to accuracy. 

Sling Psychrometer. — This instrument consists of a pair of 
thermometers, provided with a handle, which permits the ther- 
mometers to be whirled rapidly, the bulbs being thereby strongly 
affected by the temperature of and moisture in the air. The 
bulb of the lower of the two thermometers is covered with thin 
muslin, which is wet at the time an observation is made. 

The Wet Bulb. — It is important that the muslin covering for 

' Aocording to Ramsat (cf. Benson's "Industrial Chemistry," p. 38. The 
Macmillan Co.) 

2 Including the other inert gases. The rare eases are present in air in the 
following proportions by weight: krypton, 0.028 per cent.; xenon, 0.005; 
neon, 0.0003S; helium, 0.0000.56 per cent. 

• C. F. Marvin's Tables, Weather Bureau Bulletin Xo. 235. 

Continued on page 78. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



77 



Temperature of Dew-point in Degrees Fahrenheit 

Pressure = 30.0 inches of mercury 



■H 




Depression of wet-bulb thermometer {l — t') 


1 1 1 1 1 1 t 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 




> ad 


0.2- 0.4| 0.6 0.8| 1.0| 1.2| 1.4| 1.61 l.SJ 2.o| 2.2| 2.4| 2.6| 2.8| 3.0 


—40 


0.0039 
41 


-52 
-50 












—39 












{t-n 


—38 


44 

46 

48 

0.0051 

54 

57 

61 

65 

0.0069 

74 

78 

83 

89 

0.0094 

0.9100 

106 

112 

119 

0.0126 

133 

141 

150 

159 

0.0168 

178 

188 


—49 
^8 
-46 
-45 
—43 
-42 
-40 
-38 
-36 
—35 
—33 
-32 
—30 
—29 
-28 
-27 
—26 
-25 
-23 
-22 
—21 
-20 
-19 
—18 
—16 
—15 


-59 
—56 
—53 
— 5C 
—47 
—45 
-^2 
-40 
-38 
-36 


-58 
—54 
-50 
—46 




—57 
—51 
—46 
-42 
—38 
—35 
—32 


t 


e 


( 


e 


—37 
—36 


0..1 


0.2 


0.3 0.4 


0.5 


-35 
—34 
—33 
—32 
—31 
—30 
—29 
—28 
—27 
—26 
—25 


-60 
—59 
-58 
-57 
-56 
-55 
-54 
-5? 
—52 
—51 


O.COIO 

11 

12 
13 
13 

0.0015 
16 
17 

IS 
0.0019 


—50 
-49 
—48 
-47 
—46 
-45 
—44 
-43 
—42 
—41 
—40 
-39 
-38 
-37 
-36 
-35 
-34 
—33 
—32 
—31 
-30 


0.0021 
22 
24 
26 
27 

0.0029 
31 
33 
35 
37 

0.0039 
41 
44 
46 
48 

0.0051 
54 
57 
61 
65 

0.0009 


—60 
-58 
-56 
-55 
-53 
-51 
-50 
—49 
-48 
-46 


—60 
—58 
-56 
-54 


—59 
—56 
—54 
-51 
—49 
-47 
-46 
—44 
—42 


—59 
-56 
—53 

—50 

—47 




24 

—23 

22 

—21 
—20 
—19 
—IS 
—17 
—16 
-15 
—14 


—34—431—60 
—.32—40—54 
—31—38—49 
—20—35—45 
—28— 33!— 42 
—26—31—39 
—25—20—36 
—23—28—33 
—22—26—31 
—21 —24 1—23 
—19—23—27 


-59 
—51 
-45 
-40 


-50 




— 40 — Ow; 

—44 '-50 
—43:— 49 
—42—48 
-41-46 
-40!— 45 
-38—43 
-37-42 
-35-40 
—34—38 
—33—36 


—60 
—55 


—13 


—18—21—25—30 


-36 1-48 






—12 


199 


—14 


—17—20—23—27 


-33—43 


-59 
















—11 


210 


-13 


—161—18-22-25 


-30,-38 


—50 
















-10 


0.0222 


-12 


—14—17—20—24 


-28—33 


—44 
















-9 


234 


—11 


—13—16—18—22 


_26— 301—38 


—51 














— 8 


247 


—10 


—12 —14 —17;— 20 


-21i— 2S— 34 


—44 














— 7 


260 


— 9 


—11-13-16—18 


_22 — 26 —31 


—38 


-51 












— 6 


275 


— 8 


—10—121—141-17 


— 20S— 23 —28 


—33 


—44 












— 5 


0.0291 


— 7 


— 8 — 10 — 13|— 15 


-181—21 -25 


—30 


—37 


-50 










- 4 


307 


— 6 


— 7— 91— 111— 14 


-16—19 —22 


— 27 


—32 


^2 


-59 








— 3 


325 


— 4 


— 6'— 8—10—12 


-14'— 171—20 


-24 


—29 


—35 


-47 








— 2 


344 


— 3 


— 5 — 7 — 8'— 10 


-131-15—18 


-21 


—25 


—30 


—38 


—53 






— 1 


363 


-2 


— 4 — 5 — 7 — 9 


—11—13—16 


—10 


—22 


—27 


—32 


-A2 


-60 







0.0383 


— 1 


-3-4-6—7 


- 9—12-14 


—17 


—20 


—23 


—28 


—35 


^6 




+ 1 


403 


+ 


— 2 — 3'— 4 — 6 


- 8'-10 -12 


—15 


—17 


-20 


—25 


—30 


—37—50 


2 


423 


+ 1 


— 1;— 21—3 — 5 


- 6 — 8—10 


—13 


—15 


-18 


—21 


—26 


—31;— 40 


3 


444 


2 


+ 1-1 


-2-4 


-5—7—9 


—11 


—13 


—16 


-19 


—22 


—27 


—32 


4 


467 


3 


2'+ 


-1-2 


-4-5-7 


— 9 


—11 


-14 


-16 


—19 


—23 


—28 


5 


0.0491 


4 


3+ 1 


± — 1 


-3-4-6 


— 7 


— 9 


—12 


-14 


—17 


—20 


—24 


6 


515 


5 


4 


3 


+ ll± 


-1—3—4 


— 6 


— 8 


—10 


-12 


—15 


—17 


—21 


7 


542 


6 


5 


4 


2 


+ 1 


+0—1—3 


-4 


— 6 


— 8 


—10 


—12 


—15 


-18 


8 


57C 


7 


6 


5 


4 


3 


+1+0—2 


— 3 


— 5 


— 6 


— 8 


—10 


—13 


-15 


9 


600 


8 


7 


6 


5 


4 


3 + l!+ 


— 2 


— 3 


— 5 


— 6 


— 8 


— 10|— 13 


10 


0.C631 


9 


8 


7 


6 


5 


4 


3 


+ 1 


+ 


2 


— 3 


— 5]— 6 


- 8j-10 


11 


665 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


5 


4 


3 


+ 1 


+ 


— 1 


-3-4 


— 6 — 8 


12 


699 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


5 


4 


3 


+ 2 


+ 


- 11—3 


-4;- 6 


13 


735 


12 


11 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


4 


3 


+ 2 


± 0-1 


-2-4 


14 


772 


13 


12 


12 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


5 


3 


+ 2+ 1 


-^-^ 


15 


0.0810 


14 


13 


13 


12 


11 


10 9 


8 


7 


6 


5 


4 2 


- 1 - 


16 


850 


15 


14 


14 


13 


12 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


5 


4 


+ 3 


+ 1 


17 


891 


16 


15 


15 


14 


13 


12 


12 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


4 


3 


18 


933 


17 


17 


16 


15 


14 


13 


13 


12 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


5 


IC 


0.0979 


18 


18 


17 


16 


15 


15 


14 


13 


12 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


20|0.1026 


19 


19 


18l 17 


16 


16 15' 14| 13| 12 


12 


ii: 10 


9 8 



78 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Temperature of Dew-point in Degrees Fahrenheit. 

Conliniied 







Pressure = 


30.( 


inc 


les of mercury 










Air 


Depression of wet-bulb thernionieter (( — (') 


temp., t 


3.2 ,3.4 |3.6 i3.8 ;4.0 


4.2 |4.4 


4.6 J4.8 '5.0 


5.2 


5.4 


5.6 


5.8 


6.0 


2 


—56 




























3 


^3 




























4 


—34-46 • 


























5 


—29—36—49 


























a 


—2.5 —30—391—531 






















7 


—21 —26—31 


— 41— 5.S 






















8 


—18'— 22]— 26 


—32—42 






















9 


—15—19—22 


—27—33 


-H 


















10 


—13 —16—19 —23—27 


—34—45 
















11 


—10 —13 —16—19 —22 


-27 —34-46 














12 


— 8—10—13—15 —19 


—22 —27 —34 —471 












13 


— 6,— 8 -10,-12 —15 


-18—22-27—34—46 












14 


- 4 — 6 — 8 -10|— 12 


-15—18 —22—27 —33 


^5 










15 


_ 2— 4-5-7-9 


-12'— 15 —18—21 -26 


-32^4 








16 


± — 2 — 3-5- 7 


— 9—11 —14—17—20 


—25—31'— 421 




17 


+ 2'± 0|-i;-3-4 


— 6 — 8 —11—13—16 


-20 —24—30 —39—57 


18 


+ 3;+ 2'+ 1- 1- 2 


— 4— 6 — 8-10-13 


—16—19^—23 —29—37 


19 


+ 5:+ 4+ 3,+ l'± 


— 2 — 4 — 5 — 7—10 


-121- 15|— 18 -22 — 27 


20 


+ 7'+ 6 + 4 + 3 + 2 

1 I 1 1 


+ 0— 1 — 3 — 5 — 7 


— 9—11 —14—17—21 



the wet bulb be kept in good condition. The evaporation of 
the water from the mu.sHn alwaj's leaves in its meshes a small 
quantity- of solid material, which sooner or later somewhat stif- 
fens the muslin so that it does not readily take up water. This 
will be the case if the muslin does not readily become wet after 
being dipped in water. On this account it is desirable to use as 
pure water as possible, and also to renew the muslin from time 
to time. New muslin should alwaj-s be washed to remove 
sizing, etc., before being used. A small rectangular piece wide 
enough to go about one and one-third times around the bulb, 
and long enough to cover the bulb and that part of the stem 
below the metal back, is cut out, thoroughly wetted in clean 
water, and neatly fitted around the thermometer. It is tied first 
around the bulb at the top, using a moderately strong thread. 
A loop of thread to form a knot is next placed around the bot- 
tom of the bulb, just where it begins to round off. As this 
knot is drawn tighter and tighter the thread slips off the rounded 
end of the bulb and neatly stretches the muslin covering with it, 
at the same time securing the latter at the bottom. 

To Make an Observation. — The .so-called wet bulb is thor- 
oughh' saturated with water by dipping it into a small cup. 
The thermometers are then whirled rapidly for 15 or 20 seconds; 
stopped and quickly read, the wet bulb first. This reading is 
kept in mind, the psychrometer immediately whirled again and 
a second reading taken. This is repeated three or four times, or 
more, if necessary, until at least two succeeding readings of the 
Continued on page 98. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



79 



Temperature of Dew-point in Degrees Fahrenheit. 
Continued 











Pressure = 


30.C 


inr 


^es of mercury 










«-• (£ 


> 0.S 








Depression of wet- 


bulb thermometer (t - 


- n 


a 


0.5 


1.0 


1.5 


2.0 


2.5 |3.0 |3.5 


4.0 


4.5 


5.0 


|.5 


6.0 


6.5 


7.0 J7.5 


20 


0.103 


18 


16 


14 


12 


10 


8 


5 


2 


— 2 


— 7 


—13 


—21 


—37 




21 


0.108 


19 


18 


16 


14 


12 


9 


7 


3 


+ 


— 4 


— 9 


-16 


—27 


—60 


22 


0.113 


20 


19 


17 


15 


13 


11 


8 


5 


+ 2 


— 2 


— 6 


-12 


—20 


—36 


23 


0.118 


21 


20 


18 


16 


14 


12 


10 


7 


41+ 


— 4 


— 9 


—16 


—26—57 


24 


0.124 


23 


21 


19 


17 


15 


13 


11 


9 


6 


+ 2 


— 1 


-6 


-12 


—20—35 


25 


0.130 


24 


22 


20 


19 


17 


15 


13 


10 


8 


5 


+ 1 


-3 


— 8 


—15—25 


26 


0.136 


25 


23 


22 


20 


18 


16 


14 


12 


9 


7 


3 


— 1 


— 5 


—111—18 


27 


0.143 


26 


24 


23 


21 


19 


18 


16 


13 


11 


8 


5 


+ 2 


— 2 


— 7—14 


28 


0.150 


27 


25 


24 


22 


21 


19 


17 


15 


13 


10 


7 


' 4 


± 


-4-9 


29 


0.157 


28 


26 


25 


23 


22 


20 


18 


16 


14 


12 


9 


6 


+ 3 


— 1-5 


30 


0.164 


29 


27 


26 


25 


23 


21 


20 


18 


16 


14 


11 


8 


5 


+ 2|-2 


31 


0.172 


30 


28 


27 


26 


24 


23 


21 


19 


17 


15 


13 


10 


8 


4!± 


32 


0.180 


31 


30 


2S 


27 


25 


24 


22 


21 


19 


17 


15 


12 


10 


7i+3 


33 


0.187 


32 


31 


29 


28 


27 


25 


24 


22 


20 


18 


16 


14 


12 


9 


6 


34 


0.195 


33 


32 


30 


29 


28 


26 


25 


23 


22 


20 


18 


16 


13 


11 


8 


35 


0.203 


34 


33 


31 


30 


29 


28 


26 


25 


23 


21 


19 


17 


15 


13 


10 


36 


0.211 


35 


34 


32 


31 


30 


29 


27 


26 


24 


23 


21 


19 


17 


15 


12 


37 


0.219 


36 


35 


33 


32 


31 


30 


28 


27 


26 


24 


22 


21 


19 


17 


14 


38 


0.228 


37 


36 


34 


33 


32 


31 


29 


28 


27 


25 


24 


22 


20 


18 


16 


39 


0.237 


38 


37 


35 


34 


33 


32 


31 


29 


28 


27 


25 


23 


22 


20 


18 


40 


0.247 


39 


38 


37 


35 


34 


33 


32 


30 


29 


28 


26 


25 


23 


21 


20 


41 


0.256 


40 


39 


38 


36 


35 


34 


33 


31 


30 


29 


27 


26 


24 


23 


21 


42 


0.266 


41 


40 


39 


38 


36 


35 


34 


33 


31 


30 


29 


27 


26 


24 


23 


43 


0.277 


42 


41 


40 


39 


37 


36 


35 


34 


32 


31 


30 


28 


27 


25 


24 


44 


0.287 


43 


42 


41 


40 


38 


37 


36 


35 


34 


32 


31 


30 


28 


27 


25 


45 


0.298 


44 


43 


42 


41 


40 


38 


37 


36 


35 


34 


32 


31 


30 


28 


27 


46 


0.310 


45 


44 


43 


42 


41 


40 


38 


37 


36 


35 


33 


32 


31 


29 


28 


47 


0.322 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


41 


40 


38 


37 


36 


35 


33 


32 


31 


29 


48 


0.3.34 


47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


41 


40 


38 


37 


36 


35 


33 


32 


31 


49 


0.347 


48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


41 


40 


38 


37 


36 


34 


33 


32 


50 


0.360 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


41 


40 


38 


37 


36 


34 


33 


51 


0.373 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


41 


40 


38 


37 


36 


34 


52 


0.387 


51 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


' 42 


41 


40 


38 


37 


36 


53 


0.402 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


41 


40 


38 


37 


54 


0.417 


53 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


41 


40 


38 


55 


0.432 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


50 


49 


48 


47 


45 


44 


43 


42 


41 


40 


56 


).448 


55 


54 


53 


53 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


44 


43 


42 


41 


57 


0.465 


56 


55 


54 


54 


S3 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


4> 


46 


45 


43 


42 


58 


0.4S2 


57 


56 


55 


55 


,54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


59 


0.499 


58 


57 


56 


56 


55 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


60 


T.517 


59 


58 


57 


57 


56 


55 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


61 


1.536 


60 


59 


59 


58 


57 


56 


55 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


47 


62 


0.5.55 


61 


60 


60 


59 


58 


57 


56 


55 


54 


53 


53 


52 


51 


50 


48 


63 


1.575 


62 


61 


61 


60 


59 


58 


57 


56 


55 


55 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


64 


).5'J5 


63 


62 


62 


61 


60 


59 


58 


57 


57 


56 


55 


54 


53 


52 


51 


65 


0.616 


64 


63 


63 


C2 


61 


60 


59 


59 


58 


57 


56 


55 


54 


53 


52 


66 


a. 633 


65 


64 


64 


63 


62 


61 


60 


60 


59 


58 


57 


56 


55 


54 


53 


67 


D.661 


66 


65 


65 


64 


63 


62 


62 


61 


60 


59 


58 


57 


56 


55 


54 


6S 


[).684 


67 


67 


66 


65 


64 


63 


63 


62 


61 


60 


59 


58 


57 


57 


56 


69 


).707 


6S 


68 


67 


66 


65 


64 


64 


63 


62 


61 


60 


59 


59 


58 


57 


70 


).732 


69 


69 


68 


67 


66 


65 


65 


64 


63 


62 


61 


61 


60 


59 


58 


71 


0.757 


70 


70 


69 


68 


67 


67 


66 


65 


64 


63 


62 


62 


61 


60 


59 


72 


0.783 


71 


71 


70 


69 


68 


68 


67 


66 


65 


64 


64 


63 


62 


61 


60 


73 


0.810 


72 


72 


71 


70 


69 


69 


68 


67 


66 


66 


65 


64 


63 


62 


61 


74 


0.838 


73 


73 


72 


71 


70 


70 


69 


68 


67 


67 


66 


65 


64 


63 


62 


75 


0.866 


74 


74 


73 


72 


71 


71 


70 


69 


68 


68 


67 


66 


65 


64 


64 


76 


0.896 


75 


75 


74 


73 


72 


72 


71 


70 


69 


69 


68 


67 


66 


66 


65 


77 


0.926 


76 


76 


75 


74 


73 


73 


72 


71 


71 


70 


69 


68 


67 


67 


63 


78 


0.957 


77 


77 


76 


75 


75 


74 


73 


72 


72 


71 


70 


69 


69 


68 


67 


79 


0.989 


78 


78 


77 


76 


76 


75 


74 73 


73 


72 


71 


70 


70 


69 


68 


80 


1.022 


79 


79 


78 


77 


77 


76 


75 74 


74 


73 


72 


72 


71 


70 69 



80 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Temperature of Dew-point in Degrees Fahrenheit. 
Continued 

Pressure = 30.0 inches of mercury 



c. 


a t 2 






Depression 


of wet-bulb thermometer (t — 


f) 




•■31 


8.0 


8.5 


9.0 


9.510.0 


10.5 11.0 11.5 12.o'l2.5 

1 1 i 1 


13. o!l3.5'l4. 0,14.5 15.0 


25 


0.130 


-51 






























26 


0.136 


-32 






























27 


0.143 


-23—45 




























28 


0.150 


-17 


-29 




























29 


0.157 


-12 


-20 


-39 


























30 


0.164 


- 7 


—14 


-25 


-57 
























31 


0.172 


-4 


—10 


-18 


—31 
























32 


O.ISO 


- 1 


— 6 


—12 


—21 


—\2 






















33 


0.187 


+ 2 


— 2 


— 7 


—14 


—26 






















34 


0.195 


51+ 1 


-3 


-9 


—17 


-32 




















35 


0.203 


7 


4 


+ 


-5 


—11 


-20 


-41 


















36 


0.211 


10 


7 


+ 3 


— 1 


— 6 


-14 


—25 


—58 
















37 


0.219 


12 


9 


6 


+2 


— 3 


-8 


—16 


-29 
















38 


0.228 


14 


11 


8 


5 


+ 1 


— 4 


-10 


—19 


-36 














39 


0.237 


16 


13 


11 


8 


4 


± 


— 5 


—12 


—22 


—47 












40 


0.247 


18 


15 


13 


10 


7 


+ 3 


— 1 


— 6 


—14 


—26 












41 


0.256 


19 


17 


15 


12 


10 


6 


+ 2 


— 2 


— 8 


-16 


-30 










42 


0.266 


21 


19 


17 


14 


12 


9 


6 


-1-2 


-3 


— 9 


-18 


-36 








43 


0.277 


22 


20 


19 


16 


14 


11 


9 


5 


-1- 1 


— 4 


-11 


—21 


—45 






44 


0.287 


24 


22 


20 


18 


16 


13 


11 


8 


4 


+ 


— 5 


-12 


—24 


—60 




45 


0.298 


25 


23 


22 


20 


18 


15 


13 


10 


7 


-h4 


— 1 


— 6 


—14 


-27 




46 


0.310 


27 


25 


23 


21 


20 


17 


15 


13 


10 


7 


+ 3 


— 2 


— 7 


-16 


-30 


47 


0.322 


28 


26 


25 


23 


21 


19 


17 


15 


12 


9 


6 


+ 2 


— 3 


— 9 


-17 


48 


0.334 


29 


28 


26 


25 


23 


21 


19 


17 


14 


12 


9 


5 


+ 1 


— 4 


—10 


49 


0.347 


30 


29 


28 


26 


24 


23 


21 


19 


16 


14 


11 


8 


5 


+ 


— 5 


50 


0.360 


32 


30 


29 


27 


26 


24 


22 


21 


18 


16 


13 


11 


8 


+ 4 


+ 


51 


0.373 


33 


32 


30 


29 


27 


26 


24 


22 


20 


18 


16 


13 


10 


7 


+2 


52 


0.387 


34 


33 


32 


30 


29 


27 


26 


24 


22 


20 


18 


16 


13 


10 


7 


53 


0.4C2 


36 


34 


33 


32 


30 


29 


27 


26 


24 


22 


20 


18 


15 


13 


10 


54 


0.417 


37 


36 


34 


33 


32 


30 


29 


27 


25 


24 


22 


20 


18 


15 


12 


55 


0.432 


38 


37 


36 


34 


33 


32 


30 


29 


27 


25 


24 


22 


20 


17 


15 


56 


0.44S 


40 


39 


37 


36 


34 


33 


32 


30 


29 


27 


25 


24 


22 


19 


17 


57 


0.465 


41 


40 


39 


37 


36 


34 


33 


32 


30 


29 


27 


25 


24 


21 


19 


58 


0.482 


42 


41 


40 


39 


37 


36 


35 


33 


32 


30 


29 


27 


25 


23 


21 


59 


0.499 


44 


49 


41 


40 


39 


37 


36 


35 


33 


32 


30 


29 


27 


25 


23 


60 


0.517 


45 


44 


43 


41 


40 


39 


38 


36 


35 


33 


32 


30 


29 


27 


25 


61 


0.536 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


40 


39 


38 


36 


35 


33 


32 


30 


29 


27 


62 


0.555 


47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


40 


39 


38 


36 


35 


33 


32 


30 


29 


63 


0.575 


49 


48 


47 


45 


44 


43 


42 


41 


39 


38 


36 


35 


34 


32 


30 


64 


0..505 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


44 


43 


42 


41 


39 


38 


37 


35 


34 


32 


65 


0.616 


51 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


43 


42 


41 


40 


38 


37 


35 


34 


66 


0.638 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


42 


41 


40 


38 


37 


35 


67 


0.661 


53 


53 


52 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


41 


40 


38 


37 


68 


0.684 


55 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


40 


39 


69 


0.707 


56 


55 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


40 


70 


0.7.32 


57 


56 


55 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


44 


43 


42 


71 


0.757 


58 


57 


56 


55 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


43 


72 


0.783 


59 


58 


58 


57 


56 


55 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


48 


47 


46 


45 


73 


0.810 


60 


60 


59 


58 


57 


56 


55 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


46 


74 


0.838 


62 


61 


60 


59 


58 


57 


56 


55 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


75 


0.866 


63 


62 


61 


60 


69 


58 


57 


56 


55 


55 


54 


52 


51 


60 


49 


76 


0.896 


64 


63 


62 


61 


60 


60 


59 


58 


57 


56 


55 


54 


53 


52 


51 


77 


0.926 


65 


61 


63 


62 


62 


61 


60 


59 


58 


57 


56 


55 


54 


53 


52 


78 


0.957 


66 


65 


64 


64 


63 


62 


61 


60 


59 


58 


57 


56 


55 


54 


53 


79 


0.9R9 


67 


66 


66 


65 


64 


63 


62 


61 


60 


59 


59 


58 


57 


56 


55 


80 


1.022 


68 


68 


67 


66 


65 


64 


63 


63 


62 


61 


60 


59 


58 


57 


66 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



81 



Temperature of Dew-point in Degrees Fahrenheit. 

Continued 

Pressure = 30.0 inches of mercury 



Air 








Depression of 


wet-bulb thermometer (t - 


- t') 


temp., t 


15.5J16.0 16.5 


17.0 17.5 


18.0 18.5 


19.0 


19.5|20.0 


20.5 


21.0 


21.5|22.0 


22.5 


47 


—35 






























48 


—201—41 




























49 


-12 


—22 


—53 


























50 


— 6 


-13 


—26 


























51 


— 1 


-7 


—15 


—29 
























52 


+ 3 


— 2 


— 8 


—17 


—33 






















53 


7 


+ 2 


— 3 


— 9 


—18 


-39 




















54 


10 


6 


+ 2 


— 4 


—10 


-20 


—47 


















55 


12 


9 


6 


+ 1 


— 4 


-12 


—23 


—59 
















56 


15 


12 


9 


5 


+ 1 


— 5 


—13 


—25 
















57 


17 


14 


12 


9 


5 


+ 


— 6 


—14 


-27 














58 


19 


17 


14 


11 


8 


+ 4 


— 1 


— 6 


-15 


—30 












59 


21 


19 


17 


14 


11 


8 


+ 4 


— 1 


— 7 


—16 


—33 










60 


23 


21 


19 


17 


14 


11 


8 


+ 4 


— 2 


— 8 


—17 


—36 








61 


25 


23 


21 


19 


17 


14 


11 


8 


+ 3 


— 2 


— 8 


—18 


—40 






62 


27 


25 


23 


21 


19 


16 


14 


11 


7 


+ 3 


— 2 


-9 


—19 


—45 




63 


29 


27 


25 


23 


21 


19 


17 


14 


11 


7 


+ 3 


-2 


— 9 


—20—49 


64 


31 


29 


27 


25 


23 


21 


19 


17 


14 


11 


7 


+ 3 


— 3 


—10;— 21 


65 


32 


31 


29 


27 


25 


24 


21 


19 


17 


14 


11 


7 


+ 3 


— 3-10 


66 


34 


32 


31 


29 


27 


26 


24 


22 


19 


17 


14 


11 


71+2 — 3 


67 


36 


34 


32 


31 


29 


28 


26 


24 


22 


19 


17 


14 


11 


7+2 


68 


37 


36 


34 


33 


31 


29 


28 


26 


24 


22 


19 


17 


14 


11 


7 


69 


39 


37 


36 


34 


33 


31 


30 


28 


26 


24 


22 


19 


17 


14 


11 


70 


40 


39 


38 


36 


34 


33 


31 


30 


28 


26 


24 


22 


20 


17 


14 


71 


42 


41 


39 


38 


36 


35 


33 


31 


30 


28 


26 


24 


22 


20 


17 


72 


44 


42 


41 


40 


38 


37 


35 


33 


32 


30 


28 


26 


24 


22 


20 


73- 


45 


44 


43 


41 


40 


38 


37 


35 


34 


32 


30 


28 


27 


25 


22 


74 


47 


45 


44 


43 


41 


40 


39 


37 


35 


34 


32 


30 


29 


27 


25 


75 


48 


47 


46 


44 


43 


42 


40 


39 


37 


36 


34 


32 


31 


29 


27 


76 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


43 


42 


41 


39 


38 


36 


34 


33 


31 


29 


77 


51 


50 


49 


48 


46 


45 


44 


42 


41 


39 


38 


36 


35 


33 


31 


78 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


46 


45 


44 


43 


41 


40 


38 


37 


35 


33 


79 


54 


53 


52 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


44 


43 


42 


40 


38 


37 


35 


80 


55 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


48 


47 


46 


44 


43 


42 


40 


39 


37 









Depression 


of wet-bulb thermometer {t — 


') 








23.0 


23.5J24.O 


24.525.0 


25.5 26.0 26.5127.027.5 

1 ' 1 


28.0 


28.529.0 


29.5 


30.0 


64 


—54 






























65 


-22 






























66 


—11 


-22 




























67 


— 31— 11!— 23 


























68 


+ 2!— 3!— Ill— 24 
























69 


7 


+ 2 


— 3—11—24 






















70 


11 


7 


+ 2 


— 31-11 


—24 




















71 


14 


11 


7 


+ 31-3 


—11 


—24} 
















72 


17 


14 


11 


7 


+ 3 


— 31—111—24 
















73 


20 


17 


15 


11 


8 


+ 31— 3— 111— 24 














74 


23 


20 


18 


15 


12 


8 


+ 3 


— 31-10 


—24 












75 


25 


23 


21 


18 


15 


12 


8 


+ 41—2 


—10 


-23 








76 


27 


25 


23 


21 


18 


15 


12 


8 


+ 4 


— 2 


—10—22 








77 


29 


28 


26 


23 


21 


18 


16 


13 


9 


+ 4 


— 2 — 9 


-21 






78 


31 


30 


28 


26 


24 


21 


19 


16 


13 


9 


+ 5—1 


— 9 


—20 




79 


34 


32 


30 


28 


26 


24 


22 


19 


16 


13 


10 + 5 


— 1 


— 8—20 


80 


36 


34 


32 


30 


28 


26 


24 


22 


20 


17 


13 10 


+ 6 


±0,-7 



82 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Temperature of Dew-point in Degrees Fahrenheit. 
Continued 

Pressure = 30.0 inches of mercury 



d 


c oi 

> & 






Depression 


of w 


Jt-bu 


lb thermometer (t — t') 






<5 


1 


2 


»h 


6 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


80 


1.022 


79 


77 


76 


74 


73 


72 


70 


68 


67 


65 


63 


62 


60 


'W 


66 


81 


1.056 


80 


78 


77 


75 


74 


73 


71 


70 


68 


66 


65 


63 


61 


59 


57 


82 


1.091 


81 


79 


78 


77 


75 


74 


72 


71 


69 


67 


66 


64 


62 


60 


69 


83 


1.127 


82 


80 


79 


78 


76 


75 


73 


72 


70 


69 


67 


65 


64 


62 


60 


84 


1.163 


83 


81 


80 


79 


77 


76 


74 


73 


71 


70 


68 


66 


65 


63 


61 


85 


1.201 


84 


82 


81 


80 


78 


77 


75 


74 


72 


71 


69 


68 


66 


64 


62 


86 


1.241 


85 


83 


82 


81 


79 


78 


76 


75 


73 


72 


70 


69 


67 


65 


64 


87 


1.281 


86 


84 


83 


82 


80 


79 


78 


76 


75 


73 


72 


70 


68 


67 


65 


88 


1.322 


87 


85 


84 


83 


81 


80 


79 


77 


76 


74 


73 


71 


69 


68 


66 


89 


1.364 


88 


86 


85 


84 


82 


81 


80 


78 


77 


75 


74 


72 


71 


69 


67 


90 


1.408 


89 


87 


86 


85 


83 


82 


81 


79 


78 


76 


75 


73 


72 


70 


69 


91 


1.453 


90 


88 


87 


86 


85 


83 


82 


80 


79 


78 


76 


75 


73 


71 


70 


92 


1.499 


91 


89 


88 


87 


86 


84 


83 


81 


80 


79 


77 


76 


74 


73 


71 


93 


1.546 


92 


90 


89 


88 


87 


85 


84 


83 


81 


80 


78 


77 


75 


74 


72 


94 


1.595 


93 


92 


90 


89 


88 


86 


85 


84 


82 


81 


79 


78 


76 


75 


73 


95 


1.645 


94 


93 


91 


90 


89 


87 


86 


85 


83 


82 


80 


79 


78 


76 


74 


96 


1.696 


95 


94 


92 


91 


90 


88 


87 


86 


84 


83 


82 


80 


79 


77 


76 


97 


1.749 


96 


95 


93 


92 


91 


89 


88 


87 


85 


84 


83 


81 


80 


78 


77 


98 


1.803 


97 


96 


94 


93 


92 


90 


89 


88 


87 


85 


84 


82 


81 


79 


78 


99 


1.859 


98 


97 


95 


94 


93 


92 


90 


89 


88 


86 


85 


83 


82 


81 


79 


100 


1.916 


99 


98 


96 


95 


94 


93 


91 


90 


89 


87 


86 


85 


83 


82 


80 


101 


1.975 


100 


99 


97 


96 


95 


94 


92 


91 


90 


88 


87 


86 


84 


83 


81 


102 


2.035 


101 


100 


98 


97 


96 


95 


93 


92 


91 


89 


88 


87 


85 


84 


83 


103 


2.097 


102 


101 


99 


98 


97 


96 


94 


93 


92 


91 


89 


88 


86 


85 


84 


104 


2.160 


103 


102 


100 


99 


98 


97 


95 


94 


93 


92 


90 


89 


88 


86 


85 


105 


2.225 


104 


lOS 


101 


100 


99 


98 


96 


95 


94 


93 


91 


90 


89 


87 


88 


106 


2.292 


105 


104 


102 


101 


100 


99 


98 


96 


95 


94 


92 


91 


90 


88 


87 


107 


2.360 


106 


105 


103 


102 


101 


100 


99 


97 


96 


95 


93 


92 


91 


90 


88 


108 


2.431 


107 


106 


104 


103 


102 


101 


100 


98 


97 


96 


95 


93 


92 


91 


89 


109 


2.503 


108 


107 


105 


104 


103 


102 


101 


99 


98 


97 


96 


94 


93 


92 


90 


110 


2.576 


109 


108 


106 


105 


104 


103 


102 


100 


99 


98 


97 


95 


94 


93 


91 


111 


2.652 


110 


109 


108 106 


105 


104 


103 


102 


100 


99 


98 


96 


95 


94 


93 


112 


2.730 


111 


110 


109 107 


106 


105 


104 


103 


101 


100 


99 


98 


96 


95 


94 


113 


2.810 


112 


111 


110 ;108 


107 


100 


105 


104 


102 


101 


100 


99 


97 


96 


95 


114 


2.k'n 


113 


112 


111 il09 


108 


107 


106 


105 


103 


102 


101 


100 


98 


97 


96 


115 


2.975 


114 


113 


112 


no 


109 


108 


107 


106 


104 


103 


102 


101 


99 


98 


97 


116 


3.061 


115 


114 


113 


111 


110 


109 


108 


107 


105 


104 


103 


102 


101 


99 


98 


117 


3.148 


116 


115 


114 


112 


111 


no 


109 


108 


107 


105 


104 


103 


102 


100 


99 


118 


3.239 


117 


116 


115 


113 


112 


111 


no 


109 


108 


106 


105 


104 


103 


101 


100 


119 


3.331 


118 


117 


116 


114 


113 


112 


111 


110 


109 


107 


106 


105 


104 


102 


101 


120 


3.425 


119 


118 


117 


115 


114 


113 


112 


111 


no 


108 


107 


106 


105 


104 


102 


121 


3.522 


120 


119 


118 


116 


115 


114 


113 


112 


111 


109 


108 


107 


106 


105 


103 


122 


3.621 


121 


120 


119 


118 


116 


115 


114 


113 


112 


no 


109 


108 


107 


106 


104 


123 


3.723 


122 


121 


120 


119 


117 


no 


115 


114 


113 


112 


110 


109 


108 


107 


106 


124 


3.827 


123 


122 


121 


120 


118 


117 


116 


115 


114 


113 


111 


no 


109 


108 


107 


125 


3.933 


124 


123 


122 


121 


119 


118 


117 


116 


115 


114 


112 


111 


110 


109 


108 


126 


4.042 


125 


124 


123 


122 


120 


119 


118 


117 


116 


115 


113 


112 


111 


no 


109 


127 


4.154 


1'26 


125 


124 


123 


121 


120 


119 


118 


117 


116 


114 


113 


112 


111 


no 


128 


4.268 


127 


126 


125 


124 


122 


121 


120 


119 


118 


117 


116 


114 


113 


112 


111 


129 


4.385 


128 


127 


126 


125 


123 


122 


121 


120 


119 


118 


117 


115 


114 


113 


112 


130 


4.504 


129 


128 


127 


126 


124 


123 


122 


121 


120 


119 


118 


116 


115 


114 


113 


131 


4.627 


130 


129 


128 


127 


125 


124 


123 


122 


121 


120 


119 


117 


116 


115 


114 


132 


4.752 


131 


130 


129 


128 


126 


125 


124 


123 


122 


121 


120 


119 


117 


116 


115 


133 


4.880 


132 


131 


1.30 


129 


127 


126 


125 


124 


123 


122 


121 


120 


118 


117 


116 


134 


5.011 


1.33 


1.32 


131 


1.30 


129 


127 


126 


125 


124 


123 


122 


121 


119 


118 


117 


135 


5.145 


134 


1.33 


132 


131 


130 


128 


127 


126 


125 


124 


123 


122 


120 


119 


118 


136 


5.282 


135 


1.34 


133 


132 


131 


129 


128 


127 


126 


125 


124 


123 


122 


120 


119 


137 


5.422 


136 


1.35 


134 


133 


132 


130 


129 


128 


127 


126 


125 


124 


123 


121 


120 


138 


5.565 


137 


136 


1.35 


134 


133 


131 


130 


129 


128 


127 


126 


125 


124 


122 


121 


139 


5.712 


138 


137 


136 


135 


134 


i:i2 


131 


1.30 


129 


128 


127 


126 


125 


123 


122 


140 


5.862 


139 


138 


137 


136 


135 


133 Il32 


131 


130 


129 


128 


127 


126 


124 


123 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



83 



Temperature of Dew-point in Degrees Fahrenheit. 
Continued 

Pressure = 30.0 inches of mercury 



d 


o r 






Depression 


of w 


et-bulb thermometer 


(t - 


t') 






16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 30 


80 


1.022 


54 


52 


50 


47 


44 


42 


39 


36 


32 


28 


24 


20 


13 


6 -7 


81 


1.056 


55 


53 


51 


49 


46 


43 


41 


38 


34 


31 


27 


22 


17 


10 1+7 


82 


1.091 


57 


55 


52 


50 


48 


45 


42 


39 


36 


33 


29 


25 


20 


14 +7 


83 


1.127 


58 


56 


54 


52 


49 


47 


44 


41 


38 


35 


31 


27 


23 


18 11 


84 


1.163 


59 


57 


55 


53 


51 


48 


46 


43 


40 


37 


34 


30 


26 


21 


15 


85 


1.201 


61 


59 


57 


54 


52 


50 


48 


45 


42 


39 


36 


32 


28 


24 


19 


86 


1.241 


62 


60 


58 


56 


54 


52 


49 


47 


44 


41 


38 


34 


31 


27 


22 


87 


1.281 


63 


61 


59 


57 


55 


53 


51 


48 


46 


43 


40 


36 


33 


29 


25 


88 


1.322 


64 


62 


61 


59 


57 


55 


52 


50 


47 


45 


42 


38 


35 


31 


27 


89 


1.364 


66 


64 


62 


60 


58 


56 


54 


51 


49 


46 


44 


41 


37 


34 


30 


90 


1.408 


67 


65 


63 


61 


59 


57 


55 


53 


51 


48 


45 


43 


39 


36 


32 


91 


1.453 


68 


66 


65 


63 


61 


59 


57 


55 


52 


50 


47 


44 


41 


38 


35 


92 


1.499 


69 


68 


66 


64 


62 


60 


58 


56 


54 


51 


49 


46 


43 


40 


37 


93 


1.546 


71 


69 


67 


65 


63 


62 


60 


58 


55 


53 


51 


48 


45 


42 I 39 


94 


1.595 


72 


70 


68 


67 


65 


63 


61 


59 


57 


55 


52 


50 


47 


44 


41 


95 


1.645 


73 


71 


70 


68 


66 


64 


62 


60 


58 


56 


54 


52 


49 


46 


43 


96 


1.696 


74 


72 


71 


69 


67 


66 


64 


62 


60 


58 


55 


53 


51 


48 


45 


97 


1.749 


75 


74 


72 


70 


69 


67 


65 


63 


61 


59 


57 


55 


52 


50 


47 


98 


1.803 


76 


75 


73 


72 


70 


68 


66 


64 


63 


61 


58 


56 


54 


52 


49 


99 


1.859 


78 


76 


74 


73 


71 


69 


68 


66 


64 


62 


60 


58 


56 


53 


51 


100 


1.916 


79 


77 


76 


74 


72 


71 


69 


67 


65 


63 


61 


59 


57 


55 


52 


101 


1.975 


80 


78 


77 


75 


74 


72 


70 


69 


67 


65 


63 


61 


59 


56 


54 


102 


2.035 


81 


80 


78 


76 


75 


73 


72 


70 


68 


66 


64 


62 


60 


58 


56 


103 


2.C97 


82 


81 


79 


78 


76 


74 


73 


71 


69 


68 


66 


64 


62 


60 


57 


104 


2.160 


83 


82 


80 


79 


77 


76 


74 


72 


71 


69 


67 


65 


63 


61 


59 


105 


2.225 


84 


83 


82 


80 


78 


77 


75 


74 


72 


70 


68 


67 


65 


63 


61 


106 


2.292 


86 


84 


83 


81 


80 


78 


77 


75 


73 


72 


70 


68 


66 


64 


62 


107 


2.360 


87 


85 


84 


82 


81 


79 


78 


76 


75 


73 


71 


69 


67 


66 


64 


108 


2.431 


88 


86 


85 


84 


82 


81 


79 


77 


76 


74 


72 


71 


69 


67 


65 


109 


2.503 


89 


88 


86 


85 


83 


82 


80 


79 


77 


75 


74 


72 


70 


68 


66 


110 


2.576 


90 


89 


87 


86 


84 


83 


81 


80 


78 


77 


75 


73 


72 


70 


68 


111 


2.652 


91 


90 


88 


87 


86 


84 


83 


81 


80 


78 


76 


75 


73 


71 


69 


112 


2.7.30 


92 


91 


90 


88 


87 


85 


84 


82 


81 


79 


78 


76 


74 


72 


71 


113 


2.810 


93 


92 


91 


89 


88 


86 


85 


84 


82 


80 


79 


77 


76 


74 


72 


114 


2.891 


94 


93 


92 


90 


89 


88 


86 


85 


83 


82 


80 


79 


77 


75 


73 


115 


2.975 


96 


94 


93 


92 


90 


89 


87 


86 


84 


83 


81 


80 


78 


76 


75 


116 


3.061 


97 


95 


94 


93 


91 


90 


88 


87 


86 


84 


83 


81 


79 


78 


76 


117 


3.148 


98 


96 


95 


94 


92 


91 


90 


88 


87 


85 


84 


82 


81 


79 


77 


118 


3.239 


99 


98 


96 


95, 


94 


92 


91 


89 


88 


86 


85 


84 


82 


80 


79 


119 


3.331 


100 


99 


97 


96 


95 


93 


92 


91 


89 


88 


86 


85 


83 


82 


80 


120 


3.425 


101 


100 


98 


97 


96 


94 


93 


92 


90 


89 


87 


86 


84 


83 


81 


121 


3.522 


102 


101 


100 


98 


97 


96 


94 


93 


91 


90 


89 


87 


86 


84 


83 


122 


3.621 


103 


102 


101 


99 


98 


97 


95 


94 


93 


91 


90 


88 


87 


80 


84 


123 


3.723 


104 


103 


102 


100 


99 


98 


96 


95 


94 


92 


91 


90 


88 


87 


85 


124 


3.827 


105 


104 


103 


102 


100 


99 


98 


96 


95 


94 


92 


91 


89 


88 


86 


125 


3.933 


106 


105 


104 


103 


101 


100 


99 


97 


96 


95 


93 


92 


90 


89 


88 


126 


4.042 


107 


106 


105 


104 


102 


101 


100 


99 


97 


96 


94 


93 


92 


90 


89 


127 


4.154 


109 


107 


106 


105 


104 


102 


101 


100 


98 


97 


96 


94 


93 


91 


90 


128 


4.268 


110 


108 


107 


106 


105 


103 


102 


101 


99 


98 


97 


95 


94 


93 


91 


129 


4.385 


111 


109 


108 


107 


106 


104 


103 


102 


101 


99 


98 


97 


95 


94 


92 


130 


4.504 


112 


no 


109 


108 


107 


106 


104 


103 


102 


100 


99 


98 


96 


95 


94 


131 


4.627 


113 


112 


110 


109 


108 


107 


105 


104 


103 


101 


100 


99 


97 


96 


95 


132 


4.752 


114 


113 


111 


110 


109 


108 


106 


105 


104 


103 


101 


100 


99 


97 


96 


133 


4.880 


115 


114 


112 


111 


110 


109 


108 


106 


105 


104 


102 


101 


100 


98 


97 


134 


5.011 


116 


115 


114 


112 


111 


no 


109 


107 


106 


105 


104 


102 


101 


100 


98 


135 


5.145 


117 


116 


115 


113 


112 


111 


110 


108 


107 


106 


105 


103 


102 


101 


99 


136 


5.282 


118 


117 


116 


114 


113 


112 


111 


110 


108 


107 


106 


104 


103 


102 llOl 


137 


5.422 


119 


118 


117 


116 


114 


113 


112 


111 


109 


108 


107 


106 


104 


103 102 


138 


5.565 


120 


119 


118 


117 


115 


114 


113 


112 


110 


109 


108 


107 


105 


104 103 


139 


5.712 


121 


120 


119 


118 


116 


115 


114 


113 


112 


110 


109 


108 


107 


105 104 


140 


5.862 


122 


121 


120 


119 


117 


116 


115 


114 


113 


111 


110 


109 


108 


106 ia5 



84 MET-\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Temperature of Dew-point in Degrees Fahrenheit. 

Cotilinued 

Pressure = 30.0 inches of meroury 



**, 


5. ^ 

> i 






Depression of w 


et-bulb thermometer (/ — 


n 




45 


< z 


31 1 


32 


33 


34 


35 


36 


37 


38 


39 


40 


41 


42 


43 


^ 


~86~ 


1.022 


-531 






























81 


1.056 


-18| 






























82 


1.091 


- 6- 


-43 




























83 


1.127 


+ 2- 


-15 




























84 


1.163 


8 


- 4 


-33 


























85 


1.201 


12+3 


-12 


























86 


1.241 


16| 


9 


- 2 


-27 
























87 


1.281 


20 


13+5 


-10 
























88 


1.322 


23| 


17 


10 


± 


-22 






















89 


1.364 


26| 


21 


15 


+ 6 


- 7 






















80 


1.408 


281 


24 


19 


1) 


+ 1 


-17 




















91 


1.453 


31| 


27 


22 


16 


8 


- 4 


-40 


















92 


1.499 


33 


29 


25 


20 


• 13 


+ 4 


-13 


















93 


1.546 


36 


32 


28 


23 


17 


10 


- 2 


-28 
















94 


1.595 


38 


34 


30 


26 


21 


14+6 


- 9 
















95 


1.645 


40 


37 


33 


29 


24 


19 


11 


+ 1 


-20 














96 


1.696 


421 


39 


35 


31 


27 


22 


16 


8 


- 5 














97 


1.749 


441 


41 


38 


34 


30 


25 


20 


13 


+ 3 


-15 












98 


1.803 


46 


43 


40 


36 


32 


28 


23 


17 


10 


- 2 


-33 










99 


1.859 


48 1 


45 


42 


39 


35 


31 


26 


21 


15 


+ 6 


-10 










100 


1.916 


50 


47 


44 


41 


37 


33 


29 


25 


19 


12 


+ 1 


-22 








101 


1.975 


52 


49 


46 


43 


40 


36 


32 


28 


23 


17 


8 


- 5 




j 


102 


2.035 


53 


51 


48 


45 


42 


38 


35 


31 


26 


21 


14'+ 4 


-14 




103 


2.097 


55 


53 


50 


47 


44 


41 


37 


33 


29 


24 


18 


11 


- 2 


-32 


104 


2.160 


57! 


54 


52 


49 


46 


43 


40 


36 


32 


27 


22 


16'+ 7 


- 9 


105 


2.225 


581 


56 


54 


51 


48 


45 


42 


38 


34 


30 


26 


20 


13 


+ 2-20 


106 


2 292 


60 


58 


55 


53 


50 


47 


44 


41 


37 


33 


29 


24 


18 


9 - 4 


107 


2.360 


62 


59 


57 


55 


52 


49 


46 


43 


40 


36 


32 


27 


22 


15 + 5 


108 


2.431 


63 


61 


59 


56 


54 


51 


48 


45 


42 


39 


35 


30 


25 


20 


12 


109 


2.503 


64 


62 


60 


58 


56 


53 


50 


47 


44 


41 


37 


33 


29 


23 


17 


110 


2.576 


66, 


64 


62 


60 


57 


55 


52 


50 


47 


43 


40 


36 


32 


27 


21 


111 


2.652 


67 1 


65 


63 


61 


59 


57 


54 


52 


49 


46 


42 


39 


35 


30 


25 


112 


2.730 


69 1 


67 


65 


63 


61 


58 


56 


54 


51 


48 


45 


41 


37 


33 


29 


113 


2.810 


70 


68 


66 


64 


62 


60 


58 


55 


53 


50 


47 


44 


40 


36 


32 


114 


2.891 


72 


70 


68 


66 


64 


62 


59 


57 


55 


52 


49 


46 


43 


39 


35 


115 


2.975 


73 


71 


69 


67 


65 


63 


61 


59 


56 


54 


51 


48 


45 


42 


38 


116 


3.061 


74 


73 


71 


69 


67 


65 


63 


60 


58 


56 


53 


50 


47 


44 


40 


117 


3.148 


76 


74 


72 


70 


68 


66 


64 


62 


60 


58 


55 


52 


49 


46 


43 


118 


3.239 


77 


75 


74 


72 


70 


68 


66 


64 


62 


59 


57 


54 


51 


49 


45 


119 


3.331 


78, 


77 


75 


73 


71 


69 


67 


65 


63 


61 


59 


56 


53 


51 


48 


120 


3.425 


80 


78 


76 


75 


73 


71 


69 


67 


65 


63 


60 


58 


55 


53 


50 


121 


3.522 


81' 


79 


78 


76 


74 


72 


70 


68 


66 


64 


62 


60 


57 


65 


52 


122 


3.621 


82 


81 


79 


77 


76 


74 


72 


70 


68 


66 


64 


62 


59 


57 


54 


123 


3.723 


84 


82 


80 


79 


77 


75 


73 


71 


69 


67 


65 


63 


61 


58 


56 


124 


3.827 


85 


83 


82 


80 


78 


77 


75 


73 


71 


69 


67 


65 


63 


60 


58 


125 


3.933 


86 


84 


83 


81 


80 


78 


76 


74 


72 


71 


69 


66 


64 


62 


60 


126 


4.042 


87 


86 


84 


83 


81 


79 


78 


76 


74 


72 


70 


68 


66 


64 


62 


127 


4.154 


88 


87 


85 


84 


82 


81 


79 


77 


75 


74 


72 


70 


68 


65 


63 


128 


4.268 


90 


88 


87 


85 


84 


82 


80 


79 


77 


75 


73 


71 


69 


67 


65 


129 


4.385 


91 


89 


88 


86 


85 


83 


82 


80 


78 


76 


75 


73 


71 


69 


67 


130 


4.504 


92 


91 


89 


88 


86 


85 


83 


81 


80 


78 


76 


74 


72 


70 


68 


131 


4.627 


93 


92 


90 


89 


87 


86 


84 


83 


81 


79 


77 


76 


74 


72 


• 70 


132 


4.752 


94 


93 


92 


90 


89 


87 


86 


84 


82 


81 


79 


77 


75 


73 


71 


133 


4.880 


96 


94 


93 


91 


90 


88 


87 


85 


84 


82 


80 


78 


77 


75 


73 


134 


5.011 


97 


95 


94 


93 


91 


90 


88 


87 


85 


83 


82 


80 


78 


76 


74 


135 


5.145 


98 


97 


95 


94 


92 


91 


89 


88 


86 


85 


83 


81 


80 


78 


76 


136 


5.282 


99 


98 


96 


95 


94 


92 


91 


89 


88 


86 


84 


83 


81 


79 


77 


137 


5.422 


100 


99 


98 


96 


95 


93 


92 


90 


89 


87 


86 


84 


82 


81 79 


138 


5.565 


101 


100 


99 


97 


96 


95 


93 


92 


90 


39 


87 


85 


84 


82 80 


139 


5.712 


103 


101 


100 


99 


97 


96 


94 


93 


91 


90 


88 


87 


85 


83 82 


140 


5.862 


104 


102 


101 


100 


98 


97 


96 


94 


93 


91 


90 


88 


Jl 


85 83 



PHYSICAL C O N ST A NTS 



8^ 



Temperature of Dew-point ix Degrees Fahrenheit. 

Continued 
Pressure = 30.0 inches of mercury 



- 






Depression 


of w 


et-bulb thermometer {I — 


t') 






46 


47 


48 


49 


50 


51 


52 


53 


54 


55 


56 


57 


58 


59 


60 


106 


-56 








I 






















107 


-12 






























108 


± 


-26 




















, 


, 


1 




109 


+ 8 


- 6 




























110 


14 


+ 4 


-16 


























111 


19 


11 


- 1 


-35 
























112 


23 


17 


+ 8 


- 8 
























113 


27 


21 


14 


+ 3 


-19 






















114 


30 


25 


19 


11 


- 2 


-50 




















113 


33 


29 


23 


16 


+ 7 


-10 




















116 


36 


32 


27 


21 


14 


+ 2 


-22 


















117 


39 


35 


30 


25 


19 


10 


- 3 


















118 


42 


38 


34 


29 


23 


16 


+ 7 


-11 
















119 


44 


41 


37 


32 


27 


21 


14 


+ 2 


-25 














120 


47 


43 


39 


35 


30 


25 


19 


10 


- 4 














121 


49 


46 


42 


38 


34 


29 


23 


16 


+ 6 


-12 












122 


51 


48 


45 


41 


37 


32 


27 


21 


14 


+ 1 


-27 










123 


53 


50 


47 


44 


40 


36 


31 


25 


le 


10 


- 4 










124 


55 


52 


49 


46 


43 


39 


34 


29 


24 


17 


+ 7 


-13 








125 


57 


54 


52 


49 


45 


42 


37 


33 


28 


22 


14 


+ 2 


-29 






126 


59 


56 


54 


51 


48 


44 


40 


36 


31 


26 


19 


■ 11 


- 4 






127 


61 


58 


56 


53 


50 


47 


43 


39 


35 


30 


24 


17 


+ 7 


-13' 




128 


63 


60 


58 


55 


52 


49 


46 


42 


38 


33 


28 


22 


14 


+ 2 


-27 


129 


64 


62 


60 


57 


54 


51 


48 


45 


41 


37 


32 


26 


20 


11 


- 4 


130 


66 


64 


62 


59 


50 


54' 


51 


47 


44 


40 


35 


30 


25 


17 


+ 7 


131 


68 


66 


63 


01 


58 


50. 


53 


50 


46 


43 


39 


34 


29 


23 


15 


132 


69 


67 


65 


03 


60 


58; 


55 


52 


49 


45 


42 


37 


32 


27 


21 


133 


71 


69 


67 


64 


62 


60 


57 


54 


51 


48 


44 


40 


36 


31l 


25 


134 


73 


71 


68 


66 


64 


62 


59 


56 


53 


50 


47 


43 


39 


34. 


29 


135 


74 


72 


70 


6? 


66 


63 


61 


58 


56 


53 


50 


46 


42 


1 
38 


33 


136 


76 


74 


72 


70 


67 


65' 


63 


60 


58 


55 


52 


49 


45 


41 


37 


137 


77 


75 


73 


71 


69 


67, 


65 


62 


-60 


57 


54 


51 


48 


44 


40 


138 


78, 


77 


75 


73 


71 


69 


66 


64 


62 


59 


56 


53 


50i 


47 


43 


139 


80 


,78 


76 


74 


72 


70i 


68i 


66 


64 


61 


58 


56 


53| 


50 


46 


140 


81 


80 


78 


76 


74 


72' 


70 


68 


65 


63 


60' 

1 


1 
58 


55I 


52 


49 



86 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Temperature of Dew-point in Degrees Fahrenheit. 

Continued 

Pressure ■= 23.0 inches of mercury 



Depression of wet-bulb thermometer (t — t') 



0.2 I 0.4 10.6 iO.8 j 1.0 1.2 I 1.4 I 1.6' 1.8[2.o|2.2 | 2.4 j 2.6 I 2.8 [ 3.0 



— 40^.00391— 49 



-39 

—38 
—37 
-36 
—35 0.0051 



—34 
—33 
—32 
—31 



—29 
—28 
-27 
—26 



—48 
-46 



46—45 
4S-43 



54—40 



300.0069 



74 



—39 
-3S 

36 
—34 

33 



83 

89 
2.y0.0094 
24,0.0100 
106 
112 
1 



78-32 



-30 

—29 

■28 

—27 

-26 



200.0126 



—19 
—18 
—1 
—16 



23 
—22 
—20 



150—19 



159 
—150.0168 
—14 1781—16 
—13 
—12 
—11 
—10)0.0222 

234 

247 



— 9 



— / 

— 6 



— 4 

— 3 

— 2 

— 1 


-f- 1 
2 
3 
4 
S( 



—18 
-17 
—16 
188-15 
199-14 
210—13 
—12 
—11 
10 



260—8 



275 
0.0291 
307 
325 
344 
363 

0'0.03&3 
403 
423 
444 
467 
0.O491 
515 
542 
570 

9| 600 
100.0631 



1—7 
6 
5 

— 4 

— 3 

— 2 

— 1 
± 
+ 1 

2 
3 
4 
5 



—59! 

—571 

—5o\ 

—52 

—501 

—48 

—16 

—44 

-^2 

—40 

;— 38 

—36 

—34 

—32 

—31 

—30 

—29 

—27, 

—26 

—24 

—23 

—22, 

—20 

—19 

—IS 

—17 

—16' 

—14 

—13 

—12 

—11 

—10 

— 9 

— 8 

— 6 

— 5 



665 
G99 
735 

772 



150.0810 



850 
891 
933 
19(0.0979 
200.1026 



—59 
—55 
—521 
^^9i 
—16—60 
41 — 55 
—41—51 
—39 -^8 
—36 —45 
—34—12 
—33 —39 
—31 —36 
—29 —34 
—28—32 
—26 —30 
—25 — 2S 
—23 —26 
—22 —25 
—20 —23 
—19—22 
—18—20 
—16—19 
—15—17 
—14 —16 
—13—15 
—12 —14 
—10 —12 

— 9—11 

— 8—10 

— 7 — 8 

— 6 — 7 

— 4 — 6 

— 3 — 4 

— 2 — 3 

— 1—2 
±0 — 1 
+ 1 ± 

2,-1-1 
3! 2 
4 3 

6 5 

7 6 



—60 

—59 
58 
57 
56 

— 55 
54 

—53 



0.0010 
11 
12 



13M9 

13 
0.0015 

16—16 
0.0017—45 
44 



•57 
—51 
—17 

-^4|— 57 
-511 

•37M7 



—35 
—32 



-2S 



1—5210.00181—60 



^51 



500.0021 



—39 
38 
37 

—36 



19-^9 



—35 0.0051 



■34 
33 
32 
31 
—30:0. 0069 



3 1— .54 

-39,— IS 

—30[— 351-43 

33— 39— 19r 

361-44 —57 
—28—331—39 -49 
— 261- 30|— 35 —43,— .56 
— 24 — 28 — 32 — 39I-4.S 
—20—22—26—29 —34 



_ « - t') 

0.1 0.2 ,0.3 0.4 0.5 



—58 

-56, 

—54: 

—53 

—51—59 
10.0029—50—67 
31 -^9-55 
33—47—53 
35^6— 51— «0 
37-45—50—58 
—1010.0039—14—19—56 



1—43-48—54 
2-46—52—59 
1—45—50—57 
—40—13^9—55 
—39-^2—47—52 



54— 37— 10— 45— .50 



—58 



—36—39—43^8—5.5 

—35—38—42—16—52 

33—36—10—44—49 

1—32—34—38^2-47 



26— 30:- 



—25 
—23 
—21 



—17 
—15 
—14 
—12 
—11 
—10 



-55 
—46 



—18—21—24—27 —31 —3 

— 19i— 22 — 25 —29 — 33|— 40 —50 
—17,— 20 1—23 —26 — 30|— 35 -44;— 56 
— 16|— 18i— 21 —24 —2 
14—161—19—22 —2 
—13—15—171-19-22 



32 —38,— 471 
[—29 —33 —40—51 
26—30 —.35 —43 —57 



11 — 13— 151- 17— 20— 23— 26— 31 —37—46 



— 7 

— 6 

— 4 

— 3 

— 2 

— 1 
+ 
+ 1 

2 
4 
5 



—10-12—14—16-18 

— 8|— 10,-12 —14 —16 

— 7 — 9—10—12—14 

— 6:— 7;— 9— 10— 12 
-4i— 61— 7 — 9—10 



20:— 23 —27 —32 —38 
—18—21—24—28—32 
—16—18—21 —24—28 

14 —161—19—22 —25 
—12— 14— 16!— 19— 22 



— 3 — 4 — 6 — 7 — 9—10—12—14—16—19 



10 9: 

11 10 

12 111 



18, 18 



— 21—3—5 — 6 — 7 

— ll— 2 — 3 — 5 — 6 
± 
+ 1 

3 

4 

5 

6 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 



+ 2 

3 

4 

5 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

13 

14 

15 

16 



-H 1 — 1 — 2 
2-1-1+0 
3i 2-1-1 
3 
4 
5 
7 



5 


4 


fl 


5 


7 


6 


8 


8 


10 


9 


11 


10 


12 


11 



13 12 

14 13 



10 
12 
13 
151 14 



— 9 —10—12 —14 

— 7 — 9 —10 —12 



— 1—2 — 3 — 4 — 6 — 7— 9—10 —12 

± 0— 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 51- 7 — 9 —10 

—3—4—5—7—8 

—1—3—4—5—7 

+ — 1—2 — 4 — 5 

+ 1 ± — 1 — 2 — 3 

3-|-2-|-l±0 — 2 

4' 31 2,-t- 1 ± 

61 51 " '' ' 



12 111 

13 12, 



3H- 2 

4I 3 

6| 5 

7 6 

8 8 
10' 9 

12 111 10 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



87 



Temperature of Dew-point in Degrees Fahrenheit 
Continued 

Pressure = 23.0 inches of mercury 





Depression of wet-bulb thermometer (f — (') 




Air 




temp., ( 


3.2 13.4 


3.6 


3.8 


4.0 


4.2 


4.4 


4.6 


4.8 


5.0 


5.2 


5.4 


5.6 


5.8 


6.0 


-2 
-1 


^4 


3 
)— 51 































-3. 


i-41 


^2 


























+ 1 


—291—33 


:^2 


-54 
























2 


^2, 


)— 29 


1-34 


-43 


—56 






















3 


—2. 


>— 25 


—29 


—34 


—43 


-58 




















4 


— 1' 


)— 22 


—25 


—29 


—35 


-44 


—59 


















5 


— r 


r— 19 


-22 


—25 


—29 


-35 


-Ah 


—60 
















6 


—14 


—17 


-19 


—22 


-25 


—30 


—35 


—45 


—60 














7 


—12 —14 


—16 


—19 


—22 


-25 


—30 


—35 


-Ab 














8 


—10 —12 


—14 


—16 


—19 


-22 


—25 


—29 


—35 


—45 












9 


— 8—10 


—12 


—14 


-16 


—19 


—21 


-25 


-29 


—35 


-44,-60, 






10 


-6 — 8 


-10 


—12 


-14 


-16 


—18 


-21 


-24 


-29 


-34—43 —59 






11 


-5 — 6 


-7 


— 9 


—11 


—13 


—15 


—18 


—20 


—24 


-28:— 33^2— 56 




12 


-3—4 


— 5 


— 7 


— 9 


—11 


—13 


—15 


-17 


—20 


— 23j— 27 —32 ^Ol— 53 


13 


-l!-2 


— 4 


— 5 


— 7 


— 8 


—10 


—12 


—14 


—17 


—19J— 221— 26— 311—38 


14 


± 


— 1 


— 2 


— 3 


— 5 


-6 


— 8 


— 9 


—11 


—13 


— 16— 18— 21!- 25— 29 


15 


-f 2 


+ 1 


± 


— 1 


— 3 


-4 


— 5 


— 7 


-9 


—11 


-13 —15 — 17i— 20,— 24 


16 


4 


3 


+ 2 


± 


— 1 


— 2 


— 3 


— 5 


— 6 


— 8 


-10— 12— 14— 16[— 19 


17 


5 


4 


3 


+ 2 


+ 1 


4- 


— 2 


— 3 


— 4 


— 5 


-7j— 9i— 11|— 13— 15 


18 


7 


6 


5 


4 


3 


+ 2 


+ 


— 1 


— 2 


-3 


— 5 — 6i— 8— 10— 12 


19 


8 


7 


6 


5 


4 


3 


+ 2 


-1- 1 


+ 


— 1 


— 3 — 4—5 — 7—9 


20 


9 


9 


8 


7 


6 


5 


4 3 


-f 2 


+ 1 


-1—2—3—5—6 






t - 


(« - t) 






5.2 


5.4 


5.6 


6.8 


7.0 


7.2 


7.4 


7.6 


7.8 


8.0 






13 - 


-49 


























14 - 


-36^7 
























15 - 


-28 -34 - 


-44- 


-59 




















16 - 


-22 —27;— 32 - 


-40- 


-53 


















17 - 


-18—21—25- 


-29- 


-36- 


-47 
















18 - 


-14 —17—20 —23 - 


-27- 


-33- 


-42- 


-58 












19 - 


-11 —13—16—18- 


-21- 


-25- 


-30—37- 


-49 








20 - 


- 8 —10,-12 —14 - 


-17- 


-20- 


-23 —28 - 


-33-44 









88 MET.VLLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Temperature of Dew-point in Degrees Fahrenheit. 

Continued 

Pressure = 23.0 inches of mercurj' 



Air 




Depression of wet-bulb thermometer (/ 


- t' 




temp., t 


0.5'l.0y52.02.5 


3.0 3.5 4. o|4. 5 5.0 


5.5 

1 


••»i 


6.5 1 


7.0 


7.5 1 8.0 


20 


0.103 


19 17 16 


14 12 


10 , 8 i 6 


3 1 


— 3 


-6 


-11] 


^^ 


—26—44 


21 


0.108 


20 18 17 


15 13 


12 10 8 


5 1 2 


— 1 


— 4 


-8 


-13 


—20—30 


22 


0.113 


21 19 18 


16 15 


13 11 9 


7 4 


+ 1 


— 2 


-5I 


-10 


-15-23 


23 


0.118 


22 20 19 


17 16 


14 12 10 


8 I 6 


3+0 


-3' 


7 


—12—18 


24 


0.124 


23 21 20 


19 17 


15 14 12 10 i 8 


5 + 2' 


— 1 


— 4 


— 8 —14 


25 


0.130 


24 23 21 


20 18 


17 15 13 11 9 


7 


4 


+ 1 


— 2 


— 5—10 


26 


0.136 


25 24 22 


21 20 


18 16 15 jl3 111 


9 


6 


4+1 


-3-7 


27 


0.143 


26 25 23 


22 21 


19 18 16 14 12 


10 


8 


6 


3 


±0-4 


28 


0.150 


27 26 24 


23 22 


20 19 17 Il6 '14 


12; 


10 


8 


5 


+ 2-1 


29 


0.157 


28 27 26 


24 23 


22 20 19 17 15 


13 


11 


9 


7 


4 + 1 


30 


0.164 


29 28 27 


25 24 


23 21 20 18 17 


15l 


131 


11 


9 


7 4 


31 


0.172 


30 29 28 


27 25 


24 23 21 20 18 


17 


15 


13 


11 


8 6 


32 


0.180 


31 30 29 


28 26 


25 24 23 21 20 


18 


16 


14 


12 


10 8 


33 


0.1S7 


32 31 30 


29 28 


26 25 24 22 21 


19 


18 


16 


14 


12 10 


34 


0.195 


33 32 31 


30 29 


28 26 25 24 22 


21 


19 


18 


16 


14 12 


35 


0.203 


34 33 32 


31 30 


29 '28 26 25 24 


22 


21 


19 


17 


16! 14 


36 


0.211 


35 34 33 


32 31 


30 29 27 26 25 


24 


22 


21 


19 


17' 15 


37 


0.219 


36 ,35 ,34 


33 32 


31 30 28 27 26 


25 


24 


22 


20 


19i 17 


38 


0.228 


37 36 (35 


34 33 


32 31 30 28 '27 


26 


25 


23 


22 


20: 19 


39 


0.237 


38 '37 '36 


35 34 


33 32 31 30 28 


27 


26 


25 


23 


22 1 20 


40 


0.247 


39 '38 37 


36 35 


34 33 32 31 30 


28 


27 


26 


25 


23 22 


41 


0.2.56 


40 39 38 


37 36 


35 34 33 32 31 


29 


28 


27 


26 


24 23 


42 


0.266 


41 40 39 


38 37 


36 135 34 33 32 


31 


29 


28 


27 


26 24 


43 


0.277 


42 41 40 


39 38 


37 36 35 34 33 


32 


31 


29 


28 


27 


26 


44 


0.287 


43 42 41 


40 39 


38 37 36 35 .34 


33 


32 


31 


29 


28 


27 


45 


0.298 


44 43 '42 


41 40 


39 38 37 36 35 


34 


33 


32 


31 


29 


28 


40 


0.310 


45 44 43 


42 41 


40 


39 38 37 '36 


35 


34 


33 


32 


31 


30 


47 


0.322 


46 ;45 44 


43 42 


42 


41 40 38 37 


36 


35 


34 


33 


32 


31 


48 


0.334 


47 46 45 


44 '44 


43 


42 41 40 39 


38 


37 


35 


34 


33 


32 


49 


0.347 


48 47 46 


46 45 


44 43 '42 '41 40 


39 


38 


37 


36 


34 


33 


50 


0.360 


49 48 47 


47 46 


45 44 43 42 ,41 


40 


39 


38 


37 


36 


34 


51 


0.373 


r,0 49 48 


48 47 


46 45 ,44 ,43 42 


41 


40 


39 


38 


37 


36 


52 


0.387 


51 50 50 


49 48 


47 ,46 ,45 j44 43 


42 


41 


40 


39 


38 


37 


53 


0.402 


52 51 51 


50 49 


48 47 146 45 44 


43 


42 


41 


40 


39 


38 


54 


0.417 


.=53 52 52 


51 50 


49 48 |47 46 45 


44 


44 


43 


42 


41 


40 


55 


0.432 


54 53 .53 


52 51 


50 49 '48 48 47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


41 


56 


0.448 


55 54 54 


53 ,52 


51 50 49 '49 48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


431 42 


57 


0.465 


56 'o6 55 


54 53 


52 51 50 50 49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


58 


0.482 


57 ;.57 56 


55 54 


.53 52 52 51 50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


59 


0.499 


58 l58 57 


56 .55 


.54 54 53 52 51 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


46 


60 


0.517 


59 1.59 58 


57 .56 


55 55 54 53 :52 


51 


50 


49 


49 


48i 47 


61 


0.536 


60 60 59 


58 57 


56 56 55 '54 .53 


52 


52 


51 


50 


49 48 


62 


0.555 


61 61 60 


59 58 


58 57 56 .55 |54 


53 


53 


52 


51 


50 49 


63 


0.575 


62 62 61 


60 59 


59 58 57 56 55 


55 


54 


53 


52 


51 50 


64 


0.595 


63 63 62 


61 60 


60 i59 58 ,57 156 


56 


55 


54 


53 


52 1 51 


63 


0.616 


64 64 63 


62 61 


61 |60 :59 158 |58 


57 


56 


55 


54 


54 


53 


66 


0.638 


65 65 64 


63 62 


62 


61 ,60 


59 59 


58 


57 


56 


55 


55 


54 


67 


0.061 


06 ,66 65 


64 63 


63 


62 ,61 


61 60 


59 


58 


57 


57 


56 


55 


68 


0.084 


67 67 66 


65 64 


64 


63 62 


62 61 


60 


59 


58 


58 


57 


56 


69 


0.707 


08 '68 67 


66 66 


65 


64 '63 63 ;62 


61 


60 


60 


59 


58 


57 


70 


0.732 


69 69 :68 


67 67 


66 |65 '64 64 163 


62 


61 


61 


60 


59 


58 


71 


0.757 


70 70 69 


68 68 


67 66 66 65 !64 


63 


62 


62 


61 


60; 59 


72 


0.783 


71 ,71 ,70 


69 69 


68 67 67 66 65 


64 


64 


63 


62 


61 60 


73 


0.810 


72 72 71 


70 70 


69 68 68 67 66 


65 


65 


64 


63 


62 62 


74 


0.838 


73 73 72 


,71 71 


70 69 69 68 67 


66 


66 


65 


64 


64| 63 


75 


0.866 


74 74 173 


!72 72 


71 70 70 69 68 


67 


67 


66 


65 


65| 64 


76 


0.896 


75 75 74 


73 73 


72 71 71 70 69 


69 


68 


67 


66 


66 


65 


77 


0.926 


76 76 75 


i74 74 


73 72 72 171 70 


70 


69 


68 


67 


67 


66 


78 


0.957 


77 77 76 


;75 75 


74 73 73 72 71 


71 


70 


69 


69 


68 


67 


79 


0.989 


78 78 77 


76 76 


75 ,74 74 173 72 


72 


71 


70 


70 


69 


68 


80 


1.022 


79 79 78 


77 77 


76 75 75 |74 73 


73 


72 


71 


71 


70 69 



PHYSIC.\L CONSTANTS 



89 



Temperatuke of Dew-point in Degrees Fahrenheit. 
Conlimied 

Pressure = 23.0 inches of mercury 



•^ c. 


" 






Depression of 


wet-bulb thermometer (i 


- n 




<g 


8.5 


9.0 


9.5 


10.010.5 


11.011.5 


12.012.5J13.0 


13. 514. 0|l4.5jl5. 015. 516.0 


22 0.113 


—37 
































23 0.118 


-28 


—50 






























24 


0.124 


—21 


—32 


























i 




25 


0.130 


—16 


— 24'-42 




























26 


0.136 


—12 


—18 


—29 


—56 


























27 


0.143 


— 8 


—14 


—21 


—34 


























28 


0.150 


— 5 


—10 


—16 


—24 


-43 
























29 


0.157 


— 2 


— 6 


—11 


—18 


—29 


-57 






















30 


0.164 


+ 


— 3 


— 7 


—13 


—21 


-33 






















31 


0.172 


+ 3 


+ 


— 4 


— 9 


—15 


—23 


—40 




















32 


0.180 


5 


+ 2 


— 1 


— 5 


—10 


—16 


—26 


—50 


















33 


0.187 


8 


5 


+ 2 


— 2 


— 6 


—11 


—18 


—30 


















34 


0.195 


10 


7 


4 


+ 1 


— 3 


— 7 


—12 


—20 


-34 
















35 


0.203 


12 


9 


7 


4 


+ 


— 3 


— 8 


—14 


—22 


-AC 














36 


0.211 


13 


11 


9 


6 


+ 3 


+ 


— 4 


— 9 


—15 


—25 


-A7 












37 


0.219 


15 


13 


11 


9 


6 


+ 3 


-1 


— 5 


—10 


—17 


—28 


—60 










38 


0.228 


17 


15 


13 


11 


8 


6 


+ 2 


— 1 


— 5 


—11 


—18 


—31 










39 


237 


19 


17 


15 


13 


11 


8 


5J- ">. 


— 2 


— 6 


—12 


—20 


—34 








40 


0.247 


20 


19 


17 


15 


13 


10 


8 


5 


+ 1 


— 2 


— 7 


—13 


—22 


—39 






41 


0.256 


22 


20 


19 


17 


15 


12 


10 


8 


5 


+ 1 


-3 


— 8 


—14 


—23 


-A5 




42 


0.266 


23 


22 


20 


18 


17 


14 


12 


10 


7 


4 


+ 1 


— 3 


— 8 


—15 


—25 


—50 


43 


0.277 


24 


23 


22 


20 


18 


16 


14 


12 


10 


7 


4'+ 


— 4 


— 9 


—16 


—27 


44 


0.287 


26 


24 


23 


22 


20 


18 


16 


14 


12 


10 


7+4± 


— 4 


—10 


—17 


45 


0.298 


27 


26 


24 


23 


21 


20 


18 


16 


14 


12 


10 


7 


+ 4+0 


— 5 


—10 


46 


0.310 


28 


27 


26 


24 


23 


21 


20 


18 


16 


14 


12 


10 


7,+ 3 


— 1 


— 5 


47 


0.322 


30 


28 


27 


26 


24 


23 


21 


20 


18 


16 


14 


12 


9 


7 


+ 3 


— 1 


48 


0.334 


31 


30 


28 


27 


26 


24 


23 


21 


20 


18 


16 


14 


12 


9 


6 


+ 3 


49 


0.347 


32 


31 


30 


28 


27 


26 


24 


23 


21 


20 


18 


16 


14 


11 


9 


6 


50 


0.360 


33 


32 


31 


30 


28 


27 


26 


24 


23 


21 


20 


18 


16 


14 


11 


9 


51 


0.373 


34 


33 


32 


31 


30 


29 


27 


26 


24 


23 


21 


20 


18 


16 


14 


11 


52 


0.387 


36 


35 


34 


32 


31 


30 


29 


27 


26 


24 


23 


21 


20 


18 


16 


14 


53 


0.402 


37 


36 


35 


34 


32 


31 


30 


29 


27 


26 


25 


23 


21 


20 


18 


16 


54 


0.417 


38 


37 


36 


35 


34 


32 


31 


30 


29 


27 


26 


25 


23 


21 


20 


18 


55 


0.432 


40 


39 


38 


36 


35 


34 


32 


31 


30 


29 


27 


26 


25 


23 


22 


20 


56 


0.448 


41 


40 


39 


38 


36 


35 


34 


33 


31 


30 


29 


28 


26 


25 


23 


22 


57 


0.465 


42 


41 


40 


39 


38 


37 


35 


34 


33 


32 


30 


29 


28 


26 


25 


23 


58 


0.482 


43 


42 


41 


40 


39 


38 


37 


36 


34 


33 


32 


31 


29 


28 


26 


25 


59 


0.499 


45 


44 


43 


42 


40 


39 


38 


37 


36 


35 


33 


32 


31 


29 


28 


27 


60 


0.517 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


41 


40 


38 


37 


36 


35 


33 


32 


31 


30 


28 


61 


0.536 


47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


41 


40 


39 


37 


36 


35 


34 


32 


31 


30 


62 


0.555 


48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


41 


40 


39 


38 


36 


35 


34 


32 


31 


63 


0.575 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


41 


40 


39 


38 


37 


35 


34 


33 


64 


0.595 


50 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


41 


39 


38 


37 


36 


34 


65 


0.616 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


41 


40 


38 


37 


36 


66 


0.638 


53 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


41 


40 


39 


38 


67 


0.661 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


42 


41 


40 


39 


68 


0.684 


55 


54 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


40 


69 


0.707 


56 


56 


55 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


70 


0.732 


57 


57 


56 


55 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


44 


43 


71 


0.757 


59 


58 


57 


56 


55 


54 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


72 


0.783 
0.810 


60 
61 


59 


58 
59 


57 
58 


56 

68 


56 
57 


55 
56 


54 
55 


53 
54 


52 
53 


51 
52 


50 
51 


49 
50 


48 
49 


47 
48 


46 


73 


60 


47 


74 


0.838 


62 


61 


60 


60 


59 


58 


57 


56 


55 


54 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


49 


75 


0.866 


63 


62 


62 


61 


60 


59 


58 


57 


57 


56 


55 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


76 


0.896 


64 


63 


63 


62 


61 


60 


59 


59 


58 


57 


56 


55 


54 


53 


52 


51 


77 


0.926 


65 


65 


64 


63 


62 


61 


61 


60 


59 


58 


57 


56 


56 


55 


54 


53 


78 


0.957 


66 


66 


65 


64 


63 


63 


62 


61 


60 


59 


58 


58 


57 


56 


55 


54 


79 


0.989 


67 


67 


66 


65 


64 


64 


63 


62 


61 


60 


60 


59 


58 


57 


56 


55 


80 


1.022 


69 


68 


67 


66 


66 


65 


64 


63 


62 


62 


61 


60 


59 


58 


58 


57 



90 MET.\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Temperature of Dew-point ix Degrees Fahrenheit. 

Continued 

Pressure = 23.0 inches of mercurj" 











Depression o: 


wet 


-bulb thermometer (t 


- n 






<l 


16.5 


,17.0l7.5|18.0Jl8.5|l9.0,19.5|20.0|20.5 


21.0 


21.5j22.0|22.5 


23.0J23.5J24.0 


44 


-29 


1 




1 


























45 


-18 


'-31 






























46 


-11 


—19—33 




























Ji 


— 5 


—11 


—20—35 


























- 1 


— 5 


—12 


—20—3$ 
























49 


+ 3 


— 1 


— 6 


—12 


—21 


—40 






















50 


6 


+ 3 


— 1 


— 6 


—12 


-21 


-42 




















51 


9 


6 + 2 


-2 


— 6 


—12 


—22 


—44 


















52 


11 


9 


6 


+ 2 


— 2 


-7 


-13 


22 


-46 
















53 


14 


11 


9 


6 


+ 2 


-2 


-7 


— ii 


—23 


-47 














54 


16 


13 


11 


9 


6 


+ 2 


-2 


— 7 


—14 


-24 


-50 












55 


18 


16 


14 


11 


8 


5 


+ 2 


— 2 


— 7 


-14 


-25—55 










56 


20 


18 


16 


14 


11 


8 


5 


+ 2 


— 2 


-8 


—15 


—26—60 








57 


22 


20 


18 


16 


14 


11 


8 


5 + 2 


— 3 


-8 


—15 


—26 








58 


23 


22 


20 


18 


16 


14 


11 


9 


5 


+ 2 


r-3 


-8 


-15 


—27 






59 


25 


24 


22 


20 


18 


16 


14 


11 


9 


5 


+ 2 


— 3 


— 8 


—16 


-28 




60 


27 


25 


24 


22 


20 


18 


16 


14 


11 


9 


6 


+ 2 


— 3 


-8 


—16 —28 


61 


28 


27 


25 


24 


22 


20 


18 


16 


14 


12 


9 


6 


+ 2 


— 3 


— 8 —IS 


62 


30 


28 


27 


26 


24 


22 


20 


19 


17 


14 


12 


9 


6 + 2 


— 3 — 6 


63 


32 


30 


29 


27 


26 


24 


22 


21 


19 


17 


14 


12 


9 


6 


+ 2 — 3 


64 


33 


32 


30 


29 


28 


26 


24 


23 


21 


19 


17 


15 


12 


9 


6 + 2 


65 


35 


33 


32 


31 


29 


28 


26 


25 


23 


21 


19 


17 


15 


12 


10 6 


66 


36 


35 


34 


32 


31 


29 


28 


27 


25 


23 


22 


19 


17 


15 


13 10 


67 


38 


36 


35 


34 


32 


31 


30 


28 


27 


25 


24 


22 


20 


18 


15 13 


68 


39 


38 


37 


35 


34 


33 


31 


30 


28 


27 


25 


24 


22 


20 


18 16 


69 


41 


39 


38 


37 


36 


34 


33 


32 


30 


29 


27 


26 


24 


22 


20' 18 


70 


42 


41 


40 


38 


37 


36 


35 


33 


32 


31 


29 


27 


26 


24 


22 20 


71 


44 


42 


41 


40 


39 


38 


36 


35 


34 


32 


31 


29 


28 


26 


251 23 


72 


45 


44 


43 


42 


40 


39 


38 


37 


35 


34 


32 


31 


29 


28 


27 25 


73 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


41 


40 


38 


37 


36 


34 


33 


31 


30 


28 27 


74 


48 


47 


46 


45, 


43 


42 


41 


40 


38 


37 


36 


34 


33 


32 


30 29 


75 


49 


48 


47 


46' 


45 


44 


43 


42 


40 


39 


38 


36 


35 


34 


32 31 


78 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


41 


39 


38 


37 


35 


34 32 


77 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


44 


43 


42 


41 


40 


38 


37 


36 34 


78 


53 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


41 


40 


39 


37 36 


79 


54 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


49 


47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


40 


39 38 


80 


56 


55 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


49 


4S 


47 


46 


44 


43 


42 


41 40 









Depi 


ession 


wet 


-bulb the 


rmometer (( — t') 








24.5 


25.0 25.5 26.0 26.5 

1 


27.0 27.5i28.0|28.5 29.0 


29,5J30.0|30.5 31.0J31.5 


32.0 
























62 


—16 


-29! 


















« - t') 


























64 


— 2 


— 7 - 


-15—28 
















32.5|33.0 33.5 34.0 34.5 


65 


+ 2 


— 2- 


-7—15 


—28 












76 


331 1 






66 


7 + 31- 


-2 — 7 


—15 


-27 










77 


-15—30 






67 


10 


7 + 3 — 1 


— 7 


-14 


—27 








78 


_ 6— 14,— 28 






68 


13 


10 


7i+3 


— 1 


— 6 


—14 


—26 




7P 


+ - 5I-I3 


-?fi 




69 


16 


I3I 


11 8 


+ 4 


-1 


-« 


—13 —25 




sn 


+ 6 + 1 - 4 -11 -23 


70 


IK 


16 


14 11 


K 


+ 4 


+ 


— 5 —13 —24 






71 


21 


19 


17, 14 


11 


8 


+ 5 


+ — 5—12 


—23 —54 ' 1 


72 


23 


21 


19 17; 14 


12 


9 


+5+1-4 


-11 —22 —.50 


73 


25 


23 


22 20 17 


15 


12 


9' 6+1 


— 4—11 —20—45' 


74 


27 


26 


24| -22; 20 


1ft 


15 


12' 10 6 


+ 2 — 3 —10—19—41 


75 


29 


28 


26, 24 22 


20 


18 


15 13' 10 


7 + 2 — 3 — 9—18—37 


76 


31 


29 


28 26 24 


23 


21 is: 16 


13 


10; 7 + 3-2-8-17 


77 


33 


31 


30; 28 27 


25 


23 21 19 


16 


14 11 8 + 4 — 1 — 7 


78 


35 


33 


32 30 29 


27 


25: 23 21 


19 


17, 14 11 8 + 4 ± 


79 


37 


35 


33 32 31 


29 


271 26 24 


22 


20I 17 15 12| 9+5 


80 


38 


37 


35 34 32 


31 29; 28 26 24 


22 20 18 15; 12 9 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



91 



Temperature of Dew-point in Degrees Fahrenheit. 

Continued 

Pressure = 23.0 inches of mercury 





o " 
c. ^ 


Depression of wet-bulb thermometer (J — (') 


Air temp., t 


1 


1 1 


1 1 1 




, 


1 1 1 




1 1 2 


3 4 


' 


6 


7 8 


9 


10 


11 jl2 


13 14 |l5 16 


80 


1.022 


79 


77 


76 


75 


73 


"72" 


71 


69 


"68 


"66 


65 


63 


62 


60 


58 


57 


81 


1.056 


80 


78 


77 


76 


75 


73 


72 


70 


69 


67 


66 


64 


63 


61 


60 


58 


82 


1.091 


81 


79 


78 


77 


76 


74 


73 


71 


70 


69 


67 


66 


64 


62 


61 


59 


83 


1.127 


82 


81 


79 


78 


77 


75 


74 


72 


71 


70 


68 


67 


65 


64 


62 


60 


84 


1.163 


83 


82 


80 


79 


78 


76 


75 


74 


72 


71 


69 


68 


66 


65 


63 


62 


85 


1.201 


84 


83 


81 


80 


79 


77 


76 


75 


73 


72 


70 


69 


67 


66 


64 


63 


86 


1.241 


85 


84 


82 


81 


80 


78 


77 


76 


74 


73 


72 


70 


69 


67 


66 


64 


87 


1.281 


86 


85 


83 


82 


81 


79 


78 


77 


75 


74 


73 


71 


70 


68 


67 


65 


88 


1.322 


87 


S6 


84 


83 


82 


80 


79 


78 


76 


75 


74 


72 


71 


69 


68 


66 


89 


1.364 


88 


87 


85 


84 


83 


82 


80 


79 


78 


76 


75 


73 


72 


71 


69 


67 


90 


1.408 


89 


88 


86 


85 


84 


83 


81 


80 


79 


77 


76 


75 


73 


72 


70 


69 


91 


1.453 


90 


89 


87 


86 


85 


84 


82 


81 


80 


78 


77 


76 


74 


73 


71 


70 


92 


1.499 


91 


90 


88 


87 


86 


85 


83 


82 


81 


79 


78 


77 


75 


74 


72 


71 


93 


1.546 


92 


91 


89 


88 


87 


86 


84 


83 


82 


81 


79 


78 


76 


75 


74 


72 


94 


1.595 


93 


92 


90 


89 


88 


87 


85 


84 


83 


82 


80 


79 


78 


76 


75 


73 


95 


1.645 


94 


93 


91 


90 


89 


88 


87 


85 


84 


83 


81 


80 


79 


77 


76 74 


96 


1.696 


95 


94 


92 


91 


90 


89 


88 


86 


85 


84 


82 


81 


80 


78 


77 


76 


97 


1.749 


96 


95 


93 


92 


91 


90 


89 


87 


86 


85 


83 


82 


81 


79 


78 


77 


98 


1.803 


97 


96 


94 


93 


92 


91 


90 


88 


87 


86 


85 


83 


82 


81 


79 


78 


99 


1.859 


98 


97 


95 


94 


93 


92 


91 


89 


88 


87 


86 


84 


83 


82 


80 


79 


100 


1.916 


99 


98 


96 


95 


94 


93 


92 


90 


89 


88 


87 


85 


84 


83 


81 


80 


101 


1.975 


100 


99 


98 


96 


95 


94 


93 


92 


90 


89 


88 


86 


85 


84 


83 


81 


102 


2.0.35 


101 100 


99 


97 


96 


95 


94 


93 


91 


90 


89 


88 


86 


85 


84 


82 


103 


2.097 


102. 101 '100 


98 


97 


96 


95 


94 


92 


91 


90 


89 


87 


86 


85 


83 


104 


2.160 


103'102;101 


99 


98 


97 


96 


95 


93 


92 


91 


90 


88 


87 


86 


85 


105 


2.225 


104 1 103 i 102 100 


99 


98 


97 


96 


94 


93 


92 


91 


89 


88 


87 


86 


106 


2 292 


105il04|103 101 100 


99 


98 


97 


95 


94 


93 


92 


91 


89 


88 


87 


107 


2.360 


106;105|104:102,101 


100 


99 


98 


97 


95 


94 


93 


92 


90 


89 


88 


108 


2.431 


107|106 105 103:102 


101 100 


99 


98 


96 


95 


94 


93 


91 


90 


89 


109 


2.503 


108il07|106 104 103 


102 101 '100 


99 


97 


96 


95 


94 


92 


91 


90 


110 


2.576 


1091108 


107105:104 


103 102:101:100 


9S 


97 


96 


95 


94 


92 


91 


111 


2.652 


110 109 


10Sil06|105 


104 1031102:101 


99 


98 


97 


96 


95 


93 


92 


112 


2.730 


111 110 


10911081106 


105 104 1 103 102 


101 


99 


98 


97 


96 


94 


93 


113 


2.810 


112:111 


110 109 107 


106 1051104 103 


102 


100 


99 


98 


97 


96 


94 


114 


2.891 


113 


112,lllillOilOS 


107;106!l05 104 


103 


101 '100 


99 


98 


97 


95 


115 


2.975 


114 


113 


112]111|109 


108.107jl06.105 


104 


102:101:100 


99 


98 


96 


116 


3.061 


115 


114 


113:112:110 


109 108,107,106 


105 


103 


102:101 


100 


99 


97 


117 


3.148 


116 


115 


114!ll3:lll 


110:i09il08 107 


106 


105 


103 


102 


101 


100 


99 


118 


3.239 


117 


116- 


115 114:112 


111,110 109!l08 


107 


106 


104 


103 


102:101 100 


119 


3.331 


118 


117 


116 115 113 


112 111 110109 


108 


107 


105 


104 


103:102 101 


120 


3.425 


119 


118;117 116 114 


113 112 111 110 


109 


(OS 


106'105 


104|l03 102 


121 


3.522 


120 


119illS 117 11.0 


114 113 112 111:110 


109 


108:106 


105:104 103 


122 


3.621 


121 


120:119 118416 


115 114,113,112:111 


110 


109:107 


106,105,104 


123 


3.723 


122 


121 


120 119,118 


116 115:114, II3I112 


111 


110:108 


107 


106 105 


124 


3.827 


123 


122 


121 120:119 


117,116,115 114 113 


I12|lli:i09 


108 


107 106 


125 


3.933 


124 


123 


122 121 120 


118 1171116 115 114 


113:112:111 


109 


108 107 


126 


4.012 


125 


124il23|l22:i21 


119 118 117 116:il.- 


114'll3:il2 


110 


109 108 


127 


4.154 


126 


125 124 123 


122 


120 119118 117 llfi 


llo'lH 113 


111 


110 109 


128 


4.268 


127 


126:1251124 


123 


1211120,119 118,117 


116!ll5,114 


112 


111 110 


129 


4.385 


128 


127 


1261125 


124 


122 12lll20ill9 


lis 


117:116:115 


114 


112:111 


130 


4.504 


129 


128 


127 


126 


!25 


123 122 


121 


120 


119 


118 


117 


116 


115 


113:112 


131 


4.627 


130 


129 


128 


127 


126 


124 123 


122 


121 


12f 


119 


118 


117 


116 


114 113 


132 


4.752 


131 


130 


129 


128il27 


126 124 


123 


122 


121 


120 


119 


118 


117 


115 114 


133 


4.880 


1.32 


131 


130 


129:128 


127(125 


124 


1231122 


121 


120 


119 


118 


117 115 


134 


5.011 


1.33 


132 


131 


130 


129 


128!l26il25 


124:123 


122 


121 


120 


119 


118,116 


135 


5.145 


134 


133 


132 


131 


130 


120;i27,126 


125' 121 


123^122 121 


120 


119117 


136 


5.282 


1.35 


134 


133 


132 


131 


130 128:l27!l26il2- 


P4 123:122 


121 


120:118 


137 


5.422 


1.36 


135 


134 


133 


132 


131 129!l28 127:126 


12.V124:i23 


122 


121120 


138 


5 . 565 


137 


136 


135 134 


133 


1.32 130,129 12S 127 


126,125 124 


123 


122 121 


139 


5.712 


1.38 


1371136 135,134 


133 132|130 129 12.« 


127il26 125 


124 123,122 


140 


5.862 


139jl38;137 136135 


134 133,131 130 129 


1281127 126 


125,124,123 



92 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Temperature of Dew-point in Degrees Fahrenheit. 
CoiUinued 

Pressure = 23.0 inches of mercury 



Air 


C E 


Depression of wet-bulb thermometer (< — t') 


temp., ( 


17 '18 jl9 J20 I2I 


22 J23 '24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 |32 


80 


1.022 


551 53 51 49 47 


44, 421 40; 37 


"34 


IT 


"28 


"24 


"20 


15' 9 


81 


1.056 


56t 54 52 50, 48 


461 44 41 39 


36 


33 


30 


27 


23 


18' 13 


82 


1.091 


571 56 54: 52 50 


47; 45 43' 40 


38 


35 


32 


29 


25 


21 16 


83 


1.127 


59! 57 55 53, 51 


49! 47 44! 42 


40 


37 


34 


31 


27 


24 19 


84 


1.163 


60' 58 56 54' 52 


50 48 46' 44 


41 


39 


36 


32 


29 


26 22 


85 


1.201 


61 591 58 56i 54 


52, 50 48! 45 


43 


40i 38 


35 


31 


28| 25 


86 


1.241 


62 61 


591 571 55 


53 


511 40 


47 


45 


42 


40 


37 


34 


30 27 


87 


1.281 


64 62 


60: 58 57 


55 


53I 51 


48 


46 


44 


41 


39 


36 


32 29 


88 


1.322 


651 63 


61 i 6O1 58 


56 


54 1 52 


50 


48 


46 


43 


40 


38 


35 31 


89 


1.364 


661 64' 63 61' 59 


57 


55 54 


52 


49 


47 


45 


42 


39 


37 33 


90 


1.408 


67 661 64 62, 60 


591 57 55 


53 


51 


49 


46 


44 


41 


38 35 


91 


1.453 


68 67! 65 63 


62 


60 58 56 


54 


52 


50 


48 


46 


43 


40 37 


92 


1.499 


69 68 


66 65 


63 


61 59 58 


56 


54 


52 


50 


47 


45 


42 39 


93 


1.546 


71 1 69 


68 66 


64 


63 61 59 


57 


55 


53 51 


491 46! 44i 42 


94 


1.595 


72 70 


69 


67 


66 


64 62 60 59 57 


55 53 50 48i 46 43 


95 


1.645 


73 72 


70 


68 


67 


65 63 62 


60; 58 


56| 64; 52 50 


48 45 


96 


1.696 


74! 73 


71 


70 


68 


66 65 63 


61! 60 


58 56: 54| 51 


49 47 


97 


1.749 


751 74 


72 


71 


69 


68 


66 


64 


63 


61 


69 57 55 53 


51 48 


98 


1.803 


761 75 


74 


72 


70 


69 


67 


66 


64 


62 


60 58 56 54 


52 50 


99 


1.859 


78! 76 


75 


73 


72 


70 


69 


67 


65 


64 


62 60 58 56 


54 52 


100 


1.916 


79 77 


76 


74: 73 


71 


70 


68 


67 


65 


63 611 59 581 56' 53 


101 


1.975 


80' 78 


77 


76 74 


73 


71 


69 


68 


66 


641 63' 61 59 57 55 


102 


2.035 


81 80 


78 


77 75 


74 


72 


71 


69 


67 


66 64 62 60 58 56 


103 


2.097 


82: 81 


79 


78 76 


75 


73 


73 


70 


69 


67 65 64 62 60 58 


104 


2.160 


83; 82 


80 


79 78 


76 


75 


73 


72 


70 


68 67 65 631 61 59 


105 


2.225 


84 83 


82 


8O! 79 


77 


76 


74 


73 


71 


70 


68 66 


64 


63, 61 


106 


2.292 


85 84 


83 


811 80 


78 


77 


76 


74 


72 


71 


69 


68 


66 


&4[ 62 


107 


2.360 


86 85 


84 


82 81 


80 


78 


77 


75 


74 


72 


71 


69 


67 


661 U 


108 


2.431 


88 86 


85 


84 82 


81 


79 


78 


76 


75 


73 


72 


70 


69 


67 65 


109 


2.503 


89 87 


86 


85 83 


82 


81 


79 


78 


76 


75 


73 


72 


70 


68 66 


110 


2.576 


90 88 


87 


861 84 


83 


82 


80 


79 


77 


76 


74 


73 


71 


69 68 


111 


2.652 


91 90 


88 


871 86 


84 


83 


81 


80 


79 


77 


76 


74 


72 


71! 69 


112 


2.730 


92 91 


89 


881 87 


85 


84 


83 


81 


80 


78 


77 


75 


74 


72 


70 


113 


2.810 


93 92 


90 


89 88 


87 


85 


84 


82 


81 


80 


78 


76 


75 


73 


72 


114 


2.891 


94 93 


92 


90 89 


88 


86 


85 


84 


82 


81 


79 


78 


76 


75 


73 


115 


2.975 


95' 94 


93 


91! 90 


89 


87 


86 


85 


83 


82 


80 


79 


77 


76 


74 


116 


3.061 


96] 95 


94 


92' 91 


90 


89 


87 


86 


84 


83 


82 


80 


79 


77 


76 


117 


3.148 


97 96 


95 


94 92 


91 


90 


88 


87 


86 


84 


83 


81 


80 


78 


77 


118 


3.239 


98' 97 


96 


95 93 


92 


91 


89 


88 


87 


85 


84 


83 


81 


80 


78 


119 


3.331 


99' 98 


97 


96 94 


93 


92 


90 


89 


88 


87 


85 


84 


82 


81 


79 


120 


3.425 


10l| 99 


98 


97 


96 


94 


93 


92 


90 


89 


88 


86 


85 


84 


82 


81 


121 


3.522 


102 100 


99 


98 


97 


95 


94 


93 


92 


90 


89 


88 


86 


85 


83 


82 


122 


3.621 


103 101100 


99 


98 


96 


95 


94 


93 


91 


90 


89 


87 


86 


84 


83 


123 


3.723 


104 102 101 100 


99 


98 


96 


95 


94 


92 


91 


90 


88 


87 


86 


84 


124 


3.827 


105 104 102 101100 


99 


97 


96 


95 


94 


92 


91 


90 


88 


87 


85 


125 


3.9.1"? 


106 105 103 102 101 


100 


99 


97 


96 


95 


93 


92 


91 


89 


88 


87 


126 


4.042 


107 106 104 103 102 


lonoo 


98 


97 


96 


95 


93 


92 


91 


89 83 


127 


4.154 


108 107 106 104 103 


102 101 


99 


98 


97 


96 


94 


93 


92 


90l 89 


128 


4.268 


V)0 108 107 1C5 104 


103 102 101! 


99 


98 


97 


95 


94 


93 


921 90 


129 


4.385 


110 109 108 106 105 


104 103 102 100 


99 


98 


97 


95 


94 


93: 91 


130 


4.504 


111 110 100 108 106 


105 104 1.30 101 100 


99 


98 


96 


95 


94' 92 


131 


4.627 


112 HI 110 109 107 


106 105 104 103 101 


100 


99 


98 


96 


95 94 


132 


4.752 


113 112 111 no lOS 


107 106 105 104 102 


101 lOOl 


99 


97 


96! 95 


133 


4.8K0 


114 113 112 111 iir 


108 107 106 1C5 104 


102 101 100 99 


971 96 


134 


5.C11 


115 114 113 112 111 


109 108 107 106 K15 


103 102 101 100 


98 97 


135 


5.14.5 


116 115 114 113 112 


111 100 108 107 106 


104,103 102 101 


99i 98 


136 


5.2S2 


117 116 ll.i 114 113 


112 110 100 108 107 


106,104 103 102 101 99 


137 


5.422 


118 117 116 115 114 


113 111 110 109 108 


107 105 104 103,102 100 


138 


5.. 565 


119 118 117 116 115 


114 112 111 110 109108 107 105 104103 102 


139 


5.712 


120 119 118 117 116 


115 114 112 111 110109 108 106 105 104 103 


140 


5.862 


121 120 119 lis 117116 115 113 112 llljllO 109 108 106 105 104 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



93 



Temperature of Dew-point in Degrees Fahrenheit. 
Concluded 

Pressure = 23.0 inches of mercury 



•t c. 


k. r 

O en 

|s 

> c 










Dep 


ression of wet-bulb therm 


omet 


er (( 


- (') 




33 


34 


35 


36 


37 


38 


39 


40 


41 


42 


43 


44 


45 


46 


47 1 48 


80 


1.022 




—11 




























81 


1.056 
1.091 
1.127 
1.163 


6 
11 
14 
18 


— 3 

+ 3 
8 
12 


—21 

— 9 

— 1 

+ 5 


-41 
-17 
-6 


-30 












i 




« 


- t) 


82 
83 


49 


50 


51 


52 


53 


84 


1104 


—20 










85 


1.201 


21 


16 


9 


+ 1 


—13 












105 


— 6—40 








86 


1.241 


23 


19 


13 


6 


— 4 


-23 










1106 


+ 3 


—12 








87 


1.281 


26 


22 


17 


11 


+ 3 


-10 


-54 








107 


9 


— 1 


—23 






88 


1.322 


28 


24 


20 


15 


8 


— 1 


-18 








108 


14 


—6 


— 6|— 49 




89 


1.364 


30 


27 


23 


18 


12 


+ 5 


— 7 


—34 






109 


19 


12 


+3 


—14 




90 


1.40S 


32 


29 


25 


21 


16 


10+ 1 


—14 






110 


22 


17 


9 


— 2—25 


91 


1.453 
1.499 


34 
36 


31 
33 


28 
30 


24 
27 


20 
23 


14 
18 


7- 3 
11+ 3 


—25 
— 9 


—59 










1 


92 














93 


1.546 


39 


36 


32 


29 


25 


21 


15 


9 


-1 


—17 














94 


1.595 


41 


38 


35 


31 


28 


24 


19 


13 


+ 6 


— 5 


—32 












95 


1.645 


42 


40 


37 


33 


30 


26 


22 


17 


11 + 2 


-12 












96 


1.696 


44 


42 


39 


36 


32 


29 


25 


20 


15 


8 


— 2 


—22 










97 


1.746 


46 


44 


41 


38 


34 


31 


28 


23 


19 


13 


+ 5 


— 7 


—41 








98 


1.803 


48 


45 


43 


40 


37 


33 


30 


26 


22 


17 


10 


+ 1 


—15 








99 


1.85? 


50 


47 


45 


42 


39 


36 


32 


29 


25 


21 


14 


7 


— 3 


—28 






100 


1.91f 


51 


49 


46 


44 


41 


38 


35 


31 


28 


24 


19 


12 


+ 4 


— 9 






101 


1.975 


53 


51 


48 


46 


43 


40 


37 


34 


30 


26 


22 


17 


10 


+ C 


-18 




102 


2.035 


54 


52 


50 


48 


45 


42 


39 


36 


32 


29 


25 


20 


14 


+ 7 


- 5 


—32 


103 


2.097 


56 


54 


52 


49 


47 


44 


41 


38 


35 


31 


28 


23 


18 


12 


+ 3 


—11 


104 


2.16C 


57 


55 


53 


51 


49 


46 


43 


40 


37 


34 


30 


26 


22 


16 


9 


— 1 


105 


2.225 


59 


57 


55 


53 


50 


48 


45 


42 


39 


36 


33 


29 


25 


20 


14 


+ 6 


106 


2.292 


6C 


58 


56 


54 


52 


50 


47 


44 


42 


39 


35 


32 


28 


24 


18 


12 


107 


2.360 


62 


60 


58 


56 


54 


51 


49 


46 


44 


41 


38 


34 


31 


27 


22 


16 


108 


2.431 


63 


61 


59 


57 


55 


53 


51 


48 


46 


43 


40 


37 


33 


29 


■ 25 


20 


109 


2.5C3 


65 


63 


61 


59 


5' 


55 


53 


50 


48 


45 


42 


39 


36 


32 


28 


24 


110 


2.57( 


66 


64 


62 


60 


58 


56 


54 


52 


50 


47 


44 


41 


38 


34 


31 


27 


111 


2.652 


67 


66 


64 


62 


60 


58 


56 


54 


51 


49 


46 


43 


40 


37 


33 


30 


112 


2.730 


69 


67 


65 


63 


62 


60 


57 


55 


53 


51 


48 


46 


43 


40 


36 


32 


113 


2.81C 


70 


68 


67 


65 


63 


61 


59 


67 


55 


52 


50 


48 


45 


42 


38 


35 


114 


2.891 


71 


70 


68 


66 


64 


63 


61 


59 


56 


54 


52 


49 


47 


44 


41 


38 


115 


2.975 


73 


71 


69 


68 


66 


64 


62 


60 


58 


56 


54 


51 


49 


46 


43 


40 


116 


3.061 


74 


72 


71 


69 


67 


66 


64 


62 


60 


58 


55 


53 


SO 


48 


45 


42 


117 


3.14^ 


75 


74 


72 


70 


69 


67 


65 


63 


61 


59 


57 


55 


52 


50 


47 


44 


118 


3.239 


77 


75 


73 


72 


70 


68 


67 


65 


63 


61 


59 


57 


54 


52 


49 


47 


119 


3.331 


78 


76 


75 


73 


7-1 


70 


68 


66 


64 


62 


60 


58 


56 


54 


51 


49 


120 


3.425 


79 


78 


76 


74 


73 


71 


69 


68 


66 


64 


62 


60 


58 


55 


53 


50 


121 


3.522 


80 


79 


77 


76 


74 


72 


71 


69 


67 


65 


63 


61 


59 


57 


55 


52 


122 


3.621 


82 


80 


79 


77 


75 


74 


72 


70 


69 


67 


65 


63 


61 


59 


57 


54 


123 


3.723 


83 


81 


80 


78 


77 


75 


74 


72 


70 


68 


66 


64 


63 


61 


58 


56 


124 


3.827 


84 


83 


81 


80 


78 


76 


75 


73 


72 


70 


68 


66 


64 


62 


60 


58 


125 


3.933 


85 


84 


82 


81 


79 


78 


76 


74 


73 


71 


69 


68 


66 


64 


62 


60 


126 


4.042 


86 


85 


84 


82 


81 


79 


78 


76 


74 


72 


71 


69 


67 


65 


63 


61 


127 


4.154 


88 


86 


85 


83 


82 


80 


79 


77 


76 


74 


72 


70 


69 


67 


65 


63 


128 


4.268 


89 


87 


86 


85 


83 


82 


80 


78 


77 


75 


74 


72 


70 


68 


66 




129 


4.385 


90 


89 


87 


86 


84 


83 


81 


80 


78 


77 


75 


73 


72 


70 


68 


66 


130 


4.504 


91 


90 


88 


87 


86 


84 


83 


81 


80 


78 


76 


75 


73 


71 


69 


68 


131 


4.627 


92 


91 


90 


88 


87 


85 


84 


82 


81 


79 


78 


76 


74 


72 


71 


69 


132 


4.752 


93 


92 


91 


89 


88 


87 


85 


84 


82 


81 


79 


77 


76 


74 


72 


70 


133 


4.880 


95 


93 


92 


91 


89 


88 


86 


85 


83 


82 


80 


79 


77 


75 


74 


72 


134 


5.011 


96 


94 


93 


92 


9C 


89 


88 


86 


85 


83 


82 


80 


78 


77 


75 


73 


135 


5.145 


97 


96 


94 


93 


92 


90 


89 


87 


86 


84 


83 


81 


80 


78 


76 


75 


136 


5.282 


98 


97 


95 


94 


93 


91 


90 


89 


87 


86 


84 


83 


81 


80 


78 


76 


137 


5.422 


99 


98 


97 


95 


94 


93 


91 


90 


88 


87 


85 


84 


82 


81 


79 


78 


138 


5.565 


100 


99 


98 


96 


95 


94 


92 


91 


90 


88 


87 


85 


84 


82 


81 


79 


139 


5.712 


101 


100 


99 


98 


96 


95 


94 


92 


91 


89 


88 


86 


85 


83 


82 


80 


140 


5.862 


103 


101 


100 


99 


97 


96 


95 


93 


92 


91 


89 


88 


86 


85 


83 


81 



04 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Relative Humidity, Per Cent. — Fahrenheit Temperatuhe.s 

Pressurp = 30.0 inches of ineroury 



Air 


Depression of wet-bulb thermometer (i — 


n 






temp., ' 


0.2'0.40.6'o.s'l.O 

III! 


1.2Jl.4Jl.6[l.8J2.0 


2.2]2.4J2.6|2.8 3.03.2J3.4J3.6[3.8|4.0 


-40 


46 

48; 

5b 2 
53! 6 
















u - n 


— 39 

— 38 


4. 214. 4, 4.614. 815. 0|5. 2 5. 4 5. 6:5. 816.0 


-37 


8 


1 




















-36 


56; 10 














9 


5 


1 


















-35 


59} 15: 














10 


9 


5 



















-34 


61 ' 20 
















11 


12 


8 


4 

















-33 


63 24 
















12 


16 


12 


8 


4 















-32 


64 28 
















13 


19 


15 


11 


7 


4 













— 31 


66' 32 

















14 


22 


18 


15 


11 


8 


4 











-30 


68 


36 


4 














15 


25 


21 


18 


14 


11 


7 


4 









-29 


70 


41 


9 














16 


28 


24 


21 


n 


14 


11 


8 


4 


11 


-28 


72 


45 


15 














17 


30 


27 


24 


21 


17 


14 


11 


8 


5: 1 


— 27 


74 


48 


19 














18 


33 


30 


27 


24 


20 


17 


14 


11 


8 5 


-26 


75 


51 


24 















19 


35 


32 


29 


26 


23 


20 


17 


14 


11 8 


-25 


76 


53 


29 


5 












20 


37 


34 


32 


2S 


26 


23 


20 


17 


14 12 


-24 


77 


55 


32 


10 




















T 


"~^ 


i'\ 


-23 
— 22 


78 
80 


57 
59 


36 
39 


15 
20 





















0.1 0.210.3 0.410.5 


-21 


81 


61 


43 


24 


5 




















^sTj 


50 










-20 


82 


63 


45 


28 


10 




















-49 


54 


5 








-19 


83 


65 


48 


32 


15 




















-48 


57 


12 








-18 


84 


67 


51 


35 


19 


2 


















-47 


60 


H 








-17 


85 


69 


53 


39 


23 


7 


















-40 


03 


B 








-16 


86 


70 


56 


42 


27 


12 


















-45 


66 


28 








-15 


86 


72 


58 


45 


31 


17 


4 
















-44 


68 


32 








-14 


87 


74 


61 


48 


34 


21 


8! 














-43 


70 


36 


3 






-13 


88 


75 


63 


50 


38 


25 


13 

















-42 


71 


40 


9 






-12 


88 


76 


64 


52 


41 


29 


17 


6 














-41 


72 


43 


14 






-11 


89 


77 


66 


55 


44 


32 


21 


10 








1 




-40 


73 


46 


18 






-10 


90 


78 


68 


57 


46 


36 


25 


14 


4 












-39 


74 


48 


22 






- 9 


90 


79 


70 


59 


49 


39 


29 


18 


9 












-38 


75 


50 


25 


2 




- 8 


90 


81 


71 


61 


51 


42 


32 


22 


13 


3 










-37 


76 


53 


28 


6 




- 7 


91 


82 


72 


63 


54 


44 


35 


26 


17 


8 










-36 


77 


56 


33 


10 




- 6 


91 


82 


73 


64 


56 


47 


38 


29 


20 


12 


3 








-35 


78 


59 


37 


15 




- 5 


91 


83 


75 


66 


58 


49 


41 


32 


24 


16 


7 








-34 


80 


61 


41 


20 





- 4 


92 


84 


76 


68 


60 


52 


44 


36 


28 


20 


12 


4 




-33 


81 


63 


44 


24 


5 


- 3 


92 


85 


77 


69 


61 


54 


46 


39 


31 


23 


16 


8 1 




-32 


82 


04 


46 


28 


10 


- 2 


92 


85 


78 


71 


63 


56 


49 


42 


34 


27 


19 


12 


5 




-31 


S3 


Of) 


49 


32 


15 


- 1 


93 
93 


86 
87 


79 
80 


72 
73 


65 

67 


58 
60 


51 
53 


44 
47 


37 
40 


30 
33 


23 
27 


16 
20 


10 
14 


3 


-30 


84 


08 


.')2 


36 


20 





1 












+ 1 


93 


87 


81 


75 


68 


62 


56 


49 


43 


36 


30 


24 


18 


11 


5 












2 


94 


88 


82 


76 


70 


64 


58 


52 


46 


39 


33 


27 


21 


15 


9 


3 










3 


94 


88 


82 


77 


71 


65 


59 


54 


48 


42 


36 


30 


25 


19 


13 


7 


2 








4 


94 


89 


83 


78 


72 


66 


61 


55 


50 


44 


39 


33 


28 


22 


17 


11 


6 









6 


95 


89 


84 


78 


73 


68 


63 


57 S2| 


46 


41 


36 


31 


25 


20 


15 


10 


4 






6 


95 


90 


84 


79 


74 


69 


64 


59 


54 


49 


43 


38 


33 


28 


23 


18 


13 


8 


3 




7 


95 


90 


85 


80 


75 


70 


65 


60 


55 


51 


46 


41 


30 


31 


26 


21 


17 


12 


7 


2 


8 


95 


90 


86 


81 


76 


71 


67 


62 


57 


53 


48 


43 


38 


34 


29 


24 


20 


15 


11 


6 


9 


95 


91 


86 


82 


77 


72 


68 


63 


59 


55 


50 


46 


41 


30 


32 


27 


23 


18 


14 


10 


10 


96 


91 


87 


82 


78 


73 


69 


65 


60 


56 


52 


47 


43 


39 


34 


30 


26 


22 


17 


13 


11 


96 


91 


87 


83 


79 


74 


70 


66 


62 


58 


53 


49 


45 


41 


37 


33 


28 


25 


20 


16 


12 


96 


92 


88 


84 


80 


75 


71 


67 


63 


59 


55 


51 


47 


43 


39 


35 


31 


27 


23 


19 


13 


96 


92 


88 


84 


80 


76 


73 


69 


65 


61 


57 


53 


49 


45 


41 


38 


34 


30 


26 


23 


14 


96 


92 


89 


85 


81 


77 


74 


70 


66 


62 


59 


55 


51 


48 


44 


40 


37 


33 


29 


26 


15 


96 


93 


89 


86 


82 


78 


75 


71 


67 


64 


60 


57 


53 


50 


46 


42 


39 


35 


32 


29 


16 


96 


93 


90 


86 


82 


79 


76 


72 


69 


65 


62 


58 


55 


51 


48 


45 


41 


38 


34 


31 


17 


97 


93 


90 


86 


83 


80 


77 


73 


70 


66 


63 


60 


57 


53 


50 


47 


43 


40 


37 


34 


18 


97 93 90 


87: 84 


80 


77 74 


71 


68 


65 


61 


58 


55 


52 


49 


45 


42 


39 


36 


19 


97: 94! 90 


87! 84 


81 


78 75 


72 


69 


66 


63 


60 


56 


53 


50 


47 


44 


41 


38 


20 


97 94 91 


88 85 


82 79' 76' 73| 


70 


67 


64 


61 


58 


55 52 


49 


46 


43 


40 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



9/ 



Relative Httmiditt, Per Cent. — Fahrenheit Temperatures. 
CoTilinued 

Pressure = 30 inches of mercurj' 



cL 






Depression of 


wet-bulb thermometer U — t') 


*- H 


0.5 


l.o'l.5'2.o'2.5 

1 I 1 


3.03.54.04.50.0 

1 1 1 1 


5.5'6.0'6.5'7.o'7.5 

1 1 ! 1 


S.0|8.5'9.09.5 10.0 10.5 


w 


"92 


851 77| 70 


62 


55 


48 40 


33 26 


19 


12 


- 51 
















21 


92 


85 78: 71 


63 


56 


49; 42 


35 28 


21 


15 


8, 1 
















22 


93 


86 78l 71 


65 


58 


51 44 


37, 31 


24 


17 


11 4 
















23 


93 


86! 79 


72 


66 


59 


52 46 


39, 33 


26 


20 


141 7 


1 














24 


93 


87 


80 


73 


67 


60 


54 47 


, 41; 35 


29 


i 22 


16! 10 


4 














25 


94 


87 


81 


74 


68 


62 


55 49 


' 43; 37 


31 


1 25 


19; 13 


7 


1 












26 


94 


87 


81 


75 


69 


63 


57, 51 


45, 39 


33 


27 


21 16 


IC 


4 










27 


94 


88 


82 


76 


70 


64 


5S 52 


47: 41 


35 


29 


24 18 


13 


71 2' 








28 


94 


88 


82 


76 


71 


60 


59 54 


48 43 


37 


32 


26 21 


15 


10 5 








29 


94 


88 


83 


77 


72 


66 


6O: 55 


50 44 


39 


34 


28 23 


18 


13 8 3 








30 


94 


89 


83 


78 


73 


67 


62, 56 


51 46 


41 


36 


31i 26 


21 


16 11 6 li 




31 


94 


89 


84 


78 


73 


68 


63 58 


52| 47 


42 


37 


33 28l 23 


18 13 8' i' 




32 


95 


89 


84 


79 


74 


69 


64 59 


54; 49 


44 


39 


35 30' 25 


20 16 11 7 2 


33 


95 


90j 85| 80 


75 


70 


65 60 


56 51 


46 


41 


37 32 27 


23 18 14 9 5 


34 


95 


90 86, 81 


76 


71 


66 62 


57 52 


48 


43 


38 34 29 


25 21 16 12 8 3 


35 


95 


91 86; 81 


77 


72 


67! 63 


58 54 


49 


45 


40 36 32 


27 23 19 14 10 6 


36 


95 


91 i 86 82 


77 


73 


68' 64 


60 55 


51 


46 


42 38 34 


29 25 21 17 13 9 


37 


95 


91 87; 83 


78 


74 


69! 65 


61 57 


53 


48 


44 40 36 


31 27 23 19 15 11 


38 


96 


91 87 83 


79 


75 


70: 66 


62 5.S 


54 


50 


46 42! 37 


33 29 25 21 17 14 


39 


96 


92 87 83 


79 


75 


71 67 


63 59 


55 


51 


47 43' 39 


35 31 27 24 20 16 


40 


96 


92: 87 i 83 


79 


75 


71' 68 


64 60 


56 


52 


48, 45' 41 


37 33 29 26 22 18 


41 


96 


92 88 84 


80 


76 


72 69 


65 61 


57 


54 


50! 46 42 


39 35 31 28 24 20 


42 


96 


92 88! 85 


81 


77 


73 69 


65 62 


58 


55 


51i 47 44 


40 36 33 30 26 23 


43 


96 


92! 88' 85 


81 


77 


73 70 


66 63 


59 


55 


52 48 45 


42 38 35 31 28 25 


44 


96 


93 89 85 


81 


78 


74 71 


67 53 


60 


56 


53 49 46 


43 39 36 33 30 26 


45 


96 


93 89 86 


82 


78 


74 71 


67 64 


61 


57 


54 51 47 


44 41 38 34 31 28 


46 


96 


93 89 86 


82 


79 


75 72 


68 65 


61 


58 


55 52 48 


45 42 39 35 32 29 


47 


96 


93 89; 86 


82 


79 


75 72 


69 66 


62 


59 


.56 53 49 


46 43 40 37 34 31 


48 


96 


93 90 86 


83 


79 


76 73 


69 66 


63 


60 


57 54 50 


47 44 41 38 35 32 


49 


96 


93: 90 86 


83 


80 


76 73 


70 67 


64 


61 


57 54 51 


48 45 42 39 46 34 


50 


96 


93 90; 87 


83 


80 


77 74 


71 67 


64 


61 


58 55 52 


49 46 43 41 38 35 


51 


97 


94; 90| 87 


84 


81 


78 75 


71 68 


65 


62 


59 56, 53 


50 47 45 42 39 36 


52 


97 


94 1 90 87 


84 


81 


78 7.5 


72 G';" 


66 


63 


60 57, 54 


51 49 46 43 40 37 


53 


97 


94; 90 


87 


84 


81 


7^ " ' 


"_ ■ . 


66 


63 


61 58 55 


52 50 47 44 41 39 


54 


97 


94 91 


88 


85 


82 


7:^ " 


i 67 


64 


61 59 56 


53 50 48 45 42 40 


55 


97 


94; 91 


88 


85 


82 


7lj 7 


' :■' 68 


65 


62 59 57 


54 51 49 46 43 41 


56 


97 


94' 91 


88 


85 


82 


79 76 


73 71 


68 


65 


63 60 57 


55 52 5C 47 44 42 


57 


97 


941 91 


8S 


85 


82 


80 77 


74 71 


69 


66 


63 61' 58 


55 53 50 48 45 43 


58 


97 


94| 91 


88 


85 


83 


80 77 


74 72 


69 


66 


64 61 59 


56 54 51 49 46 44 


59 


97 


94i 91 


89 


86 


83 


80 78 


75 72 


7C 


67 


60 62! 59 


57 55 52 49 47 45 


60 


97 


94! 91 


89 


86 


83 


8I; 78 


75 73 


70 


68 


65 63; 60 


58 55 53 50 48 46 


61 


97 


94; 92 


89 


86 


84 


81 78 


76 73 


71 


68 


65 63 61 


58 56 54 51 49 47 


62 


97 


94 92 


89 


86 


84 


81 


79 


76! 74 


71 


69 


66 64 61 


59 57 54 52 50 47 


63 


97 


95; 92 


89 


87 


84 


82 


79 


77 74 


71 


69 


67 64 62 


60 57 55 53 50 48 


64 


97 


95 92 


90 


87 


84 


82 


79 


77| 74 


72 


70 


67 65 63 


60 58 56 53 51 49 


65 


97 
97 


95 1 92 


90 


87 
87 


85 
85 


82 


80 


77i 75 
78, 75 


72 
73 


70 
71 


68 66 63 
68 66 64 


61 59 56 54 52 50 


66 


95| 92 


90 


82! 80 


61 59 57 55 53 51 


67 


97 


95 92 


90 


87 


8.5 


83, 80 


78 75 


73 


71 


69 66 64 


62 6C 58 56 53 51 


68 


97 


95 


92 


90 


88 


85 


831 80 


78! 76 


74 


71 


69 67 65 


62 60' 58 56 54 52 


69 


97 


95 


93 


90 


88 


85 


831 81 


79, 76 


74 


72 


70i 67 65 


63 61 59 57 55 53 


70 


98 


95 


93 


90 


88 


86 


83' 81 


79; 77 


74 


72 


70 68 66 


64 61 59 57 55 53 


71 


98 


95 


93 


90 


88 


86 


84t 81 


79, 77 


75 


72 


70' 68' 66 


64 62 60 58 56 54 


72 


98 


95 93 


91 


88 


86 


84; 82 


79' 77 


75 


73 


71 69 67 


65 63 61 59 57 55 


73 


98 


95 93 


91 


88 


86 


84 82 


80 78 


75 


73 


71 69 67 


65 63 61 59 57 55 


74 


98 


95 93 91 


89 


86 


84 


82 


80 


78 


76 


74 


71 69 67 


65 63 61 60 58 56 


75 


98 


96 93 91 


S9 


86 


84 


82 


80 


78 


76 


74 


72 70 68 


66 64 62 60 58 56 


76 


98 


96 93 91 


89 


87 


84 


82 


80 


78 


76 


74 


72 70' 68 


66 64 62 61 59 57 


77 


98 


96 93 91 


89 


87 


85 


83 


81 


79 


77 


74 


72 71 1 69 


67 65 63 61 59 57 


78 


98 


96! 93j 91 


89 


87 


85 


83 


81 


79 


77 


75 


73: 71 69 


67 65 63 62 60 58 


80 


98 


96, 93 91 


89 


87 


85 


83 


81 


79 


77 


75 


731 71 69 


68 66 64 62 60 ' 58 


79 


98 


96, 94 91 


89 


87 


85] 83 


81 


79 


77 


75 


74 72 70 


68, 66 64 62 61 ; 59 



00 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Relattve Humidity, Per Cent. — Fahrenheit Temperatures. 

Continued 















Pressure = 


30,0 i 


nch 


OS 


f m 


eroury 














& 










Depression of wet-bulb therino 


met 


er (t — 


n 








u C 


ij 




o 


' ^ 


c 


■o 


o 


>a 


a 


ift 


o 


IC 


c 


lO 


c 


tn 


c 


W5 


o 


U5 


o 


•-; tj 


^ 




cs 


ci 


n 


CO 


2 


■* 


« 


lO 


o 


CO 


f^ 


f^ 


« 


CO 


ej 


o» 


o 


d 


^ 


-- *j 


^- 


^^ 




^^ 














*-< 


'-' 


.-» 


f 










OJ 


y< 


C-l 


" .35 


2 










































36 


5 


1 








































37 


7 


3 








































38 


10 


6 


2 






































39 


12 


8 


5 


1 




































40 


15 


11 


7 


4 





































41 


17 


13 


10 


6 


3 


































42 


I'J 


16 


12 


9 


5 


2 
































43 


21 


18 


14 


11 


8 


4 


1 






























44 


23 


20 


16 


13 


10 


7 


4 































45 


25 


22 


18 


15 


12 


9 


6 


3 




























46 


26 


23 


20 


17 


14 


11 


8 


5 


2 


























47 


28 


25 


22 


19 


16 


13 


10 


7 


5 


2 
























48 


29 


26 


23 


21 


18 


15 


12 


9 


7 


4 


1 






















49 


31 


28 


25 


22 


19 


17 


14 


11 


9 


6 


3 


1 




















50 


32 


29 


27 


24 


21 


18 


16 


13 


10 


8 


5 


3 





















51 


34 


31 


28 


26 


23 


20 


17 


15 


12 


9 


7 


4 


2 


















52 


35 


32 


29 


27 


24 


22 


19 


17 


H 


11 


9 


6 


4 


1 
















53 


36 


33 


31 


28 


26 


23 


20 


IS 


16 


13 


10 


8 


6 


3 


1 














54 


37 


35 


32 


29 


27 


24 


22 


20 


17 


15 


12 


10 


8 


5 


3 


1 












55 


38 


36 


33 


31 


28 


26 


23 


21 


19 


16 


14 


12 


9 


7 


5 


2 













56 


39 


37 


34 


32 


30 


27 


25 


22 


20 


18 


16 


13 


11 


9 


7 


4 


2 










57 


40 


38 


35 


33 


31 


28 


26 


24 


22 


19 


17 


15 


13 


10 


8 


6 


4 


2 








58 


41 


39 


37 


34 


32 


30 


27 


25 


23 


21 


18 


14 


14 


12 


10 


8 


6 


3 


2 






59 


42 


40 


38 


35 


33 


31 


29 


26 


24 


22 


20 


18 


16 


13 


11 


9 


7 


5 


3 


1 




60 


43 


41 


39 


37 


34 


32 


30 


28 


26 


23 


21 


19 


17 


15 


13 


11 


9 


7 


5 


3 


1 


61 


44 


42 


40 


38 


35 


33 


31 


29 


27 


25 


22 


20 


IS 


10 


14 


12 


10 


8 


7 


5 


3 


62 


45 


43 


41 


39 


36 


34 


32 


30 


28 


26 


24 


22 


20 


18 


16 


14 


12 


10 


8 


6 


4 


63 


46 


44 


42 


40 


37 


35 


33 


31 


29 


27 


25 


23 


21 


19 


17 


15 


13 


u 


10 


8 


6 


64 


47 


45 


43 


41 


38 


36 


34 


32 


30 


28 


26 


24 


22 


20 


18 


17 


15 


13 


11 


9 


7 


65 


48 


46 


44 


41 


39 


37 


35 


33 


31 


29 


27 


25 


24 


22 


20 


18 


16 


14 


12 


11 


9 


66 


48 


46 


44 


42 


40 


38 


36 


34 


32 


30 


29 


27 


25 


23 


21 


19 


17 


16 


14 


12 


10 


67 


49 


47 


45 


43 


41 


39 


37 


35 


33 


31 


30 


28 


26 


24 


22 


20 


19 


17 


15 


13 


12 


68 


50 


48 


46 


44 


42 


40 


38 


36 


34 


32 


31 


29 


27 


25 


23 


21 


20 


18 


16 


15 


13 


69 


51 


49 


47 


45 


43 


41 


39 


37 


35 


33 


32 


30 


28 


26 


24 


23 


21 


19 


18 


16 


14 


70 


51 


49 


48 


46 


44 


42 


40 


38 


36 


34 


33 


31 


29 


27 


25 


24 


22 


20 


19 


17 


15 


71 


52 


50 


48 


46 


45 


43 


41 


39 


37 


35 


33 


32 


30 


28 


27 


25 


23 


22 


20 


18 


17 


72 


53 


51 


49 


47 


45 


43 


42 


40 


38 


36 


34 


33 


31 


29 


2S 


20 


24 


23 


21 


19 


18 


73 


53 


51 


50 


48 


46 


44 


42 40 


39 


37 


35 


34 


32 


30 


29 


27 


25 


24 


22 


20 


19 


74 


54 


52 


50 


48 


47 


45 


43 41 


39 


38 


36 


34 


33 


31 


20 


28 


20 


25 


23 


21 


20 


75 


54 


53 


51 


49 


47 


45 


44 


42 


40 


39 


37 


35 


34 


32 


30 


29 


27 


26 


24 


23 


21 


76 


55 


53 


51 


50 


48 


46 


44 


43 


41 


39 


38 


36 


34 


33 


31 


30 


28 


27 


25 


24 


22 


77 


56 


54 


52 


50 


48 


47 


45 


43 


42 


40 


39 


37 


35 


34 


32 


31 


29 


28 


26 


25 


23 


78 


56 


54 


53 


51 


49 


47 


46 


44 


43 


41 


39 


38 


36 


34 


33 


31 


30 


28 


27 


25 


24 


79 


57 


55 


53 


51 


50 


48 


46 


45 


43 


42 


40 


38 


37 


35 


34 


32 


31 


29 


28 


26 


25 


80 


57 


55 


54 


52 


50 


49 


47 


45 


44 


42 


41 


39 


38 


36 


35 


33 


32 


30 


29 


27 


26 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



97 



Lelattve Humidity, Per Cent. — Fahrenheit Temperatures. 

Continued 

Pressure = 30.0 inches of mercury 









Depression of wet-bu 


b thermometer ( 


- t') 




21.5 


22.0 22.5 23.0 


.23.5|24.0]24.5 


25.025.5 


26. 0|26.5i27.0j27. 5:28. 0128.5 


61 
62 


1 
2 


1 
























1 


63 


4 


2 



























M 


6 


4 


2 

























fi,5 


7 


5 


4 


2 























fifi 


9 


7 


5 


3 


2 





















67 


10 


8 


7 


5 


3 


2 




















6,S 


11 


10 


8 


6 


5 


3 


1 


















6!) 


i;5 


11 


9 


8 


6 


5 


3 


1 
















70 


14 


12 


11 


9 


8 


6 


4 


3 


1 














71 


15 


13 


12 


10 


9 


7 


6 


4 


3 


1 












72 


16 


15 


13 


12 


10 


9 


7 


6 


4 


3 


1 










73 


17 


16 


14 


13 


11 


in 


8 


7 


5 


4 


3 


1 








74 


18 


17 


15 


14 


13 


11 


10 


8 


7 


5 


4 


3 


1 






75 


20 


18 


17 


15 


14 


12 


11 


9 


8 


7 


5 


4 


3 


1 




76 


21 


19 


18 


16 


15 


13 


12 


11 


9 


8 


6 


5 


4 


3 


1 


77 


22 


20 


19 


17 


16 


14 


13 


12 


10 


9 


8 


6 


5 


4 


3 


78 


23 


21 


20 


18 


17 


16 


14 


13 


11 


10 


9 


8 


6 


5 


4 


79 


23 


22 


21 


19 


18 


17 


15 


14 


13 


11 


10 


9 


7 


6 


5 


80 


24 


23 


22 


20 


19 


18 


16 


15 


14 


12 


11 


10 


9 


7 


6 



Air 
;emp., t 






Depression of 


wet-bulb thermometer {t 


- t') 






1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


80 


96 


TT 


87 


83 


79 


75 


72 


68 


64 


61 


57 


64 


50 


47 


~44 


82 


96 


92 


88 


84 


80 


76 


72 


69 


65 


61 


58 


55 


51 


48 


45 


84 


96 


92 


88 


84 


80 


76 


73 


69 


66 


62 


59 


56 


52 


49 


46 


86 


96 


92 


88 


84 


81 


77 


73 


70 


66 


63 


60 


57 


53 


50 


47 


88 


96 


92 


88 


85 


81 


77 


74 


70 


67 


64 


61 


57 


54 


51 


48 


90 


96 


92 


89 


85 


81 


78 


74 


71 


68 


65 


61 


58 


55 


52 


49 


92 


96 


92 


89 


85 


82 


78 


75 


72 


68 


65 


62 


59 


56 


53 


50 


94 


96 


93 


89 


85 


82 


79 


75 


72 


69 


66 


63 


60 


57 


54 


51 


96 


96 


93 


89 


86 


82 


79 


76 


73 


69 


66 


63 


61 


58 


55 


52 


98 


96 


93 


89 


86 


83 


79 


76 


73 


70 


67 


64 


61 


58 


56 


53 


100 


96 


93 


89 


86 


83 


80 


77 


73 


70 


68 


65 


62 


59 


56 


54 


102 


96 


93 


90 


86 


83 


80 


77 


74 


71 


68 


65 


62 


60 


57 


55 


104 


97 


93 


90 


87 


83 


80 


77 


74 


71 


69 


66 


63 


60 


58 


55 


106 


97 


93 


90 


87 


84 


81 


78 


75 


72 


69 


66 


64 


61 


58 


56 


108 


97 


93 


90 


87 


84 


81 


78 


75 


72 


70 


67 


64 


62 


59 


57 


110 


97 


93 


90 


87 


84 


81 


78 


75 


73 


70 


67 


65 


62 


60 


57 


112 


97 


94 


90 


87 


84 


81 


79 


76 


73 


70 


68 


65 


63 


60 


58 


114 


97 


94 


91 


88 


85 


82 


79 


76 


74 


71 


68 


66 


63 


61 


58 


116 


97 


94 


91 


88 


85 


82 


79 


76 


74 


71 


69 


66 


64 


61 


59 


118 


97 


94 


91 


88 


85 


82 


79 


77 


74 


72 


69 


67 


64 


62 


59 


120 


97 


94 


91 


88 


85 


82 


80 


77 


74 


72 


69 


67 


65 


62 


60 


122 


97 


94 


91 


88 


85 


83 


80 


77 


75 


72 


70 


67 


65 


63 


60 


124 


97 


94 


91 


88 


85 


83 


80 


78 


75 


73 


70 


68 


65 


63 


61 


126 


97 


94 


91 


88 


86 


83 


80 


78 


75 


73 


70 


68 


66 


64 


61 


128 


97 


94 


91 


89 


86 


83 


81 


78 


76 


73 


71 


68 


66 


64 


62 


130 


97 


94 


91 


89 


86 


83 


81 


78 


76 


73 


71 


69 


67 


64 


62 


132 


97 


94 


92 


89 


86 


84 


81 


79 


76 


74 


71 


69 


67 


65 


63 


134 


97 


94 


92 


89 


86 


84 


81 


79 


76 


74 


72 


69 


67 


65 


63 


136 


97 


94 


92 


89 


86 


84 


81 


79 


77 


74 


72 


70 


68 


65 


63 


138 


97 


94 


92 


89 


87 


84 


82 


79 


77 


75 


72 


70 


68 


66 


64 


140 


97 


95 


92 


89 


87 


84 


82 


79 


77 


75 


73 


70 


68 


66 


64 



98 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



RELATm: Humidity, Per Cent. — Fahrenheit Temperatures. 

Coiitinued 

Pressure = 30. Oinches of mercury 



t 






Depression of wet-bulb thermometer 


(« - 


n 






16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 j 26 


27 


28 


29 j 30 


80 


41 


38 


"35~ 


32 


29 


26 


23 


20 


18 


Is" 


12 


10 


7 


5 : 3 


82 


42 


39 


36 


33 


30 


28 


25 


22 


20 


17 


14 


12 


10 


7 5 


84 


43 


40 


37 


35 


32 


29 


26 


24 


21 


19 


16 


14 


12 


9 7 


86 


44 


42 


39 


36 


33 


31 


28 


26 


23 


21 


18 


16 


14 


11 9 


88 


46 


43 


40 


37 


35 


32 


30 


27 


25 


22 


20 


18 


15 


13 11 


90 


47 


44 


41 


39 


36 


3% 


31 


29 


26 


24 


22 


19 


17 


15 ' 13 


92 


48 


45 


42 


40 


37 


35 


32 


30 


28 


25 


23 


21 


19 


17 : 15 


94 


49 


46 


43 


41 


38 


36 


33 


31 


29 


27 


24 


22 


20 


18 


16 


96 


50 


47 


44 


42 


39 


37 


35 


32 


30 


28 


26 


24 


22 


20 


18 


98 


50 


48 


45 


43 


40 


38 


36 


34 


32 


29 


27 


25 


23 


21 


19 


100 


51 


49 


46 


44 


41 


39 


37 


35 


33 


30 


28 


26 


24 


22 


21 


102 


52 


49 


47 


45 


42 


40 


38 


36 


34 


32 


30 


28 


26 


24 


22 


104 


53 


50 


48 


46 


43 


41 


39 


37 


35 


33 


31 


29 


27 


25 


23 


106 


53 


51 


49 


46 


44 


42 


40 


38 


36 


34 


32 


30 


28 


26 


24 


108 


54 


52 


49 


47 


45 


43 


41 


39 


37 


35 


33 


31 


29 


27 


25 


110 


55 


52 


50 


48 


46 


44 


42 


40 


38 


36 


34 


32 


30 


28 


26 


112 


55 


53 


51 


49 


47 


44 


42 


40 


38 


36 


35 


33 


31 


29 


27 


114 


56 


54 


52 


49 


47 


45 


43 


41 


39 


37 


35 


34 


32 


30 


28 


116 


57 


54 


52 


50 


48 


46 


44 


42 


40 


38 


36 


34 


33 


31 


29 


118 


57 


55 


53 


51 


49 


47 


45 


43 


41 


39 


37 


35 


34 


32 • 30 


120 


58 


55 


53 


51 


49 


47 


45 


43 


41 


40 


38 


36 


34 


33 ' 31 


122 


58 


56 


54 


52 


50 


48 


46 


44 


42 


40 


39 


37 


35 


34 32 


124 


59 


57 


54 


52 


50 


48 


47 


45 


43 


41 


39 


38 


36 


34 33 


126 


59 


57 


55 


53 


51 


49 


47 


45 


44 


42 


40 


38 


37 


35 ! 33 


128 


60 


58 


56 


54 


52 


50 


48 


46 


44 


42 


41 


39 


37 


36 1 34 


130 


60 


68 


56 


54 


52 


50 


48 


47 


45 


43 


41 


40 


38 


37 


35 


132 


61 


58 


56 


55 


53 


51 


49 


47 


45 


44 


42 


40 


39 


37 


36 


134 


61 


59 


57 


55 


53 


51 


49 


48 


46 


44 


43 


41 


39 


38 


36 


136 


61 


59 


57 


55 


54 


52 


50 


48 


46 


45 


43 


41 


40 


38 


37 


138 


62 


60 


58 


56 


51 


52 


50 


49 


47 


45 


44 


42 


40 


39 


37 


140 


62 


60 


58 


56 


54 


53 


51 


49 


47 


46 


44 


43 


41 


40 


33 



wet bulb are found to agree very closely, thereby showing that 
it has reached its lowest temperature. A minute or more is 
generally required to secure the correct temperature. 

When the air temperature is near the freezing point it often 
happens that the temperature of the wet bulb will fall several 
degrees below freezing point, but the water will still remain in 
the liquid state. No error results from this, provided the 
minimum temperature is reached. If, however, as frequently 
happens, the water suddenly freezes, a large amount of heat is 
liberated, and the temperature of the wet bulb immediately 
becomes 32°. In such cases it is necessary to continue the 
whirling until the ice-covered bulb has reached a minimum 
temperature. 

The psychrometer will give fairly accurate indications, even 
in the sunshine, yet observations so made are not without 
some error, and where greater accuracy is desired, the psy- 
chrometer should be whirled in the shade. 

[While the above is true for refined observations, such as were necessary 
in Professor Marvin's work, yet for practical work I have found that a 
wet- and a dry-bulb thermometer, simply mounted on a board and placed 
in a good draft, would give accurate enough results for technical data. In 
this case the cloth wrapper of the wet-bulb thermometer went down into a 
cup of water, so that it was alway.'i wet and hence always ready for an 
obsiTvation. See also p. 104. — Editor.] 



PHYSIC/VL CONSTANTS 



99 



Relative Humidity, Per Cent. — Fahrenheit Temperatures. 

Continued 

Pressure = 30.0 inches of mercury 



Air 






Depression 


of wet-bulb thermometer {I — 


i') 






temp., t 


31 


32 


33 


34 


35 


36 


37 


38 


39 


40 


41 


42 


43 


44 


45 


80 

































82 


2 































84 


5 


3 





























8« 


7 


5 


3 


1 
























88 


9 


7 


5 


3 


1 






















90 


11 


9 


7 


5 


3 


1 




















92 


13 


11 


9 


7 


5 


3 


1 


















94 


14 


12 


10 


9 


7 


5 


3 


1 
















96 


16 


14 


12 


10 


8 


7 


5 


3 


2 















98 


17 


15 


14 


12 


10 


8 


7 


5 


3 


2 













100 


19 


17 


15 


13 


12 


10 


8 


7 


5 


4 


2 


1 








102 


20 


18 


16 


15 


13 


11 


10 


8 


7 


5 


4 


2 


1 






104 


21 


20 


18 


16 


14 


13 


11 


10 


8 


7 


5 


4 


2 


1 




106 


23 


21 


19 


17 


16 


14 


13 


11 


10 


8 


7 


5 


4 


3 


1 


108 


24 


22 


20 


19 


17 


16 


14 


12 


11 


10 


8 


7 


5 


4 


3 


110 


25 


23 


21 


20 


18 


17 


15 


14 


12 


11 


10 


8 


7 


6 


4 


112 


26 


24 


23 


21 


19 


18 


16 


15 


14 


12 


11 


9 


8 


7 


6 


114 


27 


25 


24 


22 


20 


19 


18 


16 


15 


13 


12 


11 


9 


8 


7 


116 


28 


26 


25 


23 


22 


20 


19 


17 


16 


14 


13 


12 


11 


9 


8 


118 


29 


27 


25 


24 


23 


21 


20 


18 


17 


16 


14 


13 


12 


11 


9 


120 


29 


28 


26 


25 


23 


22 


21 


19 


18 


17 


15 


14 


13 


12 


10 


122 


30 


29 


27 


26 


24 


23 


22 


20 


19 


18 


16 


15 


14 


13 


11 


124 


31 


30 


28 


27 


25 


24 


22 


21 


20 


18 


17 


16 


15 


14 


12 


126 


32 


30 


29 


27 


26 


25 


23 


22 


21 


19 


18 


17 


16 


15 


13 


128 


33 


31 


30 


28 


27 


25 


24 


23 


22 


20 


19 


18 


17 


16 


14 


130 


33 


32 


30 


29 


28 


26 


25 


24 


22 


21 


20 


19 


18 


16 


15 


132 


34 


33 


31 


30 


28 


27 


26 


24 


23 


22 


21 


20 


18 


17 


16 


134 


35 


33 


32 


30 


29 


28 


26 


25 


24 


23 


21 


20 


19 


18 


17 


136 


35 


34 


33 


31 


30 


28 


27 


26 


25 


23 


22 


21 


20 


19 


18 


138 


36 


35 


33 


32 


30 


29 


28 


27 


25 


24 


23 


22 


21 


20 


19 


140 


37 


35 


34 


32 


31 


30 


29 


27 


26 


25 


24 


23 


21 


20 


19 








Dep 


ressi 


on 


: we 


t-bu 


b th 


ermc 


)met 


er (« 


- t 


) 






t 


46 


47 


48 


49 


60 


51 


52 


53 


54 


55 


56 


57 


58 


59 


60 


106 

































108 


2 































110 


3 


2 


1 


























112 


4 


3 


2 


1 
























114 


6 


5 


3 


2 


1 






















116 


7 


6 


5 


4 


2 


1 





















118 


8 


7 


6 


5 


4 


3 


2 


1 
















120 


9 


8 


7 


6 


5 


4 


3 


2 


1 














122 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


5 


4 


3 


2 


1 













124 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


5 


4 


3 


2 


1 











126 


12 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


5 


4 


3 


2 


2 


1 






128 


13 


12 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


5 


4 


4 


3 


2 


1 





130 


14 


13 


12 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


5 


5 


4 


3 


2 


1 


132 


15 


14 


13 


12 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


6 


5 


4 


3 


2 


134 


16 


15 


14 


13 


12 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


6 


5 


4 


3 


136 


17 


16 


15 


14 


13 


12 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


6 


5 


4 


138 


17 


16 


15 


14 


14 


13 


12 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


7 


6 


5 


140 


18 


17 


16 


15 


14 


13 


12 


12 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


7 


6 



100 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Relattv'e Hu>nDiTT, Per Cent. — Fahrenheit Temperatures. 

CoTiliniied 

Pressure = 23.0 inches of mercury 



d 


Depression of wet-bulb thermometer (t — t') 


<2 


0.2|o.4[o.6J0.8 1.o|l.2jl.4Jl.6jl.8J2.o|2.2[2.4j2.6j2.8'3.o|3.2|3.4[3.6]3.8 4.o[4.2 



25 
28 
31 

35! 4 
39! 9 
42 14 
45 18 
48 22 
51 26 
54' 30 
57| 34 
59 37 
62 40 

64 44 

65 47, 

66 50 
68 53 
70 55 1 
71; 57 
73' 59; 

74 62 

75 63 
77; 65 

78 67 

79 69 

80 71 1 
81! 72 
82| 731 
83| 75 

84, 76: 

85, 77| 

85 78 
86' 79 

86 80 



1 

6 
12 
18 
22 
26 
30 13 
34 18 
37 22 
40 26 
44 30 
47 34 
50 37 
52 i 40 
54 43 
57; 46 
59' 48 
61; 51 
63 1 53 
64, 56 
661 5$ 

68 60 

69 62 

70 63 
72 65 



87 
83 
88 
89 
89 
90 
90 
91 
91 

91 87 



87, 



89 



93 89 
93 90 

93 90 

94 91 
94 91 
94 91 

94 92' 
95; 92, 

95 92 
95, 92, 



66 
68 
69 
70 
72 
73 
74 
76 
77 
77 
78 
79 
80 
80 
81 
82 
86 82 
86 83 
87, 84 
871 84 
88 85 

88 85 

89 86 
89, 86 
89 87 
99 87 



1.4 4.6 4.8 5.0|5.2 5.4 3.6T5.8'6.0|6.2 6.4 6.6 6.4,7.0 



I') 



2 
6 
12: 9 

12 



12 
15 12 

18 15; 12 
21 18' 15 
24 21 18 15 
26 24 21 18 15 
29 26 24 21 19 
32 29 20 24 21 
34 31 29 26 24 
36 33 31 20 20 



3 












8 












13 2 












17! 7! 










22: 12 2 










26 16! 7 










29 20 11 


2 








32 24: 16 


7 








36 2S! 20 


12 


4 






3S, 31 


23 


16 


8 







41' 34 


27 


20 


12 


5 




44' 37 


30 


23 


16 


9 


3 


46 40 


33 


26 


20 


13 


7| 


49 42 


36 


30 


23 


17 


10 


51 45 


39 


33 


27 


21 


14 


53 47 


41 


36 


30 


21 


18 


55: 50 


44 


39 


33 


28 


22 


571 52 


47 


41 


36 


31 


26 


59 54 


40 


44 


30 


34 


29 


61 56 51 


47 


42 


37 


32 


63 1 58. 53 


49 


44 


40 


35 


64 60 


55 


51 


46 


42 


3.S 


65 61 


57 


53 


4,S 


44 


40 


66 62 


5S 


54 


50 


40 


42 


68 64 


60 


56 


52 


4S 


44 


69 65 61 


58 


54 


50 


46 


70 66 63 


50 


00 


52 


48 


71' 68 64 


61 


57 


53 


50 


72 69! 65 


62 


58 


55 


52 


73 70, 66 


63 


60 


57 


53 


74 71 68 


64 


61 


58 


55 


75 i 72 


60 


66 


63 


60 


57! 


76, 73 


70 


67 


64 


61 


5S| 


77 74 


71 


68 


6R 


63 


60 


78 75 


72 


69 


67 


64 


61 


79 76 


73 


71 


68 


65 


63 


79 77 


74 


71 


69 


66 


64 


80 77 


75 


72 


70 


67 


651 



0; 

3 

10 7 
13, 10 
16 1^ 
19 16 
21 10 
24 22 



7 
11 

14' 11 9 
17' 14 12 
10 17 15 



it - I') 



0.10.20.30.40.5 



-47 


6,S 


36 









-46 


70 


41, 4 






-45 


72 


45< 10 






-44 


74 


48 


19 




-43 


76 


51 


241 




-42 


77 


54 


29 


5 




-41 


78 


57 


32 


10 




-40 


78 


59 


36 


16 




-39 


79 


61 


39 


21 




-38 


80 


62 


41 


25 


2 


-37 


80 


54 


43 


28 


7 


-36 


81 


66 


48 


31 


13 



181 13 



21 

20| 24 
31 27 
34, 30 
36i 321 29! 
39 35 31 
41 37 34i 
43 30! 36| 



45 41 
47 43 
49 1 46 
51 48 



60 1 57 



3 

7 
11 
15 

22' 18 
25i 21 
28 ; 24 
30! 27i 23 
32 29 26 
3.V 32 28 
37 34 31 
39, 36 33 
42 39; 36 
41 38 
43 40 
451 42 
47| 44 
51' 49 46 
53 .50 48 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



101 



Relative Humidity, Per Cent. — Fahrenheit Temperatures. 
Continued 

Pressure = 30.0 inches of mercury 











































d 




Depression of wet-bulb thermometer (t — t') 


■3 S 0.5'1.0!1.5'2.0'2.53.0'3.5'4.0'4.5'5.0 


3.5'6.o'6.57.07.5[8.o{8.5;9.09.5ll0.010.5 


20 


94 87 


81 : 75| 691 


63 


56| 50 44' 3S| 


32 


26 21 


15 9| 


3, 1 






21 


94 87 


81 75 1 69| 


63 


57| 52 


46 40 


34 


29 23 


17 


12 


6 


1 






22 


94 88 


82 


76 701 


64 


591 53 


47! 42 


36 


31 25 


20 


15 


9 


4 




1 


23 


94 88 


82 


77 


71 


65! 60 


54 


49! 43 


38 


33 28 


22 


17 


12 


7 2 






24 


94 89 


83 


78 


72 


67; 61 


56 


50! 45 


40 35j 30 


25 


20 


15i lOi 5 




i 


25 


95! 89 


84 


78 


73 


68. 62 


57 


521 47 


42 37I 32 


27 


22 


171 12| 81 3; 1 




26 


95 


89 


84 


79 


73 


68! 63 


58 53! 48 


43 


38 34 


29 


24 


19 151 10 all 




27 


95 


90 


84 


79 


74 


69; 64 


59 i 551 50 


45 


40 35 


31' 26 


22 17! 13 8! 4 : 




28 


95 


90 


85 


80 


75 


70, 65 


60 561 51 


46 


42 37 


33; 28 


24 I9I 15 lli 6 ; 


2 


29 


95 


90 


85 


80 


76 


71! 66, 62 571 52 


48 


43 39 


35 30 


26 22 17 I3I 9 i 


5 


30 


95 


90 


86 


81 


76 


72; 67, 63' 5S: 54 


49 


45 41 


36 32 


28 24 20 Ih 11 ' 


7 


31 


95 


91 


86 


81 


77 


721 68 64 59' 55 


51 


46 42 


38 34 


30 2G 22 l^ 14 


10 


32 


95 


91 


86 


82 


77 


73 69 65' 60 56 


52 48 44 


40 36 


32 2s 24 211 16 


12 


33 


96 


92 


87 


83 


78 


74 


70 66 62 57 


53 1 49 45 


41 38 


34 30 26 22 18 


15 


34 


96 


92 


88 


84 


79 


75 


71 67 63 59 


55[ 51; 47 


43 39 


35 32 28 24 21 


17 


35 


96 


92 


88 


84 


80 


76 


72 68 64 60 


56 52, 49 


45 41 


37 34; 30 26 23 


19 


36 


96' 92 


88 84 


80 


77 73' 691 65 61 


5S| 54, 50 46 43 


39; 35; 32 28 25 


21 


37 


96 931 89 851 81 


78: 74; 70; 66; 63 


59| 551 521 4-S 44 


41: 37; 34; 30' 27 


23 


38 


96' 93| 89 85i 81 


78 74 71j 67i 64 


60| 57, 531 49' 46 


42, 39i 36, 32I 29 


25 


39 


96! 93' 89 85. 81 


78 75; 71 


681 65 


61! 57 54' 51 4S 


44i 41-37; 34, 31 


27 


40 


96! 93 1 89 85 82 


79; 75 


72 


68 65 


62 5S; 55; 52 49 


45 42; 39' 36, 32 


29 


41 


96' 93 89' 86 82 


79, 76 


72 


69 


66 


62 1 59 56 1 53 50 


47 44 41 37 34 


31 


42 


96! 93 89, 86 83 


80! 76 


73 


70 


67 


63: 60 57| 54, 51 


43 45, 42, 30' 36 


33 


43 


96: 93 90 87 


83 


80 


77 


73 


70 


67 


64; 61; 5S| 55 52 


49 46 43 40 37 


34 


44 


97i 94 90 87 


83 


80 


77 


74 


71 


68 


651 62 59i 56 53 


50 47I 44 41 39 


36 


45 


97; 94' 901 87 


84 


81 


78 


74 


71 


68 


65l 62! 60[ 57 54 


51 48 45 42 40 


37 


46 


97i 94, 90 87 


84 


81 


78 


75 


72 


69 


661 63' 60, 57 55 


52 i<^ 4G 44, 41 


38 


47 


97; 94, 90! 87 


84 


•81 78 


75 


72 


70 


67 


64, 61, 58 55 


53 50 47 45: 42 


39 


48 


97, 94! 91! 88 


85 


82! 79 


76 


73 


70 


67 


65! 62 


59, 56 


54 51 48 46: 43 


40 


49 


97i 94! 91 j 881 85 


82! 79 


76 


73 


71 


68 


65 62 


60; 57 


54 52 49 47: 44 


41 


50 


97l 941 91, 88 


85 


82 1 79 


77 


74 


71 


68 


66 63 


60' 57 


55 52 50: 48; 45 


42 


51 


97l 94I 91; 88 


86 


831 80 


77 


75 


72 


69 


66 


64 


611 58 


56 53 51 49! 46 


43 


52 


97I 94 911 89 


86 


83' 80 


78 


75 


72 


70 


67 


64 


61' 59 


57 54 52 49 47 


44 


53 


97 94! 91 


89 


86 


83! 80 


78 


75 


72 


70 


67 


65 


62, 60 


57, 55 52, 50' 48 


45 


54 


97 94! 92 


89 


86 


83 


81 


78 


76 


73 


70 


68 


65 


63' 60 


58 56 53 51' 48 


46 


55 


97 95: 92 


89 


86 


84 


81 


78 


76 


73 


71 


69 


66 


63 61 


59 56 54 .52 49 


47 


56 


97 95 


92 


89 


87 


84 


81 


79 


76 


74 


71 


69 


67 


64 62 


50 57 55 52. 50 


48 


57 


97 


95 


92 


89 


87 


84 


82 


79 


77 


74 


72 


69 


67 


65 62 


60 57 55 .53; 51 


49 


58 


97 


95 


92 


89 


87 


84 


82 


79 


77 


74 


72 


70 


67 


65 63 


61, 58, 56 54 52 


50 


59 


97 


95 


92 


90 


87 


85 


82 


80 


77 


75 


73 


70 


68 


65 63 


61' ■/> 57 5.-; 53 


50 


60 


97 


951 92 


90 


87 


85 


82 


80 


78 


75 


73 


71 


68 


66 64 


- 53 


51 


61 


97 


95 92 


90 


88 


85 


83 


80 


78 


76 


73 


71 


69 


67 64 


54 


52 


62 


97 


95 92 


90 


88 


85 


83 


81 


78 


76 


74 


72 


69 


67 6.5 


54 


52 


63 


97 


95 1 93 


90 


88 


85 


83 


81 


79 


76 


74 


72 


70 


67 65 


G.J 01 .j'.j .J 7 55 


53 


64 


971 95; 93 


90 


88 


86 


83 


81 


79 


77 


74 


72 


70 


68 66 


64 62 60 58 56 


54 


65 


98 1 95 93 


91 


88 


86 


84 


81 


79 


77 


75 


73 


71 


69 66 


64 62 60 58 56 


54 


66 


98| 95 93! 91; 88 


86 84 


82 


79 


77 


75 


73 


71 


69 67 


65 63 61 59 57 


55 


67 


98 95 93! 91 89 


86 84 


82 


80 


77 


75 


73 


71 


69; 67 


65 63 61 59 57 


55 


68 


98l 95 93| 91 89 


86 1 84 


82 


80 


78 


76 


74 


72 


70, 68 


66 64 62 60' 58 


56 


69 


98! 96 931 91 


89 


87, 84 


82 


80 


78 


76 


74 


72 


70' 68 


66 64 62 60 


58 


57 


70 


98 96: 93 


91 


89 


871 85 


83 


80] 78 


76 


74 


72 


701 68 


66 64 63, 61 


59 


57 


71 


98 96 1 93 


91 


89 


87 


85 


83 


81 ! 79 


771 75 


73' 71 69 


67 65 63 61 


59 


58 


72 


98 96 i 93 


91 


89 


87 


85 


83 


81 


'7C 


77 


75 


73; 71 69 


67 65 64 62 


60 


58 


t\ 


73 


98 


96, 93 


91 


89 


87. 


85 


83 


81 


79 


77 


75 


73 71 70 


68 66 64 621 60 


59 


74 


98 


96 94 


91 


89 


87 


85 


83 


81 


79 


77 


75 


74 


72 70 


68 60 64 63' 61 


59 


75 


98 


96, 94 


91 


89 


87 


85 


83 


81 


80 


78 


76 


74 


72 70 


68 66 65 631 61 


60 


76 


98 


96 94 


92 


90 


88 


86 


84 


82 


80 


78 


76 


74 


72 70 


69 67 651 63: 62 \ 60 


77 


98! 96 


94 


92 


90 


88 


86 


84 


82 


80 


78 


76 


74 


721 71 


69 67' 66 64, 62 ' 60 


78 


98 96 


94 


92 


90 


88 


86 


84 


82 


80 


78 


76 


75 


73, 71 


69 68: 66 64' 62 | 61 


79 


98 96 


94 


92 


90 


88 


86 


84 


82 


80 


78 


77 


75 


73 71 


70 68 66 65 63 | 61 


80 


98 96 i 94 


92 


90 


881 86 


84 


82 


80 


79 


77' 75! 73 72 


70 68 67 65 63 i 62 



102 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



RELATrv'E Humidity, Per Cent. — Fahrenheit Temperatures. 

ContiTutcd 
Pressure = 2.3.0 inclics of mercury 



d 


Depression of wet-bulb thermometer (l — t') 


k4 C 


=>. i «. 1 ° 


10 


U5 


U5 


10 1 j "5 





ic 1 j u? 10 


•^ 


m 1 


■^ - r 1 =: 1 2 


ci M 


n 


TM 4 


ui U3 to 


t>^ 


t~ ] 00 1 00 1 2 


2 


_g gis 


29 
30 


1 
4 










































31 


6 


2 








































32 


9 


5 


1 






































33 


11 


7 


4 







































34 


13 


10 


6 


3 




































35 


16 


12 


9 


5 


2 


































36 


18 


15 


11 


8 


4 


1 
































37 


20 


17 


13 


10 


7 


4 

































38 


22 


19 


16 


12 


9 


6 


3 






























39 


24 


21 


18 


15 


12 


8 


5 


2 




























40 


26 


23 


20 


17 


14 


11 


8 


5 


2 


























41 


28 


25 


22 


19 


16 


13 


10 


7 


4 


1 
























42 


30 


27 


24 


21 


18 


15 


12 


9 


6 


3 


1 






















43 


31 


28 


26 


23 


20 


17 


14 


11 


8 


6 


3 























44 


33 


30 


27 


25 


22 


19 


16 


13 


11 


8 


5 


3 





















4.5 


34 


31 28 


26 


24 


21 


18 


15 


13 


10 


7 


6 


2 


















46 


35 


33 


30 


27 


25 


22 


20 


17 


15 


12 


9 


7 


4 


2 
















47 


37 


34 


31 


29 


26 


24 


21 


19 


17 


14 


11 


9 


6 


4 


2 














48 


38 


35 


32 


30 


28 


25 


23 


21 


18 


16 


13 


11 


9 


61 4 


1 












49 


39 


37 


34 


31 


29 


27 


24 


22 


20 


17 


15 


13 


10 


.81 6 


3 


1 










50 


40 


38 


35 


33 


30 


28 


26 


23 


21 


19 


17 


14 


12 


10 


8 


5 


3 


1 








51 


41 


39 


36 


34 


32 


29 


27 


25 


23 


20 


18 


16 


14 


12 


9 


7 


5 


3 


1 




52 


42 


40 


37 


35 


33 


31 


28 


26 


24 


22 


20 


17 


15 


13 


11 


9 7 


5 


3 


1 


53 


43 


41 


38 


36 


34 


32 


29 


27 


25 


23 


21 


19 


17 


15 


13 


11 


9 


7 


5 


3 1 


54 


44 


42 


39 


37 


35 


33 


31 


29 


26 


24 


22 


20 


18 


16 


14 


12 


10 


8 


6 


4' 2 


55 


45 


43 


40 


38 


36 


34 


32 


30 


28 


26 


24 


22 


20 


18 


.16 


14 


12 


10 


81 6, 4 


56 


46 1 41 


41 


39 


37 


35 


33 


31 


29 


27 


25 


23 


21 


19 


17 


15 


13 


11 


9 


7 6 


57 


47 41 ' 42 40 38 


36 


34 


32 


30 


28 


26 


24 


22 


20 


18 


16 


14 


13 


11 


9 7 


58 


48 4o 43 41 39 


37 


35 33 


31 


29 


27 


25 


23 


21 


20 


18 


16 


14 


12 


10' 9 


59 


4S 40 44 42' 40 


38 


36 


34 


32 


30 


28 


26 


24 


22 


21 


19 


17 


15 


14 


12' 10 


60 


49 47 45 43 41 


39 


37 


35 


33 


31 


29 


27 


26 


24 


22 


20 


18 


16 


15 


13 11 


61 


50 4S 46 44 42 


40 


38 


36 


34 


32 


30 


29 


27 


25 


23 


21 


20 


18 


16 


14| 13 


62 


50 48 40 45 43 


41 


39 


37 


35 


33 


31 


30 


28 


26 


24 


23 


21 


19 


17 


16 


14 


63 


51 41 47 45 43 


41 


40 


38 


36 


34 


32 


31 


29 


27 


25 


24 


22 


20 


19 


17 


15 


61 


,52 5'( •t^ i>\ 44 


42 


40 


39 


37 


35 


33 


32 


30 


28 


26 


25 


23 


21 


20 


18 


16 


65 


52 511 i\> 4 7 45 


43 


41 


39 


38 


36 


34 


32 


31 


29 


27 


26 


24 


22 


21 


19 


18 


66 


53 51: 49, 47; 46 


44 


42 


40 


38 


37 


35 


33 


32 


30 


28 


27 


25 


24 


22 


20 


19 


67 


54; 52 


50 


48] 46 


44 


43 


41 


39 


37 


36 


34 


33 


31 


29 


28 


26 


25 


23 


21 


20 


68 


54 


52 


50 


49 47 


45 


44 


42 


40 


38 


37 


35 


33 


32 


30 


29' 27 


25 


24 


22 


21 


69 


55 


53 


51 


49 48 


46 


44 


42 


41 


39 


37 


36 


34 


33 


31 


30 


28 


26 


25 


23 


22 


70 


55 


53 


52 


50 48 


47 


45 


43 


42 


40 


38 


37 


35 


33 


32 


30 


29 


27 


26 


24 


23 


71 


56 


54 


52 


51 49 


47 


46 


44 


42 


41 


39 


37 


36 


34 


33 


31 


30 


28 


27 


25 


24 


72 


56 


55 


53I 511 50 


48 


46 


45 


43 


41 


40 


38 


37 


35 


34 


32 


31 


20 


28 


26 


25 


73 


57 


55 


53 


52 1 50 


48 


47 1 45 


44 


42 


40 


39 


37 


36 


34 


33 


31 


30 


29 


27 


26 


74 


67 


56 


54 


52 51 


49 


47 


46 


44 


43 


41 


39 


38 


37 


35 


34 


32 


31 


29 


28 


27 


75 


58 


56 


55 


53| 51 


50 


48 


46 


45 


43 


42 


40 


39 


37 


36 


34 


33 


32 


30 


29 


27 


76 


58 


57 


55 


53 i 52 


50 


49 


47 


45 


44 


42 


41 


39 


38 


37 


35 


34 


32 


31 


29 


28 


77 


59 


57 


55 54 


52 


51 


49 


48 


46 


44 


43 


41 


40 


39 


37 


36j 34 


33 


32 


30 


29 


78 


59 


67 


66 54 


53 


51 


50 


48i 47' 45 


44 


42 


41 


39 


3S 


36 35 


34 


32 


31 


29 


79 


60 


58 


56 55 


53 


52 


50 


49: 47 40 


44 


43 


41 


40 


39 


37 36 


34 


33[ 32 


30 


80 


60 


68 


57 551 54 


52 


51 


491 4Si 4r 


45 


43 


42 


41 


30 


38i 37 


35 


34 1 .33! 31 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



103 



Ielative Humidity, Per Cent. — Fahrenheit Temperatures. 
Continued 

Pressure = 23.0 inches of mercury 



t 


(( - n 


22'23'24'25 

1 1 


26'27 28'29|30 


3l]32'33'34 


60 


8 


5 


1 




















61 


9 


6 


3 




















62 


11 


8 


4 


1 


















63 


12 


9 


6 


3 


















64 


13 


10 


7 


4 


1 
















65 


15 


12 


9 


6 


3 
















66 


16 


13 


10 


7 


i' 1 
















67 


17 


14 


11 


8 


5, 3 
















6S 


18 


15 


12 


9 


71 4 


1 














69 


19 


16 


13 


11 


8: 5 


3 















70 


20 


17 


14 


12 


9 6 


4 


1 












71 


21 


IS 


15 


13 


10 8 


5 


3 













72 


22 


19 


16 


14 


11 9 


6 


4 


1 








73 


23 


20 


17 


15 


12 10 


7 


5 


3 







j 


74 


24 


21 


18 


Ifi 


13 11 


9 


6 


4 


2 




1 


7.5 


25 22 


19 


17 


14 12 


10 


7 


5 


3 


1 




76 


25 28 


20 


IS 


15 13 


11 


8 


6 


4 


2 




77 


26 24 


21 


19 


16 14 


12 


9 


7 


5 


3: 1' 


78 


27 25 


22 


20 


17 15 


13 


10 


8 


6 


4I 2 


79 


28 25 


23 


21 


18 16 


14 


11 


9 


7 


5 3 1 


80 


29 26 


24 


21 


19 17 


15 


12 


10 


8 


6 4 2 



Air 
emp.. 






Depression of 


wet-bulb thermometer {t 


- t') 


































, 


t 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


12 


14 


15 1 16 


80 


96 


92 


88 


84 


80 


77 


73 


70 


67 


63 


60 


57 


54 


51 


48 


45 


82 


96 


92 


88 


85 


81 


77 


74 


71 


67 


64 


61 


58 


55 


52 


49 


46 


84 


96 


92 


89 


85 


81 


78 


74 


71 


68 


65 


61 


58 


55 


53 


50 


47 


86 


96 


92 


89 


85 


81 


78 


75 


71 


68 


65 


62 


59 


56 


53 


50 


48 


88 


96 


93 


89 


85 


82 


79 


75 


72 


69 


66 


63 


60 


57 


54 


51 


49 


90 


96 


93 


89 


86 


82 


79 


76 


73 


69 


66 


63 


61 


58 


55 


52 


50 


92 


96 


93 


89 


86 


83 


79 


76 


73 


70 


67 


64 


61 


58 


56 


53 


51 


94 


96 


93 


89 


86 


83 


80 


76 


73 


70 


67 


65 


62 


59 


56 


54 


51 


96 


96 


93 


90 


86 


83 


80 


77 


74 


71 


68 


65 


62 


60 


57 


55 


52 


98 


97 


93 


90 


87 


83 


80 


77 


74 


71 


68 


66 


63 


60 


58 


55 


53 


100 


97 


93 


90 


87 


84 


80 


77 


75 


72 


69 


66 


64 


61 


58 


56 


53 


102 


97 


93 


90 


87 


84 


81 


78 


75 


72 


69 


67 


64 


61 


59 


57 


54 


104 


97 


93 


90 


87 


84 


81 


78 


75 


72 


70 


67 


65 


62 


59 


57 


55 


106 


97 


94 


90 


87 


84 


81 


78 


76 


73 


70 


68 


65 


62 


60 


58 


55 


108 


97 


94 


90 


87 


84 


82 


79 


76 


73 


71 


68 


65 


63 


61 


58 


56 


110 


97 


94 


91 


88 


85 


82 


79 


76 


74 


71 


68 


66 


63 


61 


59 


56 


112 


97 


94 


91 


88 


85 


82 


79 


77 


74 


71 


69 


66 


64 


62 


59 


57 


114 


97 


94 


91 


88 


85 


82 


80 


77 


74 


72 


69 


67 


64 


62 


60 


58 


116 


97 


94 


91 


88 


85 


82 


80 


77 


75 


72 


70 


67 


65 


62 


60 


58 


118 


97 


94 


91 


88 


85 


83 


80 


77 


75 


72 


70 


67 


65 


63 


61 


58 


120 


97 


94 


91 


88 


85 


83 


80 


77 


75 


73 


70 


68 


65 


63 


61 


59 


122 


97 


94 


91 


89 


86 


83 


80 


78 


75 


73 


71 


68 


66 


64 


62 


59 


124 


97 


94 


91 


89 


86 


83 


81 


78 


76 


73 


71 


68 


66 


64 


62 


60 


126 


97 


94 


91 


89 


86 


83 


81 


78 


76 


74 


71 


69 


67 


65 


62 


60 


128 


97 


94 


91 


89 


86 


84 


81 


79 


76 


74 


72 


69 


67 


65 


63 


61 


130 


97 


94 


92 


89 


86 


84 


81 


79 


76 


74 


72 


70 


67 


65 


63 


61 


132 


97 


94 


92 


89 


86 


84 


81 


79 


77 


74 


72 


70 


68 


66 


63 


61 


134 


97 


95 


92 


89 


87 


84 


82 


79 


77 


75 


72 


70 


68 


66 


64 


62 


136 


97 


95 


92 


89 


87 


84 


82 


79 


77 


75 


73 


70 


68 


66 


64 


62 


138 


97 


95 


92 


89 


87 


84 


82 


80 


77 


75 


73 


71 


69 


66 


64 


62 


140 


97 


95 


92 


90 


87 


85 


82 


80 


78 


75 


73 


71 


69 


67 


65 


63 



104 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Relative Humidity, Per Cent. — Fahrenheit Temperatures. 

Continued 

Pressure = 23.0 inches of mercury 











!>epression ol 


wet 


-bulb thermometer (I 


-/') 




( 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 I 32 


80 


"42~ 


39 


~3r 


^r 


31 


29 


ir 


"24~ 


21 


19 


17 


15 


12 


10 


8 


6 


82 


43 


40 


38 


35 


33 


30 


28 


25 


23 


21 


19 


16 


14 


12 


10 


8 


S4 


44 


42 


39 


36 


34 


31 


29 


27 


24 


22 


20 


18 


16 


14 


12 


10 


86 


45 


43 


40 


38 


35 


33 


30 


28 


26 


24 


22 


20 


17 


15 


13 


12 


88 


46 


44 


41 


39 


36 


34 


32 


29 


27 


25 


23 


21 


19 


17 


15 


13 


90 


47 


45 


42 


40 


37 


35 


33 


31 


28 


26 


24 


22 


20 


18 


17 


15 


92 


48 


46 


43 


41 


38 


36 


34 


32 


30 


28 


26 


24 


22 


20 


18 


16 


94 


49 


46 


44 


42 


39 


37 


35 


33 


31 


29 


27 


25 


23 


21 


19 


18 


96 


50 


47 


45 


43 


40 


38 


36 


34 


32 


30 


28 


26 


24 


22 


21 


19 


98 


50 


48 


46 


43 


41 


39 


37 


35 


33 


31 


29 


27 


25 


24 


22 


20 


100 


51 


49 


46 


44 


42 


40 


38 


36 


34 


32 


30 


28 


26 


25 


23 


21 


102 


52 


50 


47 


45 


43 


41 


39 


37 


35 


33 


31 


29 


27 


26 


24 


22 


104 


52 


50 


48 


46 


44 


42 


40 


38 


36 


34 


32 


30 


28 


27 


25 


23 


106 


53 


51 


49 


47 


44 


42 


40 


38 


37 


35 


33 


31 


29 


28 


26 


24 


108 


54 


51 


49 


47 


45 


43 


41 


39 


37 


36 


34 


32 


30 


29 


27 


25 


110 


54 


52 


50 


48 


46 


44 


42 


40 


38 


36 


35 


33 


31 


30 


28 


26 


112 


55 


53 


51 


48 


46 


45 


43 


41 


39 


37 


35 


34 


32 


30 


29 


27 


114 


55 


53 


51 


49 


47 


45 


43 


41 


40 


38 


36 


34 


33 


31 


30 


28 


116 


56 


54 


52 


50 


48 


46 


44 


42 


40 


39 


37 


35 


34 


32 


30 


29 


118 


56 


54 


52 


50 


48 


46 


45 


43 


41 


39 


38 


36 


34 


33 


31 


30 


120 


57 


55 


53 


51 


49 


47 


45 


43 


42 


40 


38 


37 


35 


33 


32 


30 


122 


57 


55 


53 


51 


49 


48 


46 


44 


42 


41 


39 


37 


36 


34 


33 


31 


124 


58 


56 


54 


52 


50 


48 


46 


45 


43 


41 


39 


38 


36 


35 


33 


32 


126 


58 


56 


54 


52 


50 


49 


47 


45 


43 


42 


40 


39 


37 


35 


34 


33 


128 


59 


57 


55 


53 


51 


49 


47 


46 


44 


42 


41 


39 


38 


36 


35 


33 


130 


59 


57 


55 


53 


51 


50 


48 


46 


45 


43 


41 


40 


38 


37 


35 


34 


132 


59 


57 


56 


54 


52 


50 


48 


47 


45 


43 


42 


40 


39 


37 


36 


34 


134 


60 


58 


56 


54 


52 


51 


49 


47 


46 


44 


42 


41 


39 


38 


36 


35 


136 


60 


58 


56 


55 


53 


51 


49 


48 


46 


44 


43 


41 


40 


38 


37 


36 


138 


61 


59 


57 


55 


53 


51 


50 


48 


46 


45 


43 


42 


40 


39 


37 


36 


140 


61 


59 


57 


55 


54 


52 


50 


49 


47 


45 


44 


42 


41 


^9 


38 


37 



In Coed Age there appeared the following simple formula for 
calculating humidities of the air from the ordinarj^ hygrometer 
readings: this is: 

100 - H = ^ (d - u-)"" 
a 

in which d and w are the dr}'- and wet-bulb readings (Fahren- 
heit) and H is the percentage humidit}'. This formula requires 
logarithms, and is for sea-level. A simpler one can be devi.sed 
to suit the underground conditions of the mines, where neither 
the temperature nor the humidity varies much. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



10.-) 



Relative Humidity, Per Cent. — Fahrenheit Temperatures. 
Continued 











Pressure = 


23.C 


inc 


les of mercuri 












Air 








Depression of wet-bulb thermometer (t 


-t') 








temp., 
t 


33 


34 


35 


36 


37 


38 


39 


40 


41 


42 


43 


44 


45 


46 


47 


48 


80 


4 


2 































82 


6 


4 


2 





























84 


8 


6 


4 


2 


1 
























86 


11 


8 


6 


4 


2 


1 






















88 


11 


10 


8 


6 


4 


3 


1 




















90 


13 


11 


9 


8 


6 


4 


3 


1 


















92 


14 


13 


11 


9 


8 


6 


5 


3 


2 

















94 


16 


14 


12 


11 


9 


8 


6 


5 


3 


2 















96 


17 


15 


14 


12 


11 


9 


8 


6 


5 


3 


2 


1 











98 


18 


17 


15 


14 


12 


11 


9 


8 


6 


5 


4 


2 


1 








100 


20 


18 


16 


15 


13 


12 


10 


9 


8 


6 


5 


4 


2 


1 






102 


21 


19 


18 


16 


15 


13 


12 


10 


9 


8 


6 


5 


4 


3 


'1 





104 


22 


20 


19 


17 


16 


14 


13 


12 


10 


9 


8 


6 


5 


4 


3 


2 


106 


23 


21 


20 


18 


17 


16 


14 


13 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


5 


4 


3 


108 


24 


22 


21 


19 


18 


17 


15 


14 


12 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


5 


4 


110 


25 


23 


22 


20 


19 


18 


16 


15 


14 


12 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


112 


26 


24 


23 


21 


20 


19 


17 


16 


15 


14 


12 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


114 


27- 


25 


24 


22 


21 


20 


18 


17 


16 


15 


13 


12 


11 


10 


9 


8 


116 


27 


26 


25 


23 


22 


20 


19 


18 


17 


15 


14 


13 


12 


11 


10 


9 


118 


28 


27 


25 


24 


23 


21 


20 


19 


18 


16 


15 


14 


13 


12 


11 


10 


120 


29 


28 


26 


25 


23 


22 


21 


20 


18 


17 


16 


15 


14 


13 


12 


11 


122 


30 


28 


27 


26 


24 


23 


22 


21 


19 


18 


17 


16 


15 


14 


13 


12 


124 


30 


29 


28 


26 


25 


24 


22 


21 


20 


19 


18 


17 


16 


15 


14 


13 


126 


31 


30 


28 


27 


26 


25 


23 


22 


21 


20 


19 


18 


16 


15 


14 


13 


128 


32 


30 


29 


28 


26 


25 


24 


23 


22 


20 


19 


18 


17 


16 


15 


14 


130 


32 


31 


30 


28 


27 


26 


25 


23 


22 


21 


20 


19 


18 


17 


16 


15 


132 


33 


32 


30 


29 


28 


27 


25 


24 


23 


22 


21 


■20 


19 


18 


17 


16 


134 


34 


32 


31 


30 


28 


27 


26 


25 


24 


23 


21 


20 


19 


18 


17 


16 


136 


34 


33 


32 


30 


29 


28 


27 


25 


24 


23 


22 


21 


20 


19 


18 


17 


138 


35 


33 


32 


31 


30 


28 


27 


26 


25 


24 


23 


22 


21 


20 


19 


18 


140 


35 


34 


33 


31 


30 


29 


28 


27 


26 


24 


23 


22 


21 


20 


19 


18 



The following formula is for 27 in. barometer, or about 3,000 
ft. above sea-level (but 1,000 ft. more or less makes little differ- 
ence) and holds true for all readings likely to occur in the mines. 



100 - H = {d 



, /165 - d\ 

"H^o-j 



Thus, if d = 7.5 and w = 7.3, 100 - H = 2 X 4..5, and H = 91 
per cent., and if d = 9.5 and w = 92, 100 - H = 3 X 3..5, H = 
89.5 per cent. These both agree very closely with the data in 
the Smithsonian tables; therefore the formula must be correct 
f9r all dry-bulb readings between 75° and 95°F., especially 
since the wet-biilb carmot be read with sufficient accuracy to 
give H within Yi per cent. 



lOG METALLURCIS'I'S AND C'lIKMISTS' HANDliOOK 



T.vBLE XI. — Pressure of Aqueous Vapor for Temperature 
FROM 100" to 445"^., IN Inches of Mercury 






1 


2 


3 


1 

4 



Inches 
100 1.916 



no 

120 
130 
140. 

150 
160 
170 
180 
190' 



2.576 
3.425 
4.504 
5.862 

7.5,52 
9.637 
12.187 
15.279 
19.001 



200 23.45 
210' 28.75 
220{ 35.01 
230; 42.34 
2401 50.89 

250 ' 60.82 
260 : 72.26 
•270 1 85.41 
280 100.41 
290 117.50 

I 
300 136.8 
310 158.7 
320 183.1 
330 210.6 
340 241.1 

I 
350 275.1 
360 312.6 
370 354.1 
380 399.7 
390 449.7 

400 .504.4 
410 5G4.1 
420 628.8 
4:J0 609.2 
440 775.3 



Inches Inches Indies 

1.975! 2.035! 2.097 

2.730 

3.621 

4.752 

6.171 



2.652 
3.522 
4.627 
6.015 



7.742 
9.870 
12.470 
15.621 
19.412 

23.94 
29.33 
35.69 
43.14 
51.82 

61.89 
73.50 
86.82 
102.03 
119.33 

138.9 
161.0 
185.8 
213.5 
244.3 

278.7 
316.5 
358.4 
404.5 
454.9 

510.1 
,570.3 
635.6 
706.6 
783.2 



7.936 
10.108 
12.759 
15.970 
19.830 

24.44 

29.92 
30.38 
43.94 
52.76 

62.98 
74.75 
88.25 
103.66 
121.18 

141.0 
162.3 
188.4 
216.4 
247.6 

282.3 
320.5 
362.8 
409.3 
460.1 

515.9 
,576.6 
642.5 
714.0 
791.3 



2.810 
3.723 
4.880 
6.331 



8.133 
10.350 
13.0,54 
16.325 
20.255 

24.95 
30.52 
37.08 
44.76 
53.72 

64.08 
76,02 
89.70 
105.32 
123.05 

143.1 
165.7 
191.1 
219.4 
250.9 

285.9 
324.6 
367.3 
414.1 
465.5 

521.7 
,582.9 
649.4 
721.4 
1799.3 



Inches Inches 



2.100 
2.891 
3.827 
5.011 
6.495 

8.335 
10.597 
13.3.54 
16.6.87 
20.688 

25.46 
31.13 
37.79 
45.59 
54.69 

65.20 
77.31 
91.18 
100.99 
124.94 

145.2 
168.1 
193.8 
222.4 
254.2 

289.6 
328.7 
371.8 
419.1 
470.9 

527.6 
589.3 
656.3 
728.9 
807.4 



2.225 
2.975 
3.933 
5.145 
6.662 

8.541 
10.8,'50 
13.660 
17.055 
21.129 

25.99 
31.75 
38.52 
46.44 
55.67 

66.33 
78.61 
92.67 
108.69 
126.86 

147.4 
170.6 
196.5 
225.4 
257.6 

293.3 
332.8 
376.4 
424.1 
476.4 

533.6 
.595.7 
663.3 
736.5 
815.5 



Inches 
2.292 
3.061 
4.042 
5.282 
6.832 

8.752 
11.107 
13.972 
17.430 
21.578 

26.52 
32.38 
39.26 
47.31 
56.67 

67.48 
79.93 
94.18 
110.41 
128.81 

149.6 
173.0 
199.3 
228.5 
261.1 

297.1 
.337.0 
380.9 
429.1 
481.9 

539.5 
602.3 
670.4 
744.2 



Inches Inches 
2.360 2.431 
3.148 
4.1.54 
5.422 
7.006 



3.239 
4.268 
5.565 
7.184 



11.369 
14.289 
17.812 
22.034 

27.06 
33.02 
40.01 
48.19 
57.68 

68.66 
81.27 
95.70 
112.15 
130.78 

151.8 
175.5 
202.1 
231.6 
264.5 

300.9 
341.2 
385.5 
434.1 
487.4 

,545.6 
008. 9 
677.5 
751.9 



9.186 
11.636 
14.613 
18.202 
22.499 

27.62 
33.67 
40.77 
49.08 

58.71 

69.85 
82.63 
97.25 
113.91 
132.78 

154.1 
178.0 
204.9 
234.7 
268.0 

304.8 
345.4 
390.2 
439.2 
493.0 

551.7 
615.5 
684.7 
750.6 



Inches 
2.503 
3.331 
4.385 
5.712 
7.366 

9.409 
11.909 
14.943 
18.598 
22.972 

28.18 
34.33 
41.55 
49.98 
59.76 

71.04 
84.01 
98.82 
115.69 
134.80 

156.4 
180.5 
207.7 
237.9 
271.5 

308.7 
,349.7 
394.9 
444.4 
498.7 

,557.9 
622.1 
691.9 
767.4 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



107 



\\ EIGHT OF A Cubic Foot of Aqueous Vapor at Different 
Temperatures axd Saturations (in Grains) 



Temp., 



Percentage of saturation 



"F. 


10 


20 


30 


40 


50 


60 


70 


80 


90 


100 




Gr. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


-20 


0.017 


0.033 


0.050 


0.066 


0.083 


0.100 


0.116 


0.133 


0.149 


0.166 


—19 


0.017 


0.035 


0.052 


0.070 


0.087 


0.104 


0.122 


0.139 


0.157 


0.174 


—18 


0.018 


0.037 


0.055 


0.074 


0.092 


0.100 


0.129 


0.147 


0.166 


0.184 


-17 


0.020 


0.039 


0.059 


0.078 


0.098 


0.118 


0.137 


0.157 


0.176 


0.196 


—16 


0.021 


0.041 


0.062 


0.083! 0.104 


0.124 


0.145 


0.166 


0.186 0.207 


-15 


0.022 


0.044 


0.065 


0.087 0.109 


0.131 


0.153 


0.174 


0.196 0.218 


— U 


0.023 


0.046 


0.069 


0.0921 0.116 


0.139 


0.162 


0.185 


0.2081 0.231 


—13 


0.024 


0.049 


0.073 


0.0971 0.122 


0.146 


0.170 


0.194 


0.219 0.243 


—12 


0.026 


0.051 


0.077 


0.103, 0.128 


0.1.54 


0.180 


0.206 


0.231 0.257 


—11 


0.027 


0.054 


0.081 


0.108; 0.135 


0.162 


0.189 


0.216 


0.243 0.270 


—10 


0.028 


0.057 


0.086 


0.114 0.142 


0.171 


0.200 


0.228 


0.2.56 0.2S5 


— 9 


0.0.30 


0.060 


0.090 


0.120; 0,150 


0.180 


0.210 


0.240 


0.270 0.300 


-8 


0.032 


0.063 


0.095 


0.126; 0.15S 


0.190 


0.221 


0.2.53 


0.284 0.316 


- 7 


0.033 


0.066 


0.100 


0.133 0.166 


0.199 


0.2.32 


0.266 


0.299 0.,332 


— 6 


0.035 


0.070 


0.105 


0.140| 0.175 


0.210 


0.245 


0.280 


0.315 


0.350 


-5 


0.037 


0.074 


0.111 


0.148 0.185 


0.222 


0.259 


0.296 


0.333 


0.370 


— 4 


0.039 


0.078 


0.117 


0.156 0.194 


0.233 


0.272 


0.311 


0.350 


0..389 


— 3 


0.041 


0.082 


0.123 


0.164 0.206 


0.247 


0.288 


0.329 


0.370 


0.411 


2 


0.043 


0.087 


0.130 


0.174 0.217 


0.260 


0.304 


0.347 


0.391 


0.434 


1 


0.046 


0.091 


0.137 


0.183 0.228 


0.274 


0.320 


0.366 


0.411 


0.457 





0.048 


0.0% 


0.144 


0.192' 0.240 


0.289 


0.337 


0.38.5 


0.433, 0.481 


1 


0.050 


0.101 


0.152 


0.2021 0.252 


0.303 


0.354 


0.404 


0.4541 0.505 


2 


0.0.53 


0.106 


0.159 


0.212 0.264 


0.317 


0.370 


0.423 


0.476! 0.529 


3 


0.055 


0.111 


0.166 


O.222I 0.277 


0.332 


0.388 


0.443 


0.4991 0.554 


4 


0.058 


0.116 


0.175 


0.233| 0.291 


0.349 


0.407 


0.466 


0.524i 0.582 


5 


0.061 


0.122 


0.183 


0.244 


0.305 


0.366 


0.427 


0.488 


0.5491 0.610 


6 


0.064 


0.128 


0.192 


0.256 


0.320 


0.383 


0.447 


0.511 


0.575 


0.639 


7 


0.067 


0.134 


0.201 


0.268 


0.336 


0.403 


0.470 


0.537 


0.604 


0.671 


8 


0.070 


0.141 


0.211 


0.282 


0.352 


0.422 


0.493 


0.563 


0.634 


0.704 


9 


0.074 


0.148 


0.222 


0.296 


0.370 


0.443 


0.517 


0.591 


0.665, 0.739 


10 


0.078 


0.155 


0.233 


0.310 


0.388 


0.466 


0.543 


0.621 


0.698! 0.776 


11 


0.082 


0.163 


0.245 


0.326 


0.408 


0.490 


0.571 


0.653 


0.7341 0.816 


12 


0.086 


0.171 


a. 257 


0.342 


0.428 


0.514 


0.599 


0.685 


0.770 0.856 


13 


0.090 


0.180 


0.269 


0.3.59 


0.449 


O..539 


0.629 


0.718 


0.808 0.898 


14 


0.094 


0.188 


0.282 


0.376 


0.470 


0.565 


0.659 


0.753 


0.847 0.941 


15 


0.099 


0.197 


0.296 


0.394 


0.493 


0.592 


0.690 


0.789 


0.887 


0.986 


16 


0.103 


0.206 


0.310 


0.413 


0.516 


0.619 


0.722 


0.826 


0.929 


1.032 


17 


0.108 


0.216 


0..324 


0.4.32 


0..540 


0.648 


0.7.56 


0.864 


0.972 


1.080 


18 


0.113 


0.226 


0.338 


0.451 


0.564 


0.677 


0.790 


0.902 


1.015 


1.128 


19 


0.118 


0.236 


0.354 


0.472 


0.590 


0.709 


0.827 


0.845 


1.063 


1.181 


20 


0.124 


0.247 


0.370 


0.494 


0.618 


0.741 


0.864 


0.988 


1.112 


1.235 


21 


0.129 


0.2.59 


0.388 


0.518 


0.647 


0.776 


0.906 


1.035 


1.165 


1.294 


22 


0.1.36 


0.271 


0.406 


0..542 


0.67S 


0.813 


0.948 


1.084 


1.220 


1.355 


23 


0.142 


0.284 


0.425 


0..567 


0.709 


0.851 


0.993 


1.134 


1.276 


1.418 


24 


0.148 


0.297 


0.445 


0.593 0.742 


0.890 


1.038 


1.186 


1.335 


1.483 


25 


0.155 


0.310 


0.465 


0.620 0.776 


0.931 


1.086 


1.241 


1.396 


1.551 


26 


0.162 


0.325 


0.487 


0.649i 0.812 


0.974 


1.136 


1.298 


1.461 


1.623 


27 


0.170 


0..339 


0.509 


0.679 0.848 


1.018 


1.188 


1.358 


1.527 


1.697 



108 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Weight of a Cubic Foot of Aqueous Vapor at Different 
Tf-mteratures and Saturations (in Grains). Continued 









Percentage of saturation 








Temp., 
















10 1 20 


30 


40 1 50 


60 


70 


80 


90 1 100 






Gr. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


Gr. 1 Gr. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


Gr. 




28 


0.177 


0.355 


0.532 


0.709 0.886 


1.064 


1.241 


1.418 


1.596 


1.773 




29 


0.185 


0.371 


0.556 


0.741 


0.926 


1.112 


1.297 


1.482 


1.668 


1.853 




30 


0.194 


0.387 


0.580 


0.774 


0.968 


1.161 


1.354 


1.548 


1.742 


1.935 




31 


0.202 


0.404 


0.607 


0.809 


1.011 


1.213 


1.415 


1.618 


1.820 


2.022 




32 


0.211 


0.422 


0.634 


0.845 


1.056 


1.268 


1.479 


1.690 


1.902 


2.113 




33 


0.219 


0.4.'?9 


0.6.58 


0.878 


1.097 


1.316 


1.536 


1.755 


1.975 


2.194 




34 


0.228 


0.456 


0.6S4 


0.912 


1.140 


1.367 


1.595 


1.823 


2.051 


2.279 




35 


0.2.37 


0.473 


0.710 


0.946 


1.183 


1.420 


1.656 


1.893 


2.129 


2.366 




36 


0.246 


0.491 


0.737 


0.983 


1.228 


1.474 


1.720 


1.966 


2.211 


2.457 




37 


0.2.55 


0.510 


0.765 


1.020 


1.275 


1.530 


1.785 


2.040 


2.295 


2.550 




38 


0.2R5 


0..529 


0.794 


1.058 


1.323 


1.588 


1.8.52 


2.117 


2.381 


2.646 




39 


0.275 


0.549 


O.S24 


1.098 


1.373 


1.648 


1.922 


2.197 


2.471 


2.746 




40 


0.285 


0.570 


0.8.55 


1.140 


1.424 


1.709 


1.994 


2.279 


2.564 


2.849 




41 


0.296 


0.591 


0.886 


1.182 


1.478 


1.773 


2.068 


2.364 


2.660 


2.955 




42 


0.306 


0.613 


0.919 


1.226 


1.532 


1.838 


2.145 


2.451 


2.758 


3.064 




43 


0.318 


0.6.35 


0.9.53 


1.271 


1..588 


1.906 


2.224 


2.542 


2.8.59 


3.177 




44 


0.329 


0.659 


0.988 


1.318 


1.647 


1.976 


2.306 


2.635 


2.965 


3.294 




45 


0.341 


0.683 


1.024 


1.366 


1.707 


2.048 


2.390 


2.731 


3.073 


3.414 




46 


0.354 


0.708 


1.062 


1.416 


1.770 


2.123 


2.477 


2.831 


3.185 3.539 




47 


0.367 


0.7.33 


1.100 


1.467 


1.834 


2.200 


2.567 


2.934 


3.300 3.667 




48 


0.380 


0.760 


1.140 


1..520 


1.900 


2.280 


2.660 


3.040 


3.420 3.800 




49 


0.394 


0.787 


1.181 


1..574 


1.968 


2.362 


2.755 


3.1491 3.542 3.936 




50 


0.408 


0.815 


1.223 


1.630! 2.038 


2.446 


2.853 


3.261 


3.6681 4.076 




51 


0.422 


0.844 


1.267 


1.689 


2.111 


2.533 


2.9.55 


3.378 


3.S00i 4.222 




52 


0.437 


0.874 


1.312 


1.749 


2.186 


2.623 


3.060 


3.498 


3.9351 4.372 




53 


0.4.53 


0.907 


1.358 


1.810 


2.263 


2.716 


3.168 


3.621 


4.073 4.526 




54 


0.468 


0.937 


1.406 


1.874 


2.342 


2.811 


3.280 


3.748 


4.216 


4.685 




55 


0.485 


0.970 


1.455 


1.940 


2.424 


2.909 


3.394 


3.879 


4.364 


4.849 




56 


0.502 


1.003 


1.505 


2.006 


2.508 


3.010 


3.511 


4.013 


3.514 


5.016 




57 


0.519 


1.038 


1..5.57 


2.076 


2.596 


3. 115 


3.634 


4.153 


4.672 


5.191 




58 


0..537 


1.074 


1.611 


2.148^ 2.6S5 


3.222 


3.7.59 


4.296 


4.8.33 


5.370 




59 


0.556 


1.111 


1.666 


2.222| 2.778 


3.333 


3.888 


4.444 


5.000 


5.555 




00 


0.574 


1.149 


1.724 


2.298 


2.872 


3.447 


4.022 


4.596 


5.170 


5.745 




61 


0..594 


1.188 


1.782 


2.376 


2.970 


3.565 


4.159 


4.753 


5.347 


5.941 




62 


0.614 


1.228 


1.843 


2.4.57 


3.071 


3.685 


4.299 


4.914 


5.. 528 


6.142 




63 


0.635 


1.270 


1.905 


2.. 540 


3.174 


3.809 


4.444 


5.079 


5.714 


6.349 




64 


0.656 


1.313 


1.969 


2.625! 3.282 


3.938 


4.594 


5.250 


5.907 


6. 563 




65 


0.678 


1.3.56 


2.035 


2.7131 3.391 


4.069 


4.747 


5.426 


6.104 


6.782 




66 


0.701 


1.402 


2.103 


2.804 


3.504 


4.205 


4.906 


5.607 


6.3081 7.009 




67 


0.724 


1.448 


2.172 


2.896 


3.620 


4.. 345 


5.069 


5.793 


6.517i 7.241 




68 


0.74S 


1.4% 


2.244 


2.992 


3.740 


4.488 


5.236 


5.984 


6.732 


7.480 




69 


0.773 


1.545 


2.318 


3.090 


3.863 


4.636 


5.408 


6.181 


6.953 


7.728 




70 


0.798 


1.596 


2.394 


3.192! 3.990 


4.788 


5.586 


6.384 


7.182 


7.980 




71 


0.824 


1.648 


2.472 


3.296 


4.120 


4.944 


5.768 


6.592 


7.416 


8.240 




72 


0.851 


1.702 


2.5.52 


3.403 


4.2.54 


5.105 


5.9.56 


6.806 


7.6.57 


8.508 




73 


0.878 


1.7.56 


2.635 


3.513 


4.391 


5.269 


6.147 


7.026 


7.904 


8.782 




74 


0.907 


1.813 


2.7201 3.626 


4.533 


5.440 


6.346 


7.253 


8.159 


9.066 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



109 



Weight of a Cubic Foot of Aqueous Vapor at Different 
Temperatures and Saturations (In Grains). Conlinued 











Percentage of saturation 








Temp., 




" 


°F 


10 


20 1 30 1 40 


50 


60 


70 


80 


90 


100 




Gr. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


75 


0.936 


1.871 


2.807 


3.742 


4.678 


5.614 


6.549 


7.485 


8.420 


9.356 


76 


0.966 


1.931 


2.896 


3.862 


4.828 


5.703 


6.758 


7.724 


8.690 


9.655 


77 


0.996 


1.992 


2.989 


3.98.5 


4.981 


5.977 


6.973 


7.970 


8.966 


9.962 


78 


1.028 


2.0.55 


3.083 


4.111 


5.138 


6.166 


7.194 


8.222 


9.249 


10.277 


79 


1.060 


2.120 


3.180 


4.240 


5.300 


6.361 


7.421 


8.481 


9.541 


10.601 


80 


1.093 


2. 187 


3.280 


4.374 


5.467 


6.560 


7.6.51 


8.747 


9.841 


10.934 


81 


1.128 


2.2.55 


3.382 


4.510 


5.638 


6.765 


7.892 


9.020 


10.148 


11.275 


82 


1.163 


2.325 


3.488 


4.6.50 


5.813 


6.970 


8.138 


9. .301 


10.463 


11.626 


83 


1.199 


2.307 


3.596 


4.795 


5.994 


7.102 


8.301 


9.. 590 


10.788 


11.987 


84 


1.236 


2.471 


3.707 


4.942 


6.178 


7.414 


8.649 


9.885 


11.120 


12.356 


85 


1.274 


2.547 


3.821 


5.094 


6.. 368 


7.642 


8.915 


10.189 


11.462 


12.736 


86 


1.313 


2.625 


3.938 


5.251 


6.. 564 


7.877 


9.189 


10.. 502 


11.814 


13.127 


87 


1.353 


2.705 


4.058 


5.410 


6.763 


8.116 


9.46S 


10.821 


12.173 


13.526 


88 


1.394 


2.787 


4.181 


5.575 


6.068 


8.362 


9.7.56 


11.1.50 


12.. 543 


13.937 


89 


1.436 


2.872 


4.308 


5.744 


7.180 


8.615 10.051 


11.487 


12.923 


14.359 


90 


1.479 


2.9.58 


4.437 


5.916 


7.395 


8.874 10.353 


11.8.32 


13.311 


14.790 


91 


1..523 


3.047 


4.570 


6.094 


7.617 


9.140 10.664 


12.187 


13.711 


15.234 


92 


1.569 


3.1.38 


4.707 


6.276 


7.844 


9.413 10.982 


12.. 551 


14.120 


15.6S9 


93 


1.616 


3.231 


4.846 


6.462 


8.078 


9.603 11.. 308 


12.924 


14.. 540 


16.155 


94 


1.663 


3.327 


4.990 


6.654 


8.317 


9.980 11.644 


13.307 


14.971 


16.634 


95 


1.712 


3.425 


5.137 


6.8.50 


8.562 


10.274 11.987 


13.699 


15.412 


17.124 


96 


1.763 


3.. 525 


5.288 


7.0.50 


8.813 


10.576 12., 338 


14.101 


15.863 


17.626 


97 


1.814 


3.628 


5.443 


7.257 


9.071 


10.885 12.600 


14.514 


16.. 328 


18.142 


98 


1.867 


3.734 


5.601 


7.468 


9.336 


11.203 13.070 


14.9.37 


16.804 


18.671 


99 


1.921 


3.842 


5.764 


7.685 


9.606 


11.527 13.448 


15.370 


17.291 


19.212 


100 


1.977 


3.9.52 


5.930 


7.906 


9.883 


11.860.13.836 


15.813 


17.789 


19.766 


101 


2.034 


4.067 


6.100 


8.1.34 10.168 


12.201,14.2.34 


16.268 


18.302 


20.335 


102 


2.092 


4.183 


6.275 


8.. 367 10.4.58 


12..5.i0,14.642 


16.7.34 


18.825 


20.917 


103 


2.151 


4.303 


6.4.54 


8.606 10.7.57 


12.908:15.060 


17.211 


19.363 


21.514 


104 


2.212 


4.425 


6.638 


8. SoO 11.062 


13.275 15.488 


17.700 


19.912 


22.125 


105 
106 


2.275 
2.339 


4.550 


6.825 
7.018 


9.100 11.375 


13.6.50!15.925 


18.200 
18.714 


20.475 


22.750 


4.678 


9.357 11 .696 


14.035 16.374 


21 .053 


23.392 


107 


2.405 


4.809 


1.2H 


9.610 12.024 


14.420 16.8.34 


19.23S 


21.643 


24.048 


108 


2.472 


4.944 


7.416 


9.888 12.360 


14. .832, 17.304 


10.776 


22.24*5 


24.720 


109 


2.541 


5.082 


7.622 


10.163 12.704 


15.245 17.786 


20.326 


22^867 


25.408 


110 


2.611 


5.222 


7.834 10.445*13.056' 

1 


15.667 18.278 

I 1 


20.890 


1 

23.501 

1 


26.112 



no METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Tension of Aqueous Vapor at Various Temperatures' 



Temperature, 
degrees C. 



Tension of aque- Temperature, 
ous vapor in mm. degrees C. 



Tension of aque- 
ous vapor in mm. 






4 . 525 


21 


18.505 


1 


4.867 


22 


19.675 


2 


5.231 


23 


20 . 909 


3 


5.619 


24 


22.211 


4 


6.032 


25 


23 . 582 


6 


6.471 


26 


25 . 026 


6 


6.939 


27 


26.547 


7 


7 .436 


28 


28.148 


8 


7.964 


29 


29.832 


9 


8.525 


30 


31.602 


10 


9.126 


31 


33 . 464 


11 


9.751 


32 


35.419 


12 


10.421 


33 


37 . 473 


13 


11.130 


34 


39.630 


14 


11.882 


35 


41.893 


15 


12.677 


36 


44 . 268 


16 


13.519 


37 


46.758 


17 


14.409 


38 


49 . 368 


18 


15.351 


39 


52 . 103 


19 


16 . 345 


40 


54 . 969 


20 


17.396 











' Winkler, "Technical Gas Analysis." 

BAROMETRIC CORRECTIONS 

Corrections for Temperature 





(Mercury, brass 


scale correct at 0°C.) 






Temperature 


Millimeters 


















73 


74 


75 


76 


77 


78 


7!) 


15° 


0.178 


0.181 


0.183 


0.186 


0.188 


0.191 


0.193 


16 


0.190 


0.193 


0.196 


0.198 


0.201 


0.203 


0.206 


17 


0.202 


0.205 


0.208 


0.210 


0.213 


0.216 


0.218 


18 


0.214 


0.217 


0.220 


0.223 


0.226 


0.229 


0.231 


19 


0.226 


0.229 


0.232 


0.235 


0.238 


0.241 


0.244 


20 


0.238 


0.241 


0.244 


0.247 


0.251 


0.254 


0.257 


21 


0.250 


. 253 


0.256 


0.260 


0.263 


0.207 


0,270 


22 


0.261 


0.205 


0.269 


0.272 


0.276 


0.279 


0.283 


23 


0.273 


0.277 


0.281 


0.284 


0.288 


0.292 


0.296 


24 


0.289 


0.289 


0.293 


0.297 


0.301 


0.305 


0.309 



Corrections must be subtracted from observed readings, if reading at 
19°C. is 76 cm., the corrected reading is 76 - 0.235. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



111 



Effect of Altitude ^ 

Table of altitudes in feet above sea-level; with corresponding approxi- 
mate barometric readings, atmospheric pressures and proportionate densities. 

(The capacity of an internal combustion engine at higher altitudes, as 
compared with its capacity at sea-level, is practically proportional to the 
atmospheric densities.) 



Altitude in feet 



Barometer 
in inches 



Atmospheric pres- 
sure in pounds per 
square inch 



Proportionate 

atmospheric 

density 



0.00 


30.0 


14.72 


1.00 


500.0 


29.5 


14.45 


0.98 


1,000.0 


28.9 ■! 


14.18 


0.96 


1.500.0 


28.4 


13.94 


0.94 


2,000 . 


27.9 


13.69 


0.93 


2,. 500.0 


27.4 


13.45 


0.91 


3,000.0 


26.9 i 


13.20 


0.89 


4,000.0 


26.0 


12.75 


0.86 


5.000.0 


25.1 


.12.30 


0.83 


6,000.0 


24.2 


11.85 


0.80 


7,000.0 


23 . 3 


11.44 


0.77 


8,000.0 


22.5 1 


11.04 


0.75 


9,000.0 


21.7 ! 


10.65 


0.73 


10,000.0 


20.9 


10.26 


0.70 



• From the "Diesel Engine," Busch-Sulzer Bros. Diesel Engine Co. 





Correction- 


TO BE 


Added for C 


\PILLARITY 




Diameter 


Height of meniscus in inches 




tube in 
inches 


0.01 j 0.02 


0.03 


0.04 0.05 


0.06 ' 0.07 

1 


o.os 



0.15 
0.20 
0.25 
0.30 
0.35 
0.40 
0.45 
0.50 
0.55 



0.024 
0.011 
0.006 
0.004 



0.047,0.069 0.092 



0.022 
0.012 
0.008 
0.005 
0.004 



. 033 
0.019 
0.013 
0.008 
0.006 
0.003 
0,002 



0.045 
. 028 
0.018 
0.012 
0.008 
0.005 
0.004 



0.116 
0.059 
. 037 
0.023 
0.015 



0.079 

0.047 

0.029 

0.019 
0.01010.012 
0.00710.008 
0.005 0.006 0.006 



0.059 
. 035 
0.022 
0.014 
0.010 



0.042 
0.027 
0.016 
0.012 
0.007 



0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.005 



From 
Xo. 103. 



Ellenwood's "Steam Charts," abbr. from Smithsonian table 



112 MET.\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

B.\ROMETER Correction for Variation in g — Correct at 
45° N. OR S. Latitude 



35° or 55° 
40° or 50° 



065 . 066 . 066; . 067 . 068' . 069i0 . 070 
0.032,0.033 0.033: 0.034 0.035 035:0.035 



Subtract the correction for 35° and 40°. 
.\dd the correction for 50° and 55°. 

Batteries, E.m.f. of Standard Cells 



CeU 


Descriptiou 


■c m f 1 Resist- 
^•">f- 1 ance 


Bichromate . 


Zn and C in 1 vol. strong HiSO* and 

20 vol. sat. KiCnO? sol. 
Zn in 1 vol. strong H:SO« : 12 vol. HsO 

C in strong HNOj. 
Zn amalgam and Hg in eat. ZnSOi sol. 
Zn in ZnS046ol. or HsSO* (1:12) Cu in 

sat. Cu.SOi sol. 
Like Bunsen, C replaced by Ft. 
Zn and C in NH4CI, C and MnOj. 
Pb and PbOj in HjSO* of density 1.2 
Zn and C with sat. CaCl; sol. 
Cd amalgam, and Hg in sat. CdSOi sol. 
CuO and Zn in NaOH. 


2.0 

1.8-1.9 

1.433 
1.07-1.08 

1.8-1.9 

1.5 
2.2-1.9 

1.4 
1.018 
1.12 . 


Very low 


Clark 

Daoiell 


About 500 
About 4 


LeclanchC.. . . 
Secondary. . . 


0.25-0.4 




Weston 

Edison 


About 500 
0.02-0.00 



Hydrometer Conversion Factors 
140 t;^m;h« r^ 1*5 



sp. gr. 



Liquids 
lighter I B(i.° + 130 
than 1 140 _ 130^3^ 



water I 



sp. gr. 



Liquids f Sn cr = 
heavier I ' *" ' 145 - Bf. 

than 1 D, o _ ,,= 1^5 

water [ ^^ - ^^^ ~ 



sp. gr 
To correct B6. readings to 60°: Correct reading = observed reading H 

For the Twaddell hydrometer: 

Tw.° ^ , 

-- + 1 = sp. gr. 

200(sp. gr. - 1) = Tw.° 
For the Gay-Lussac (standardized at 4°C.): 
100 



10 



G.-L.° + 100 
100 



sp. gr. 



- 100 = G.-L 
sp. gr. 

For the Sikes hydrometer: 1° = 0.002 of sp. gr. 

170 
For the Beck (12.5°C.): sp. gr. = 



For the Cartier (12.5°): sp. gr. 



170 + Beck" 

136 

126.1 + Cart." 



For the Brix and the Fisher (15.6°C.): sp. gr. = 



400 



400 + n" 





PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 


113 




CoxvERSiON Table for Degrees Baume^ 




(Liquids lighter than wate 


r^) 




Degrees 
Baum4 


Pounds in 1 
Sp. gr. gal. Ameri- 
can' 


Degrees 
Baum6 


Sp. gr. 


Pounds in 1 
gal. Ameri- 
can* 


10 


1.0000 


8.33 


43 


0.8092 


6.74 


11 


0.9929 


8.27 


44 


0.8045 


6.70 


12 


0.9859 


8.21 


45 


0.8000 


6.66 


13 


0.9790 


8.16 


46 


0.7954 


6.63 


14 


0.9722 


8.10 


47 


0.7909 


6.59 


15 


0.9655 


8.04 


48 


0.7865 


6.55 


16 


0.9589 


7.99 


49 


0.7821 


6.52 


17 


0.9523 


7.93 


50 


0.7777 


6.48 


18 


0.9459 


7.88 


51 


0.7734 


6.44 


19 


0.9395 


7.83 


52 


0.7692 


6.41 


20 


0.9333 


7.78 


53 


0.7650 


6.37 


21 


0.9271 


7.72 


54 


0.7608 


6.34 


22 


0.9210 


7.67 


55 


0.7567 


6.30 


' 23 


0.9150 


7.62 


56 


0.7526 


6.27 


24 


0.9090 


7.57 


57 


0.7486 


6.24 


25 


0.9032 


7.53 


58 


0.7446 


6.20 


26 


0.8974 


7.48 


59 


0.7407 


6.17 


27 


Q.8917 


7.43 


60 


0.7368 


6.14 


28 


0.8860 1 7.38 


61 


0.7329 


6.11 


29 


0.8805 ! 7.34 


62 


0.7290 


6.07 


30 


0.8750 7.29 


63 


0.7253 


6.04 


31 


0.8695 7.24 


64 


0.7216 


6.01 


32 


0.8641 


7.20 


65 


0.7179 


5.98 


33 


0.8588 


7. 15 


66 


0.7142 


5.95 


34 


0.8536 ! 7.11 


67 


0.7106 


5.92 


35 


0.8484 7.07 


68 


0.7070 


5.89 


36 


0.8433 , 7.03 


69 


0.7035 


5.86 


37 


0.8383 i 6.98 


70 


0.7000 


5.83 


38 


0.8333 6.94 


75 


0.6829 


5.69 


39 


0.8284 6.90 


80 


0.6666 


5.55 


40 


0.8235 6.86 


85 


0.6511 


5.42 


41 


0:8187 6.82 


90 


0.6363 


5.30 


42 


0.8139 6.78 


95 


0.6222 


5.18 


' The Baai 


n^ scale is entirely arbitrary, so varioL 


s authoritie 


s give various 


values for th< 


; above table. These given above are 


from a table 


' specially cal- 


culated for tl 


le "Petroleum Year Book, 1914" by 


T.\GLIABCE 


of New York. 


The formulas 


on p. 112 were also furnished by him f 


or the same 


work. 


2 For liqui 


is heavier than water, see the sulphur 


ic acid table 


on page 115. 


' Sp. gr. X 
8 


10 = poun 


ds per imperis 


d gallon. 







Ill METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Specific Gr.wity of Sulphuric Acid* at 15°C., Compared tu 
Water at 4°C. 



8p. Kr. at. 
15° 


Degrees 
Bauni6 


Degrees 
Twaddell 


100 part 


3 of c.p. acid contain 


, per cent. 












'i° 






SO, 


HiSOi 


60''B6. 
acid 


50»B^. 
acid 


1.000 


0.0 





0.07 


0.09 


0.12 


0.14 


1.005 


0.7 


1 


0.68 


0.83 


1.06 


1.33 


1.010 


1.4 


2 


1.28 


1.57 


2.01 


2.51 


1.015 


2.1 


3 


1.88 


2.30 


2.95 


3.68 


1.020 


2.7 


4 


2.47 


3.03 


3.88 


4.85 


1.025 


3.4 


5 


3.07 


3.76 


4.82 


6.02 


1.030 


4.1 


6 


3,67 


4.49 


5.78 


7.18 


1.035 


4.7 


7 


4.27 


5.23 


6.73 


8.37 


1.040 


5.4 


8 


4.87 


5.96 


7.64 


9.54 


1.045 


6.0 


9 


5.45 


6.67 


8.55 


10.67 


1.050 


6.7 


10 


6.02 


7.37 


9.44 


11.79 


1.055 


7.4 


11 


6.59 


8.07 


10.34 


12.91 


1.060 


8.0 


12 


7.16 


8.77 


11.24 


14.03 


1.065 


8.7 


13 


7.73 


9.47 


12.14 


15.15 


1.070 


9.4 


14 


8.32 


10.19 


13.05 


16.30 


1.075 


10.0 


15 


8.90 


10.90 


13.96 


17.44 


1.080 


10.6 


16 


9.47 


11.60 


14.87 


18.56 


1.085 


11.2 


17 


10.04 


12.30 


15.76 


19.68 


1.090 


11.9 


18 


10.60 


12.99 


16.65 


20 . 78 


1.095 


12.4 


19 


11.16 


13.67 


17.52 


21.87 


1.100 


13.0 


20 


11.71 


14.35 


18.39 


22.96 


1.105 


13.6 


21 


12.27 


15.03 


19.26 


24.05 


1.110 


14.2 


22 


12.82 


15.71 


20.13 


25.14 


1.115 


14.9 


23 


13.36 


16.36 


20.96 


26.18 


1.120 


15.4 


24 


13.89 


17.01 


21.80 


27.22 


1.125 


16.0 


25 


14.42 


17.66 


22.63 


28.26 


1.130 


16.5 


26 


14.95 


18.31 


23.47 


29.30 


1.135 


17.1 


27 


15.48 


18.96 


24.29 


30.34 


1.140 


17.7 


28 


16.01 


19.61 


25.13 


31.38 


1.145 


18.3 


29 


16.54 


20.26 


25.96 


32 . 42 


1.150 


18.8 


30 


17.07 


20.91 


26.79 


33. 4G 


1.155 


19.3 


31 


17.59 


21.55 


27.61 


34. 4s 


1.160 


19.8 


32 


18.11 


22.19 


28.43 


35 . 50 


1.165 


20.3 


33 


18.64 


22.83 


29.35 


36 . 53 


1.170 


20.9 


34 


19.16 


23.47 


30.07 


37 . 55 


1.175 


21.4 


35 


19.69 


24.12 


30.90 


38.59 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



115 



Specific Gravity of Sulphuric Acid^ at 15°C., Compared to 
Water at 4°C. Continued 



Sp. gr. at 
15° 






100 parts of c.p. acid contain 


per cent. 


Degrees 
Bauni6 


Degrees 
Tvvaddell 




















4°" 






SO3 


H2SO4 


60°B6. 
acid 


SO^Bfi. 
acid 


1.180 


22.0 


36 


20.21 


24.76 


31.73 


39.62 


1.185 


22.5 


37 


20.73 


25.40 


32.55 


40.64 


1.190 


23.0 


38 


21.26 


26.04 


33.37 


41.66 


1.195 


23.5 


39 


21.78 


26.68 


34.19 


42.69 


1.200 


24.0 


40 


22.30 


27.32 


35.01 


43.71 


1.205 


24.5 


41 


22.82 


27.95 


35 . 83 


44.72 


1.210 


25.0 


42 


23 . 33 


28.58 


36.66 


45.73 


1.215 


25.5 


43 


23.84 


29.21 


37.45 


46,74 


1.220 


26.0 


44 


24.36 


29.84 


38.23 


47.74 


1.225 


26.4 


45 


24.88 


30.48 


39.05 


48.77 


1.230 


26.9 


46 


25.39 


31.11 


39.86 


49.78 


1.235 


27.4 


47 


25.88 


31.70 


40.61 


50.72 


1.240 


27.9 


48 


26,35 


32.28 


41.37 


51.65 


1.245 


28.4 


49 


26.83 


32.86 


42.11 


52.58 


1.250 


28.8 


50 


27.29 


33.43 


42.84 


53.49 


1.255 


29.3 


51 


27.76 


34.00 


43.57 


54.40 


1.260 


29.7 


52 


28.22 


34.57 


44.30 


55.31 


1.265 


30.2 


53 


28.69 


35,14 


45.03 


56.22 


1.270 


30.6 


54 


29.15 


35.71 


45.76 


57.14 


1.275 


31.1 


55 


29.62 


36.29 


46.50 


58.06 


1.280 


31.5 


56 


30.10 


36.87 


47.24 


58.99 


1.285 


32.0 


57 


30.57 


37 , 45 


47.99 


59.92 


1.290 


32.4 


58 


31.04 


38,03 


48.73 


60.85 


1.295 


32.8 


•59 


31.52 


38.61 


49.47 


61.78 


1.300 


33.3 


60 


31.99 


39.19 


50.21 


62.70 


1.305 


33.7 


61 


32.46 


39.77 


50.96 


63.63 


1.310 


34.2 


62 


32.94 


40.35 


51.71 


64.56 


1.315 


34.6 


63 


33.41 


40.93 


52.45 


65.45 


1.320 


35.0 


64 


33.88 


41.50 


53.18 


66.40 


1.325 


35.4 


65 


34.35 


42.08 


53.92 


67.33 


1.330 


35.8 


66 


34.80 


42.66 


54.67 


68.26 


1.335 


36.2 


67 


35.27 


43.20 


55.36 


69.12 


1.340 


36.6 


68 


35.71 


43.74 


56.05 


69.98 


1.345 


37.0 


69 


36.14 


44.28 


56.74 


70,85 


1.350 


37.4 


70 


36.58 


44.82 


57.43 


71.71 


1.355 


37.8 


71 


37.02 


45.35 


58.11 


72.56 



IIG METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Specific 


Gravity of Sulphuric Acid 


1 AT 15°C.,C0MP 


ARED TO 






W 


'.VTER AT 4°C. Continued 




yp 


Kr. at 
15° 


Degrees 
Bauni6 


Degrees 
Twaddell 


100 parts of c.p. ac 


d contain, per cent. 














4° 






SOa 


H-SO« 


60" B6. 
acid 


50° B4. 
acid 




.360 


38.2 


72 


37.45 


45.88 


58.79 


73.41 




.365 


38.6 


73 


37.89 


46.41 


59.48 


74 . 26 




.370 


39.0 


74 


38.32 


46.94 


60.15 


75.10 




.375 


39.4 


75 


38.75 


47.47 


60.83 1 75.95 




.380 


39.8 


76 


39.18 


48.00 


61.51 


76.80 




.385 


40.1 


77 


39.62 


48.53 


62.19 


77.65 




.390 


40.5 


78 


40.05 


49.06 


62.87 


78.50 




.395 


40.8 


79 


40.48 


49.59 


63.55 


79.34 




.400 


41.2 


80 


40.91 


50.11 


64.21 


80.18 




.405 


41.6 


81 


41.33 


50.63 


64.88 


81.01 




410 


42.0 


82 


41.76 


51.15 


65.55 


81.86 




415 


42.3 


83 


42.17 


51.66 


66.21 


82.66 




420 


42.7 


84 


42 . 57 


52.15 


66.82 


83.44 




425 


43.1 


85 


42.96 


52.63 


67.44 


84.21 




430 


43.4 


86 


43.36 


53.11 


68.06 


84.98 




435 


43.8 


87 


43 . 75 


53.59 


68.68 


85.74 




440 


44.1 


88 


44.14 


54.07 


69.29 


86.51 




445 


44.4 


89 


44.53 


54.55 


69.90 


87.28 




450 


44.8 


90 


44.92 


55.03 


70.52 


88.05 




455 


45.1 


91 


45.31 


55.50 


71.12 


88.80 




460 


45.4 


92 


45.69 


55.97 


71.72 


89.55 




.465 


45.8 


93 


46.07 


56.43 


72.31 


90.29 




470 


46.1 


94 


46.45 


56.90 


72.91 


91.04 




475 


46.4 


95 


46.83 


57.37 


73.51 


91.79 




480 


46.8 


96 


47.21 


57.83 


74.10 


92.53 




485 


47.1 


97 


47 . 57 


58 . 28 


74.68 


93 . 25 




490 


47.4 


98 


47.95 


58.74 


75.27 


93.98 




495 


47.8 


99 


48.34 


59.22 


75.88 


94.75 




500 


48.1 


100 


48.73 


59.70 


76.50 


95.52 




505 


48.4 


101 


49.12 


60.18 


77.12 


96.29 




510 


48.7 


102 


49.51 


60.65 


77.72 


97.04 




515 


49.0 


103 


49.89 


61.12 


78.32 


97.79 




520 


49.4 


104 


50.28 


61.59 


78.93 


98.54 




525 


49.7 


105 


50 06 


62 06 


79.52 


99.30 


1 


530 


50.0 


106 


51.04 


62.53 


80.13 


100. 0.T 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



117 



Specific Gravity of Sulphuric Acid^ at 15°C., Compared to 
Water at 4°C. Continued 


Sp. gr. at 
15° 


Degrees 
Baum^ 


Degrees 
Twaddell 


100 parts of c.p. acid contain, per cent. 


"4° 


SO3 


H2SO4 


60°B6. 
acid 


50°B^. 
acid 


1.535 
1.540 
1.545 
1.550 


50.3 
50.6 
50.9 
51.2 


107 
108 
109 
110 


51.43 
51.78 
52.12 
52.46 


63.00 
63.43 
63.85 
64.26 


80.73 

81.28 
81.81 
82.34 


100.80 
101.49 
102.16 
102.82 


1.555 
1.560 
1.565 
1.570 
1.575 


51.5 
51.8 
52.1 
52.4 
52.7 


111 
112 
113 
114 
115 


52.79 
53.12 
53.46 
53.80 
54.13 


64.67 
65.08 
65.49 
65.90 
66.30 


82.87 
83.39 
83.92 
84.44 
84.95 


103.47 
104.13 
104.78 
105.44 
106.08 


1.580 
1.585 
1.590 
1.595 
1.600 


53.0 
53.3 
53.6 
53.9 
54.1 


116 
117 
118 
119 
120 


54.46 
54.80 
55.18 
55.55 
55.93 


66.71 
67.13 
67.59 
68.05 
68.51 


85.48 
86.03 
86.62 
87.20 
87.79 


•106.73 
107.41 
108.14 
108.88 
109.62 


1.605 
1.610 
1.615 
1.620 
1.625 


54.4 
54.7 
55.0 
65.2 
55.5 


121 ' 

122 

123 

124 

125 


56.30 
56.68 
57.05 
57.40 
57.75 


68.97 
69.43 
69.89 
70.32 
70.74 


88.38 
88.97 
89.56 
90.11 
90.65 


110.35 
111.09 
111.82 
112.51 
113.18 


1.630 
1.635 
1.640 
1.645 
1.650 


55.8 
56.0 
56.3 
56.6 
56.9 


126 
127 
128 
129 
130 


58.09 
58 . 43 
58.77 
59.10 
59.45 


71.16 
71.57 
71.99 
72.40 

72 . 82 


91.19 
91.71 
92 . 25 
92.77 
93.29 


113.86 
114.51 
115.18 
115.84 
116.51 


1.655 
1.660 
1.665 
1.670 
1.675 


57.1 
57.4 

57.7 
57.9 
58.2 


131 
132 
133 
134 
135 


59.78 
60.11 
60.46 
60.82 
61.20 


73.23 
73.64 
74.07 
74.51 
74.97 


93.81 

94 . 36 
94.92 

95 . 48 
96.07 


117.17 
117.82 
118.51 
119.22 
119.95 


1.680 
1.685 
1.690 
1.695 
1.700 


58.4 
58.7 
58.9 
59.2 
59.5 


136 
137 
138 
139 
140 


61.57 
61.93 
62 . 29 
62.64 
63.00 


75.42 
75.86 
76.30 
76.73 
77.17 


96.65 
97.21 
97.77 
98 . 32 
98.89 


120.67 
121.38 
122.08 
122.77 
123.47 


1,705 
1.710 


59.7 
60.0 


141 
142 


63.35 
63.70 


77.60 
78.04 


99.44 
100.00 


124.16 
124.86 



118 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Specific Gravity op Sulphuric Acid^ at 15°C., Compared to 
Water at 4°C. Conlinued 



Sp. gr. at 
15° 



Degrees 
Baumd 



Degrees 
Twaddell 



100 parts of c.p. acid contain, per cent. 



SOs 



H2SO1 



acid acid 



1.715 
1.720 
1.725 

1.730 
1.735 
1.740 
1.745 
1.750 

1.755 
1.760 
1.765 
1.770 
1.775 

1.780 
1.785 
1.790 
1.795 
1.800 

1.805 
1.810 
1.815 
1.820 
1.821 

1.822 
1.823 
1.824 
1.825 
1.826 

1.827 
1.828 
1.829 
1.830 
1.831 

1.832 
1.833 



60.2 
60.4 
60.6 

60.9 
61.1 
61.4 
61.6 
61.8 

62.1 
62.3 
62.5 
62.8 
63.0 

63.2 
63.5 
63.7 
64.0 
64.2 

64.4 
64.6 
64.8 
65.0 



65.1 



65.2 



65.3 



65.4 



65.5 

65 .6 



143 
144 
145 

146 
147 
148 
149 
150 

151 

152 
153 
154 
155 

156 
157 
158 
159 
160 

161 
162 
163 
164 



165 



166 



64.07 
64.43 
64.78 

65.14 
65.50 
65.86 
66 . 22 
66.58 

66.94 
67.30 
67.65 
68.02 
68.49 

68.98 
69.47 
69.96 
70.45 
70.94 

71.50 
72.08 
72.69 
73.51 
73.63 

73.80 
73.96 
74.12 
74.29 
74.49 

74.69 
74.86 
75.03 
75.19 
75.35 

75 . 53 
75.72 



78.48 
78 . 92 
79.36 

79.80 
80.24 
80.68 
81.12 
81.56 

82.00 
82.44 
82.88 
83.32 
83.90 

84.50 
85.10 
85.70 
86.30 
86.90 

87.60 
88.30 
89.05 
90.05 
90.20 

90.40 
90.60 
90.80 
91.00 
91.25 

91.50 
91.70 
91.90 
92.10 
92.30 

92.52 
92.75 



100.56 
101.13 
101.69 

102.25 
102.82 
103.38 
103 . 95 
104.52 

105.08 
105.64 
106.21 
106.77 
107.51 

108.27 
109 . 05 
109 . 82 
110.58 
111.35 

112.25 
113.15 
114.11 
115.33 
115.59 

115.84 
116.10 
116.35 
116.61 
116.93 

117.25 
117.51 
117.76 
118.02 
118.27 

118.56 
118.85 



PBCIFIC 


PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 119 

Gravity of Sulphuric Acid^ at 15°C., Compared to 
Water at 4^C. Continued 


3p. gr. at 
15° 
4° 


Degrees 
Baumfi 


Degrees 
Twaddell 


100 parts of c.p. acid contain, per cent. 


SO3 


H2S04 


60°B6. 1 SOOfiS. 
acid 1 acid 


1.834 
1.835 
1.836 

1.837 
1.838 
1.839 
1.840 
1.8405 

1.8410 
1.8415 
1.8410 
1.8405 
1.8400 

1.8395 
1.8390 
1.8385 






75.96 

76.27 
76.57 

76.90 
77.23 
77.55 
78.04 
78.33 

79.19 

79.76 
80.16 
80.57 
80.98 

81.18 
81.39 
81.59 


93.05 
93.43 
93.80 

94.20 
94.60 
95.00 
95.60 
95.95 

97.00 
97.70 
98.20 
98.70 
99.20 

99.45 
99.70 
99.95 


119.23 
119.72 
120.19 

120.71 
121.22 
121.74 
122.51 
122.96 

124.30 
125.20 
125.84 
126.48 
127.12 

127.44 
127.76 
128.08 


148 88 


65.7 


167 . 


149.49 
150 08 






150 72 


65.8 




151.36 
152 00 


65.9 


168 


152 . 96 
153.52 






155 20 






156 32 






157 12 






157 92 






158 72 






159.12 






159 52 






159 92 









' According to Lunge and Isle r; and Lunge and Naef. Lunge, "The 
Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid and Alkali," D. Van Nostrand & Co., New 
i'ork. 

To reduce specific gravities observed at other temperatures 
than 15°C. to 15°C., roughly: For each degree above or below 
15°, add to or subtract from the specific gravity observed: 
. 0006 with acids to 1 . 170 
0.0007 withacids from 1 . 170 to 1 .450 
. 0008 with acids from 1 . 450 to 1 . 580 
. 0009 with acids from 1 . 580 to 1 . 750 
0. 0010 with acids from 1 . 750 to 1 . 840 



Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Boils Melts 

H2SO4 66° acid 60° acid at at 

66° acid = 93.19 = 100.00 = 119.98 538°r. -29°F. 

60° acid = 77.67 = 83.35 = 100.00 386°F. +12°F. 

50° acid = 62.18 = 66.72 = 80.06 295°F. -27°F. 



Sp. gr. 

1.8354 
1 . 7059 
1 . 5263 



Note. — The table given on pp. 114 to 119 is used by the dye- 
tnakers, that on pp. 120 and 121 by the acid manufacturers 
and powder plants. The differences are in the third or fourth 
figures and are probably less than the errors of observation. 
The New Jersey Zinc Co. uses figures differing slightly from 
both tables. 



120 METALLrRGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Specific Gramtv of Sulphuric Acid at GOT., Compaukp 
WITH Water at 60° F. 

Tiiia table is the one approved and adopted as a standard by the Manu- 
facturing Chemists Association of the United States. (See note on p. 119.) 



Degrees 
Baum6 


Sp. gr. at 
60° 
60° 


Degrees 
Twaddell 


W>. of 

1 cu. ft. in 
11). Avoir. 


Per cent. 
H2SO4 


I.b. of 6f>° 
acid in 
1 cu. ft. 


Mtlting 

(or frcczinc^ 

point, °1'. 





1.0000 


0.0 


62.37 


0.00 


0.00 


32.0 


1 


1.0069 


1.4 


62.80 


1.02 


0.68 


31.2 


2 


1.0140 


2.8 


63.24 


• 2.08 


1.41 


30.5 


3 


1.0211 


4.2 


63 . 69 


3.13 


2.14 


29.8 


4 


1.0284 


5.7 


64.14 


4.21 


2.90 


28.9 


5 


1.0357 


7.1 


64.60 


5.28 


• 3.66 


28.1 


6 


1.0432 


8.6 


65.06 


6.37 


4.45 


27.2 


7 


1.0507 


10.1 


65.53 


7.45 


5.24 


26.3 


8 


1.0584 


11.7 


66.01 


8.55 


6.06 


25.1 


9 


1.0662 


13.2 


66.50 


9.66 


6.89 


24.0 


10 


1.0741 


14.8 


66.99 


10.77 


7.74 


22.8 


11 


1.0821 


16.4 


67.49 


11.89 


8.61 


21.5 


12 


1.0902 


18.0 


68.00 


13.01 


9.49 


20,0 


13 


1.0985 


19.7 


68.51 


14.13 


10.39 


18.3 


14 


1.1069 


21.4 


69 . 04 • 


15.25 


11.30 


16,6 


15 


1.1154 


23.1 


69.57 


16.38 


12.23 


14.7 


16 


1 . 1240 


24.8 


70.10 


17.53 


13.19 


12.6 


17 


1.1328 


26.6 


70.65 


18.71 


14.18 


10.2 


18 


1.1417 


28.3 


71.21 


19.89 


15.20 


7.7 


19 


1 . 1508 


30.2 


71.78 


21.07 


16.23 


4.8 


20 


1.1600 


32.0 


72.35 


22.25 


17:27 


+ 1.6 


21 


1 . 1694 


33.9 


72.94 


23.43 


18.34 


-1.8 


22 


1.1789 


35.8 


73 . 53 


24.61 


19.42 


-6.0 


23 


1.1885 


37.7 


74.13 


25.8] 


20.53 


-11.0 


24 


1 . 1983 


39.7 


74.74 


27.03 


21.68 


-16.0 


25 


1.2083 


41.7 


75.36 


28.28 


22.87 


-23.0 


26 


1.2185 


43.7 


76.00 


29.53 


24.08 


-30.0 


27 


1.2288 


45.8 


76.64 


30.79 


25.32 


-39,0 


28 


1.2393 


47.9 


77.30 


32,05 


26.58 


-49,0 


29 


1.2500 


50.0 


77.96 


33.33 


27.88 


-61,0 


30 


1.2609 


52.2 


78.64 


34.63 


29.22 


-74,0 


31 


1.2719 


54.4 


79.33 


35.93 


30.58 


-82,0 


32 


1.2832 


56.6 


80.03 


37.26 


32.00 


-96.0 


33 


1.2946 


58.9 


80.74 


38.58 


33.42 


-97.0 


34 


1.3063 


61.3 


81.47 


39.92 


34.90 


-91.0 


35 


1.3182 


63.6 


82.22 


41.27 


36.41 


-81.0 


36 


1.3303 


66.1 


82.97 


42.63 


37.95 


-70.0 


37 


1.3426 


68.5 


83.74 


43.99 


39.53 


-60,0 


38 


1.3551 


71.0 


84.52 


45 . 35 


41.13 


-53 


39 


1.3679 


73.6 


85.32 


46.72 


42.77 


-47,0 


40 


1.3810 


76.2 


86.13 


48.10 


44.45 


-41,0 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS" 



121 



Specific GRA\^TY of Sulphuric Acid at 60° F., Compared 
vriTK Water at 60°F. 

This table is the one approved and adopted as a standard by the Manu- 
facturing Chemists Association of the United States. (See note on p. 119.) 



Degrees 
Baum6 


Sp. gr. at 
60° 
60° 


Degrees 
Twaddell 


Wt. of 
I cu. ft. in 
lb. Avoir. 


Per cent. 
. H2SO4 


Lb. of 66° 
acid in 
1 cu. ft. 


Melting 

(or freezing) 

point, °F. 


41 


1.3942 


78.8 


86.96 


49.47 


46.16 


-35.0 


42 


1 . 4078 


81.6 


87.80 


50.87 


47.92 


-31.0 


43 


1.4216 


84.3 


88.67 


52.26 


49.72 


-27.0 


44 


1.4356 


87.1 ; 


89.54 


53.66 


51.56 


-23.0 


45 


1.4500 


90.0 


90.44 


55.07 


53.44 


-20.0 


46 


1. '646 


92.9 


91.35 


56.48 


55.36 


-14.0 


47 


1.4796 


95.9 


92.28 


57.90 


57.33 


-15.0 


48 


1 . 4948 


99.0 


93 . 23 


59.32 


59.34 


-18.0 


49 


1.5104 


102.1 


94.20 


60.75 


61.40 


-22.0 


50 


1.5263 


105.3 


95.20 


62.18 


63.52 


-27.0 


51 


1 . 5426 


108.5 


96.21 


63.66 


65.72 


-33.0 


52 


1.5591 


111.8 


97.24 


65.13 


67.96 


-39.0 


53 


1.5761 


115.2 


98.30 


66.63 


70.28 


-49.0 


54 


1 . 5934 


118.7 : 


99.38 


68.13 


72.66 


-59.0 


55 


1.6111 


122.2 


100.48 


69.65 


75.10 




56 


1 . 6292 


125.8 i 


101.61 


71.17 


77.60 




57 


1.6477 


129.5 1 


102.77 


72.75 


80.23 




58 


1 . 6667 


133.3 


103.95 


74.36 


82.95 




59 


1.6860 


137.2 ; 


105.16 


75.99 


85 . 75 


-7.0 


60 


1.7059 


141.2 


106.40 


77.67 


88.68 


+ 12.6 


61 


1.7262 


145.2 


107.66 


79.43 


91.76 


+27.3 


62 


1 . 7470 


149.4 1 


108 . 96 


81.30 


95.06 


+39.1 


63 


1.7683 


153.7 


110.29 


83.34 


98.63 


+46.1 


64 


1 . 7901 


158.0 i 


111.65 


85 . 66 


102.63 


+46.4 


65 


1.8125 


162.5 


113.05 


88.65 


107 . 54 


+33.1 


66 


1 . 8354 


167.1 


114.47 


93.19 


114.47 


-29.0 



HiS04 • HoO 
H2SO4 • 2H2O 



63.2°Be. approx. =83.74 per cent. H2SO4. 
56.9°B6. approx. =72.59 per cent. H2SO4. 



Temperature Corrections 
For each degree in observed temperature above 60°F. add the 
correction to the observed specific gravity to get the true specific 
gravity at 60°. For each degree below 60°, subtract. 

For 10°Be. acid. 0.029 Be. or 0.00023 sp. gr. per deg. F. 
Be. or . 00034 sp. gr. per deg. F. 
Be. or . 00039 sp. gr. per deg. F. 
Be. or 0.00041 sp. gr. per deg. F. 
B6. or 0.00045 sp. gr. per deg. F. 
Be. or 0.00053 sp. gr. per deg. F. 
B6. or . 00057 sp. gr. per deg. F. 



For 20°Be. acid, 0.036 
For 30°Be. acid, 0.035 
For 40°Be. acid, 0.031 
For 50^Bc. acid, 0.028 
For 60°Be. acid, . 026 
For 63°Be. acid, 0.026 



For 66°Be. acid, 0.0235 Be. or 0.00054 sp. gr. per deg. F. 



122 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 







Specific 


Gr.wity of Hydrochlori 


c Acid 




Sp. gr. 
15° 


Degrees 


Degrees 


100 parts acid contain by 


veight 




Baurn6 


Twaddell 


Per cent., 


Per cent., 


Per cent,. 


Per cent. 


4° 






HCl 


18° a id 


20° acid 


22° acid 


1.000 


0.0 


0.0 


0.16 


0.57 


0.49 


0.45 




005 


0.7 


1 


1.15 


4.08 


3.58 


3.25 




010 


1.4 


2 


2.14 


7.60 


6.66 


6.04 




015 


2.1 


3 


3.12 


11.08 


9.71 


8.81 




020 


2.7 


4 


4.13 


14.67 


12.86 


11.67 




025 


3.4 


5 


5.15 


18.30 


16.04 


14.55 




030 


4.1 


6 


6.15 


21.85 


19.16 


17.38 




035 


4.7 


7 


7.15 


25.40 


22.27 


20,20 




040 


5.4 


8 


8.16 


28.99 


25.42 


23,00 




045 


6.0 


9 


9.16 


32.55 


28.53 


25 , 88 




050 


6.7 


10 


10.17 


36.14 


31.68 


28,74 




055 


7.4 


11 


11.18 


39.73 


34,82 


31,59 




060 


8.0 


12 


12.19 


43.32 


37.97 


34,44 




065 


8.7 


13 


13.19 


46.87 


41.09 


37,27 




070 


9.4 


14 


14.17 


50.35 


44.14 


40,04 




075 


10.0 


15 


15.16 


53.87 


47.22 


42,84 




080 


10.6 


16 


16.15 


57.39 


50.31 


45,63 




085 


11.2 


17 


17.13 


60.87 


53.36 


48,40 




090 


11.9 


18 


18.11 


64.35 


56.41 


51.17 




095 


12.4 


19 


19.06 


67.73 


59.37 


53 . 86 




100 


13.0 


20 


20.01 


71.11 


62.33 


56.54 




105 


13.6 


21 


20.97 


74.52 


65.32 


59.26 




110 


14.2 


22 


21.92 


77.89 


68.28 


61.94 




115 


14.9 


23 


22.86 


81.23 


71.21 


64.60 




120 


15.4 


24 


23,82 


84.64 


74.20 


67.31 




125 


16.0 


25 


24.78 


88.06 


77.19 


70.02 




130 


16.5 


26 


25 . 75 


91.50 


80.21 


72.76 




135 


17.1 


27 


26.70 


94.88 


83.18 


75.45 




140 


17.7 


28 


27 . 06 


98.29 


86.17 


78.16 




145 


18.3 


29 


28.61 


101.67 


87.66 


79.51 




150 


18.8 


30 


29 . 57 


105.08 


92.11 


83 , 55 




155 


19.3 


31 


30,55 


108.58 


95.17 


86.32 




160 


19.8 


• 32 


31.52 


112.01 


98.19 


89.07 




165 


20.3 


33 


32.49 


115.46 


101.21 


91,81 




170 


20.9 


34 


33 , 46 


118.91 


104.24 


94.55 




175 


21.4 


35 


34.42 


122 . 32 


107.22 


97.26 




180 


22.0 


36 


35.39 


125.76 


110.24 


100.00 




185 


22.5 


37 


36.31 


129.03 


131.11 


102.60 




190 


23.0 


38 


37.23 


132.30 


115.98 


105.20 




195 


23.5 


39 


38.16 


135.61 


118.87 


107.83 




200 


24.0 


40 


39.11 


138.98 


121.84 


110.51 



Thi.s table is taken from Lun^e. Other authorities differ, 
giving in one case as much as 40.78 per cent, of HCl in 1.20 
sp. gr. acid. 







PHYSICAL < 


30XSTAXTS 




123 


Specifi 


c Gravity of Xitric Acid 


AT 15° 


CoMP.\RED WITH 








W.\TER .\T 4^^ 








Sp. gr. 
15° 




1 


100 parts ( 


jf acid contain by w 


eight 


Degrees 


Degrees 




















1°" 


Baum6 


Twaddell 


N2O6 


HNO3 


38° acid 


[ 40° acid 

1 


48.5° 
acid 


1.000 


0.0 





0.08 


0.10 


0.19 


0.16 


0.10 


1.005 


0.7 


1 


0.85 


1.00 


1.89 


1.61 


1.03 


1.010 


1.4 


2 


1.62 


1.90 


3.60 


3.07 


1.95 


1.015 


2.1 


3 


2.39 


2.80 


5.30 


4.52 


2.87 


1.020 


2.7 


4 


3.17 


3.70 


7.01 


5.98 


3.79 


1.025 


3.4 


5 


3.94 


4.60 


8.71 


7.43 


4.72 


1.030 


4.1 


6 


4.71 


5.50 


10.42 


8.88 


5.64 


1.035 


4.7 


7 


5.47 


6.38 


12.08 


10.30 


6.54 


1.040 


5.4 


8 


6.22 


7.26 


13.75 


11.72 


7.45 


1.045 


6.0 


9 


6.97 


8.13 


15.40 


13.13 


8.34 


1.050 


6.7 


10 


7.71 


8.99 


17.03 


14.52 


9.22 


1.055 


7.4 


11 


8.43 


9.84 


18.64 


15.89 


10.09 


1.060 


8.0 


12 


9.15 


10.68 


20.23 


17.25 


10.95 


1.065 


8.7 


13 


9.87 


11.51 


21.80 


18.59 


11.81 


1.070 


9.4 


14 


10.57 


12.33 


23.35 


19.91 


12.65 


1.075 


10.0 


15 


11.27 


13.15 


24.91 


21.24 


13.49 


1.080 


10.6 


16 


11.96 


13.95 


26.42 


22.53 


14.31 


1.085 


11.2 


17 


12.64 


14.74 


27.92 


23.80 


15.12 


1.090 


11.9 


18 


13.31 


15.53 


29.41 


25.08 


15 . 93 


1.095 


12.4 


19 


13.99 


16.32 


30.91 


26.35 


16.74 


1.100 


13.0 


20 


14.67 


17.11 


32.41 


27.63 


17.55 


1.105 


13.6 


21 


15.34 


17.89 


33.89 


28.89 


18.35 


1.110 


14.2 


22 


16.00 


18.67 


35.36 


30.15 


19.15 


1.115 


14.9 


23 . 


16.67 


19.45 


36.84 


31.41 


19.95 


1.120 


15.4 


24 


17.34 


20.23 


38.31 


32.67 


20.75 


1.125 


16.0 


25 


18.00 


21.00 


39.77 


33.91 


21.54 


1.130 


16.5 


26 


18.66 


21.77 


41.23 


35.16 


22.23 


1.135 , 


17.1 


27 


19.32 


22.54 


42.69 


36.40 


23.12 


1.140 


17.7 


28 


19.98 


23.31 


44.15 


37.65 


23.91 


1.145 


18.3 


29 


20.64 


24.08 


45.61 


38.89 


24.70 


1.150 


18.8 


30 


21.29 


24.84 


47.05 


40.12 


25.48 


1.155 1 


19.3 


31 


21.94 


25.60 


48.49 


41.35 


26.26 


1.160 


19.8 


32 


22.60 


26.36 


49.92 


42.57 


27.04 


1.165 


20.3 


33 


23.25 


27.12 


51.36 


43.80 


27.82 


1.170 


20.9 


34 


23.90 


27.88 


52.80 


45.03 


28.59 


1.175 


21.4 1 


35 


24.54.28.63 


54.22 


46.24 


29.36 


1.180 


22.0 ! 


36 : 


25.18,29.38 


55.64 


47.45 


30.13 



124 MEIWLLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Specific Gravity of Nitric Acid at 15" Compared with 
Water at 4". Conlitnicd 



J50 ■' j Degrees | Degrees 
—5- ; Baum6 , Twaddell 



100 parts of acid contain by weight 



NjOf HNO3 38° acid 40° acid ^°^P^ 



1.185 
1.190 
1.195 
1.200 

1.205 
1.210 
1.215 
1.220 
1.225 

1.230 
1.235 
1.240 
1.245 
1.250 

1 . 255 
1.260 
1.2G5 
1 . 270 
1.275 

1.280 
1.285 
1.290 
1.295 
1.300 

1.305 
1.310 
1.315 
1.320 
1.325 

1.330 
1 . 335 
1.340 
1.345 
1.350 



22.5 
23.0 
23.5 
24.0 

24.5 
25.0 
25.5 
26.0 
26.4 

26.9 

27.4 
27.9 
28.4 
28.8 

29.3 
29.7 
30.2 
30.6 
31.1 

31.5 
32.0 
32.4 
32.8 
33.3 

33.7 
34.2 
34.6 
35.0 
35.4 

35.8 
36.2 
36.6 
37.0 
37.4 



37 
38 
39 
40 

41 

42 
43 
44 
45 

46 
47 
48 
49 
50 

51 
52 
53 
54 
55 

56 

57 
58 
59 
60 

61 
62 
63 
64 
65 

66 
67 
68 
69 
70 



25.83 30.13 
26.47 30.88 
27.10131.62 
27. 74| 32.36 

28.36 33.09 
28.99133.82 
29.61 34.55 



30.24 
30.88 

31.53 
32.17 
32.82 
33.47 
34.13 



35.28 
36.03 

36.78 
37.53 
38.29 
39.05 
39.82 



34.78 40.58, 
35.44 41.34, 



36.09 
36.75 
37.41 

38.07 
38.73 
39.39 
40.05 
40.71 



42.10 
42.87 
43.64 

44.41 
45.18 
45.95 
46.72 
47.49 



41.37148.28 
42.06 49.071 
42.76 49. 89[ 
43.471 50.711 
44.17151.53' 
1 

44.89 52.37 
45.62 53.22 
46.35 54.07 
47.08 54.93 
47.82,55.79 



57.07 
58.49 
59.89 
61.29 

62.67 
64.05 
65 . 44 
66.82 
68.24 

69.66 
71.08 
72.52 
73 . 96 
75.42 

76.86 
78.30 
79.74 
81.20 
82.65 

84.11 

85.57 
87.03 
88.48 
89.94 

91.40 
92.94 
94 . 49 
96 . 05 
97.60 

99.19 
100.80 
102.41 
104.04 
105.67 



1.355 37.8 ' 71 48.57,56.66 107.31 



48.66 
49.87 
51.07 
52.26 

53.23 
54 21 
55.18 
56.16 
57.64 

59.13 
60.61 
61.84 
63.07 
64.31 

65.54 
66.76 
67.99 
69.23 
70.48 

71.72 
72 . 96 
74.21 
75.45 
76.70 

77.94 
79 . 25 
80.57 
81.90 
83.22 
I 

84.581 
85.95 
87 . 32 I 
88.71 1 
90.101 

91.51, 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



125 



Specific Gravity of Nitric Acid at 15° Compared with 
Water at 4°. Continued 



Sv •" 








100 parts of acid contain by weight 


op 


15°' 


Degrees 


Degrees 
















4° 


Baum6 


Twaddell 


NiOs HNO3 


38° acid 


40° -"d 48. .5° 




360 


38.2 


72 


49 


35 


57.57 


109 


03 


92.97 


59.05 




365 


38.6 


73 


50 


13 


58.48 


110 


75 


94.44 


59.98 




370 


39.0 


74 


50 


91 


59.39 


112 


48 


95.91 


60.91 




375 


39.4 


75 


51 


69 60.30 


114 


20 


97.38 


61.85 




380 


39.8 


76 


52 


52 


61.27 


116 


04 


98.95 


62.84 




385 


40.1 


77 


53 


35 


62.24 


117 


88 


100.51 


63.84 




390 


40.5 


78 


54 


20 


63.23 


119 


75 


102.12 


64.85 




395 


40.8 


79 


55 


07 


64.25 


121 


68 


103.76 


65.90 




400 


41.2 


80 


55 


97 


65.30 


123 


67 


105.46 


66.97 




405 


41.6 


81 


56 


92 


66.40 


125 


75 


107.24 


68.10 




410 


42.0 


82 


57 


86 


67.50 


127 


84 


109.01 


69.23 




415 


42.3 


83 


58 


83 


68.63 


129 


98 


110.84 


70.39 




420 


42.7 


84 


59 


83 


69.80 


132 


19 


112.73 


71.59 




425 


43.1 


85 


60 


84 


70.98 


134 


43 


114.63 


72.80 




430 


43.4 


86 


61 


86 


72.17 


136 


68 


116.55 


74.02 




435 


43.8 


87 


62 


91 


73.39 


138 


99 


118.52 


75.27 




440 


44.1 


88 


64 


01 


74.68 


141 


44 


120.61 


76.59 




445 


44.4 


89 


65 


13 


75.98 


143 


90 


122.71 


77.93 




450 


44.8 


90 


66 


24 


77.28 


146 


36 


124.81 


79.26 




455 


45.1 


91 


67 


38 


78.60 


148 


86 


126.94 


80.62 




460 


45.4 


92 


68 


56 


79.98 


151 


47 


129.17 


82.03 




465 


45.8 


93 


69 


79 


81.42 


154 


20 


131.49 


83.51 




470 


46.1 


94 


71 


06 


82.90 


157 


00 


133.88 


85.03 




.475 


46.4 


95 


72 


39 


84.45 


159 


04 


136.39 


86.62 




.480 


46.8 


96 


73 


76 


86.05 


162 


97 


138.97 


88.26 




.485 


47.1 


97 


75 


13 


87.70 


166 


09 


141.63 


89.95 




.490 


47.4 


98 


76 


SO 


89.60 


169 


69 


144.70 


91.90 




.495 


47.8 


99 


78 


52 91.60 


173 


48 


147.93 


93.95 




.500 


48.1 


100 


80 


65 94.09 


178 


19 


151.99 


96.50 




.505 


48.4 


101 


82 


63 96.39 


182 


55 


155.67 


98.86 




.510 


48.7 


102 


84 


09 98.10 


185 


.79 


158.43 


100 . 62 




.515 


49.0 


103 


84 


92 99.07 


187 


.63 


160.00 


101.61 




.520 


49.4 


104 


85 


44 99.67 


188 


.77 


160.97 


102.23 



126 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Specific Gravity of Ammonia Water at 15°C. Compared 
WITH NVater of 15°C. 



Spr. gr. 
15° 
15° 


Per cent. 
NH.OH 


Correction 

to sp. gr. for 

±1°C. 


Sp. gr. 
15° 
15° 


Per cent. 
NH4OH 


Correction 

to sp. gr. for 

± 1°C. 


1.000 


0.00 


0.00018 


0.940 


15.63 


0.00039 


0.998 


0.45 


0.00018 


0.938 


16.22 


0.00040 


0.996 


0.91 


0.00019 


0.936 


16.82 


0.00041 


0.994 


1.37 


0.00019 


0.934 


17.42 


0.00041 


0.992 


1.84 


0.00020 


0.932 


18.03 


0.00042 


0.990 


2.31 


0.00020 


0.930 


18.64 


0.00042 


0.988 


2.80 


0.00021 


0.928 


19.25 


0.00043 


0.986 


3.30 


0.00021 


0.926 


19.87 


0.00044 


0.984 


3.80 


0.00022 


0.924 


20.49 


0.00045 


0.982 


4.30 


0.00022 


0.922 


21.12 


0,00046 


0.980 


4.80 


0.00023 


0.920 


21.75 


0.00047 


0.978 


5.30 


0.00023 


0.918 


22.39 


0.00048 


0.976 


5.80 


0.00024 


0.916 


23.03 


0.00049 


0.974 


6.30 


0.00024 


0.914 


23.68 


0.00050 


0.972 


6.80 


0.00025 


0.912 


24.33 


0.00051 


0.970 


7.31 


0.00025 


0.910 


24.99 


. 00052 


0.968 


7.82 


0.00026 


0.908 


25.65 


0.00053 


0.966 


8.33 


0.00026 


0.906 


26.31 


0.00054 


0.964 


8.84 


0.00027 


0.904 


26.98 


0.00055 


0.962 


9.35 


0.00028 


0.902 


27.65 


0.00056 


0.960 


9.91 


0.00029 


0.900 


28.33 


0.00057 


0.958 


10.47 


0.00030 


0.898 


29.01 


0.00058 


0.956 


11.03 


0.00031 


0.896 


29.69 


0.00059 


0.954 


11.60 


0.00032 


0.894 


30.37 


0.00060 


0.952 


12.17 


0.00033 


0.892 


31.05 


0.00050 


0.950 


12.74 


0.00034 


0.890 


31.75 


0.00061 


0.948 


13.31 


0.00035 


0.888 


32.50 


0.00062 


0.946 


13.88 


0.00036 


0.886 


33.25 


0.00063 


0.944 


14.46 


0.00037 


0.884 


34.10 


0.00064 


0.942 


15.04 


0.00038 


0.882 


34.95 


0.00065 



This and the nitric-acid table immediately preceding are reprinted by courtesy 
of the D. van Nostrand Co., New York, from Lunge's "Sulphuric Acid and 
Alkali." 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



12: 



Specific Gravity of Caustic Potash Solutions at 15°C.i 

( Grams KOH per 100 grams solution) 



Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
KOH 


a „, Per cent*., 
Sp- er- 1 KOH 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
KOH 


1.036 
1.077 
1 . 124 
1.175 
1 230 


5 
10 
15 
20 
25 


1.288 
1.349 
1.411 
1.475 
1.539 


30 
35 
40 
45 
50 


1.604 
1.667 
1.729 
1.790 


55 
60 
65 
70 




1 



' This and the succeeding 14 tables are from Cremer & Bicknell's 
Chemical and Metallurgical Handbook. They are originally from the work of 
Kohlrausch and Holborn, Gerlach, Schiff, etc. 

Specific Gravity of Caustic Soda Solutions at 15°C. 



• Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
NaOH 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
NAOH 


Q„ „ 1 Per cent.. 


1.059 
1.115 
1.170 
1.225 
1 279 


5 
10 
15 

20 
25 


1.332 

1.384 
1.437 
1.488 
1.540 


30 

35 
40 
45 
50 


1.591 
1.643 
1.695 

1.748 


55 
60 
65 
70 




1 



Specific Gr-wit-j 


• of Hydrofluosilicic Acid at 15°C. 


e„ „, Per cent., 
SP-«^- 1 H=SiF6 


s., „, Per cent., 
■■^P. gr... 1 jj.SiFe 


J ' Per cent., 
■^P-S^- 1 H2SiF. 


1.0407 
1.0834 
1.1281 


5 

10 
15 


1.1748 1 20 
I . 2235 25 


1 . 2742 

1.3162 


30 
34 



Specific Gravity of Sodiu.m Chloride Solutions at 15°C. 





Per cent.. 




Per cent.. 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 


Sp. gr. 


XaCI 


Sp. gr. 


NaCl 


NaCl 


1.00725 


1 


1.07335 


10 


1.14351 


19 


1.01450 


2 




08097 


11 


1.15107 


20 


1.02174 


3 




0S859 


12 


1.15931 


21 


1.02899 


4 




09522 


13 


1.16755 


22 


1.03624 


5 




10384 


14 


1.17580 


23 


1.04366 


6 




11146 


15 


1.18404 


24 


1.05108 


7 




11938 


16 


1.19228 


25 


1.05851 


8 




12730 


17 


1.20098 


26 


1.06593 


9 




13523 


18 


1 . 20433 


26.3951 



' (Sat.) 



128 MET.\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Specific Gravity of C.\lcium Chloride SoLtrTiONS at 15°C. 



Q„ „, ' Pp"" pent., 


Cr, „, ' Per cent.. 
^P- e--- j CaCh 


Sp. gr. 


Per opnt., 
CaClj 


1.01704 
1.03407 
1.05146 
1.06921 
1 . 08695 
1 . 10561 
1.12427 


2 

4 

6 

8 

10 

12 

14 


1.14332 
1.16277 
1.18222 
1.20279 
1.22330 
1.24450 
1.26619 


16 
18 
20 
22 
24 
26 
28 


1.28789 
1.31045 
1 . 33302 
1.35610 
1.37970 
1.40330 
1.41104 


30 
32 
34 

36 

38 

40 

46.46 



Specific Gravity of Zixc Chloride at 19. 


5°C. 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 






ZnCh 


ZnCh 


.•>p. gr. 


1 ZnCh 


1.045 


5 


1.238 


25 


1.488 


45 


1.091 


10 


1.291 


30 


1.566 


1 50 


1.137 


15 


1.352 


35 


1.650 


1 55 


1.187 


20 


1.420 


40 


1.740 


1 00 



Specific Gr.wity of Ferric Chloride Solutions at 17.5°C. 





Per cent., 




Per cent., 




Per cent.. 


Sp. gr. 


FeClj 


Sp. gr. 


FeClj 


Sp. gr. 


FeCU 


1.0146 


2 


1 . 1746 


22 


1.3870 


42 


1.0292 


4 


1.1050 


• 24 


1.4118 


44 


1.0439 


6 


1.2155 


26 


1 . 4367 


46 


1.0587 


8 


1 . 2365 


28 


1.4617 


48 


1.0734 


10 


1 . 2568 


30 


1 . 4867 


50 


1.0894 


12 


1.2778 


32 


1.5153 


52 


1.1054 


14 


1 . 2988 


34 


1 . 5439 


54 


1.1215 


16 


1.3199 


36 


1 . 5729 


56 


1.1378 


18 


1.3411 


38 


1 . 6023 


58 


1.1542 


20 


1.3622 


40 


1.0317 


00 



Specific Gravity of Cuprous Chloride Solutions at 17.5°C. 









Per cent.. 




Per cent., 


Sp. gr. 


CuClj 


Sp. gr. 


CuCh 


Sp. gr. 


CuCU 


1.0182 


2 


1.1696 


16 


1.3618 


30 


1.0364 


4 


1.1958 


18 


1.3050 


32 


1.0548 


6 


1 . 2223 


20 


1.4287 


34 


1.0734 


8 


1 . 2501 


22 


1.4615 


36 


1.0020 


10 


1.2779 


24 


1.4049 


38 


1.1178 


12 


1.3058 


26 


1 . 5284 


40 


1 1436 


14 


1 . 3338 


28 











PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



129 



Specific Gravity of Lead Acetate Solutions at 15°C. 





f er cent., 




Per cent., 




Per cent., 


Sp. gr. 


PbAj 


Sp. gr. 


PbA2 


Sp. gr. 


PbA2 


1.0127 


2 


1 . 1384 


20 


1 . 2967 


38 


1.0255 


4 


1 . 1544 


22 ■ 


1.3163 


40 


1.0386 


6 


1.1704 


24 


1.3376 


42 


1.0520 


8 


1.1869 


26 


1.3588 


44 


1.0654 


10 


1 . 2040 


28 


1.3810 


46 


1.0796 


12 


1.2211 


30 


1.4041 


48 


1.0939 


14 


1.2395 


32 


1.4271 


50 


1.1084 
1.1234 


16 

18 


1.2578 
1 . 2768 


34 
36 















Specific Gravity of Ferric Sulphate Solutions at 17.5°C. 





Per cent., 




Per cent., 




Per cent.. 


Sp. gr. 


Fe2(S04)3 


Sp. gr. 


Fe2(S04)3 


Sp. gr. 


Fe2(S04)3 


1.0170 


2 


1.2066 


22 


1 . 4824 


42 


1.0340 


4 


1.2306 


24 


1.5142 


44 


1.0512 


6 


1 . 2559 


26 


1 . 5468 


46 


1.0684 
1.0854 


8 


1 . 2825 


28 
30 


1.5808 
1.6148 


48 


10 


1.3090 


50 


1 . 1042 


12 


1.3368 


32 


1 . 6508 


52 


1 . 1230 


14 


1.3646 


34 


1 . 6868 


54 


1.1424 


16 


1.3927 


36 


1.7241 


56 


1.1624 


18 


1.4217 


38 


1 . 7623 


58 


1,1826 


20 


1 . 4506 


40 


1 . 8006 


60 



Specific Gravity of FeSO^^HjO; CuS04-5H20 and ZNSaj 
7H2O .Solutions at 15°C. 





Per cent., 


Sp. gr.- 


Per cent.. 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent.. 


Sp. gr. 


ZnS04-7H20 


CuS04-5H20 


FeS04-7H20 


1.0288 


5 


1.0126 






2 




1 . Ull 


1.0593 


10 




0254 


4 


1.021 


4 


1.0905 


15 




0384 


6 


1.032 


6 


1.1236 


20 




0516 


8 


1.043 


8 


1.1574 


25 




0649 


10 


1.054 


10 


1.1933 


30 




0785 


12 


1.065 


12 


1.2310 


35 




0923 


14 


1.082 


15 


1.2709 


40 




1063 


16 


1.112 


20 


1.3100 


45 




1208 


18 


1.143 


25 


1.3522 


50 




1354 


20 


1.174 


30 


1.3986 


55 




1501 


22 


1 . 206 


35 


1.4451 


60 




1659 


24 


1.239 


40 













130 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Specific Gravity of Sodium Carbonate Solutions at 15°C,. 



Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
NnaCOs 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
NajCOa 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent,. 
NatCOj 


1.01050 
1.02101 
1.03151 
1,04201 
1,05255 


1 
2 
3 
4 

5 


1 . 06309 
1.07369 
1.08430 
1 . 09500 
1.10571 


6 

7 
8 

9 
10 


1.11655 
1 . 12740 
1.13845 
1.14950 
1.15360 


11 
12 
13 
14 

14.354 



Specific Gravity of Dihydrogen Sodium Arsenate 
Solutions at 17°C. 



Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
HiNaAsOiHjO 


Sp. gr. 


Per cent., 
HiNaAsOiHaO 


1 . 0226 
1 . 0460 
1 0577 


4.22 

8.44 

10 55 


1.9038 
1.1186 


16.88 

21.10 











Specific Gravity of Solutions of Trisodium Arsenate 
AT 17°C. 



' Sp. gr. 


NajABO«12H20 


Sp. gr. 


Na3As04l2H20 


1.0193 
1.0393 
1 0495 


4.40 

8.80 

11.00 


1.0812 
1 . 1035 


17.60 

22.06 









Specific Gravity of Disodium Arsenate Solutions 
AT 14°C. 



1.0169 
1.0344 
1.0525 



12 



1.0714 
1.1102 
1.1722 



16 
23.9 
35.9 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 131 

Densities op Some Saline and Acid Solutions^ 




Potassium chloride .... 
Ammonium chloride. . . 

Sodium bromide 

Potassium Ijromide. . . . 

Potassium iodide 

Sodium nitrate 

Potassium nitrate .... 
Ammonium nitrate. . . . 

Silver nitrate 

Potassium carbonate. . 
Magnesium sulphate. . 

Sodium sulphate 

Potassium bichromate. 
Potassium ferricyanide 

Hydrobromic acid : 14 

Hydriodic acid 13 

Phosphoric acid 15 



.O'C, 
.0°C, 
.5°C. 
.5°C. 
.5°C. 
.2°C. 
.0°C, 
.5°C. 
.0°C, 
.0°C, 
.0°C, 
.0°C 
.5°C 
.0°C 
.0°C 
.0°C 
.0°C 



1.031 
1.015 
1.038 
1.035 
1 036 
1.031 
1 031 
1.020 
1.042 
1 .044 
1 .053 
1.045 



034 
025 
033 
036 
026 



065 1 
030 1 
078 1 
073 1 
076 1 



1 .407 



066 

064 

042 

089 

092 

107 

091 

071 

053 

072 

07611 

Oooil 



.135 . 
058;. 

.172 1.279 
.157 1.253 
.1641. 26911. 393 1 .7.S0 
>140;i.222 1.313 
.1351. 



086,1.131 



196 
192 
213 



.321 
300 



1.179 
1.476 
1.417 



113 

157 1.255 

164 1 209 1 .347 

lis 1.180 1.253 



1.283 
1.916 



1.420 



1 " Annuaire pour 1914, Bureau des Longitudes." 

BOILING POINTS 
Boiling Points of the Metals 





Visible 
ebullition 


Volatili- 
zation 
com- 
mences 




Visible 
ebullition 


Volatili- 
zation 
com- 
mences 


Antimony. . . 


1420°C.2 

1800°C.2 

1440°C.2 

2200°C.2 

2310°C.» 

2]00"'C.» 

1000°C. 

2450°C.2 

2850°C.6 

1525°C.2 

500°C.6 
1120°C.6 
1900°C.2 

357°C.6 

asso'c* 

2450°C.6 




Osmium 

Palladium 

Platinum 

Rhodium 

Rubidium. . . . 
Ruthenium . . 

Selenium 

Silicon 

Silver 


2950°C.6 
2540°C.6 
26.50°C.6 
2750°C.' 

696°C. 
2780 C.s 

690°C.6 
.3800°C.6 
1955°C.2 




Aluminum.. . . 






Bismuth 








, 1420''C.' 
960°C.' 
970°C.» 




Copper' . ... 




Gold 








Iron. . . . 




1350°C.» 


Iridium 




850°C. 


Lead 




2200°C.' 


Lithium 




Tellurium .... 

Tin' 

Titanium 

Thallium 

Uranium 

Wolfram 


139d°'C.« 

2275°C.2 

2700°C.6 

1280°C.r?) 

3100"C.» 

3700°C.' 




Magnesium. . . 




880°C.3 




1290°C.3 




Mercury 




Molybdenum . 






Nickel 




2450°C.3 




t 





' According to Tiede and Birnbrauer, copper boils at 2000°. 

» According to H. C. Gbeenwood. 

' According to Tiede and Birnbrauer, Zeit. anorg. chem., 1914, p. 129. 

* DuLONQ and Petit. 

» Watts, Tr. Electrochem. Soc, 1907, p. 141. 

• Richards, "Metallurgical Calculations." 
' Given by Carnelly as 1550°C. 



132 MET.\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Beginning of 

evaporation 

in caciio^ 



Boiling point 
in racuo' 



Boiling-point 
760° mm. I 




Bismuth 

Cadmium 

Mercury 

Potassium 

Silver 

Sodium 

Zinc 

Sulphur 



993°C. 
450 
155 
365 
1360 
418 
550 



1440°C. 

749 

357 

667 
1955 

742 

920 

444.5 



' According to 11. C. Greenwood. 

BoiLixc Points of the Xon-mkt.\llic Elenient-s^ 



Visible 
1 ebullition 


Visible 
ebullition 


Argon 


- 186. 0°C. 
450. 0°C. 

3500. 0°C. 

63.0°C. 

3700. 0°C. 

- 33.6°C. 

- 187. 0°C. 

- 268. 6°C. 


Hydrogen . ... 

Iodine 

Krypton 

Neon 


- 252 7°C. 


Arsenic sublimes 

Boron sublimes(?)... 
Bromine 


184. 4°C. 

- 151. 7°C. 

- 239 0°C. 


Carbon 


Nitrogen 

Oxygen 

Phosphorus. . . 
Xenon 


- 195 7°C. 


Chlorine 

Fluorine 

Helium 


- 182. 9°C. 
287. 0°C. 

- 109. 0°C. 









'J. W. Richards, "Metallurgical Calculations' 
"Physical and Chemical Constants." 



and Kaye and L.uJY'a 



Boiling Points of Some Common Compounds 

Ammonia — 29°F. 

Carbon dioxide - 112°F. 

Sulphur dioxide + 14°F. 

Water 212°F. 



Boiling Point of Water under 
Pressure.s 



Various Barometric 



Pressure 


1 




mm. of 


1 2 ' .3 1 4 .5 7 18 


9 


mercury 










°C. 


















680 


96.91 


96.95 


97.00 


97.03 97.07 


97.11 


97.15 


97.20 


97.24 


97.28 


690 


97.32 


97.36 


97.40 


97.44 


97.48 


97.52 


97.56 


97.59 


97.63 


97.67 


700 


97.71 


97.75 


97.79 


97.83 


97.87 


97.91 


97.95 


97.99 


98.03 


98.07 


710 


98.11 


98.14 


98.18 


98.22 


98.26 


98.30 


98.34 


98.38 


98.42 


98.45 


720 


98.49 


98.53 


98.57 


98.61 


98.65 


98.69 


98.72 


98.76 


98.80 


98.84 


730 


98.88 


98.91 


98.95 


98.99 


99.03 


99.07 


99.10 


99.14 


99.18 


99.22 


740 


99.25 


99.29 


99.33 


99.37 


99.41 


99.44 


99.48 


99.52 


99.56 


99.59 


750 


99.63 


99.67 


99.70 


99.74 


99.78 


99.81 


99.85 


99.89 


99.93 


99.96 


760 


100.00 100.03100.07 100.11 100. 15 100.18'100.22'100.26'100.29'100.33 


770 


100.37 100.40 100.44 100.47 100.51 100.55 100.58 100.62 100.66 100.69 


780 


100.73 100.76 100.80 100.84 100. 87jl00. 91100.94 100.98101.01 101.05 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



133 



Regnault gives slightly different values, as shown in the 
following table: 



Boiling Point of Water at Different Barometer 
Readings (Regnault) 



Boiling point 


Millimeters 


Boiling point 


Millimeters 


100. 4°C. 


771 . 95 


99.4°C. 


743 . 83 


100 . 3° 


768.20 


99.3° 


741.16 


100.2° 


765 . 46 


99.2° 


738 . 50 


100.1° 


762 . 73 


99.1° 


735 . 85 


100.0° 


760.00 


99.0° 


733.21 


99.9° 


757.28 


98.9° 


730.58 


99.8° 


754.57 


98.8° 


727 . 96 


99.7° 


751.87 


98.7° 


725 . 35 


99.6° 


749.18 


98.6° 


722 . 75 


99.5° 


746.50 


98.5° 


720.15 



Boiling Points of Nitric Acid Solutions in Water 

(160 mm. pressure) 



Per cent., 


Boiling point, 


Per cent., 


Boiling point, 


HNOi 


degrees C. 


HXO3 


degrees C. 


19.37 


103 . 56 


67.74 


i 121.67 


30.43 


108 . 08 


68.18 


121.79 


41.38 


112.59 


69.24 


121.80 


51.63 


116.85 


71.10 


121.60 


56.01 


118.88 


73.56 


! 120.75 


59.77 


120.06 


80.50 


115.45 


63.89 


121.27 


85.51 


108.12 


65.17 


121.66 


90.06 


102.03 






95.45 


95 42 







1 Cbeightox and Githens, "Journal of the Franklin Institute," Feb- 
ruary, 1915. 



134 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 





. NU50«00 


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O O O "5 O 

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PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 135' 



WO'^ NM<*"-oco i^-oooo-* Nw^into r^ooo50i-< nW'^ussd t-oooiO"-* 

Ot^t^ t^t^h»t-*t^ t^t^t^XOO 0000000000 OOOOOOOSOi C>C3Ci03Ci OSOiOiOO 
l-lr-li-t ,-lrtrHrtr-l i-l r^ i-( rH ,-H r-( rt nH r-l ,-1 rH rH rt ^ i-t rH rt rt rt '-< rH rH rt M N 



lO-^-^COM CCCCCSC^CJ ,_(,-if-Hf-HO 0005CJOS O000t>-t>.h* «DtC)^o»O»0 

NwOOOO t>-OiO-*C0 M-^00500 r-O^JiCOO) •-HOrooOh- «5>0-<1<«N 

ooooooh-r- t- r- 1>. r~ t-» t^r-i^oo ooo " " ----- 

ooooo ooooo ooooo ooo 



•lOO 0505010000 O0t>-h-t-CD OOOiO":) •^TfTfCOM TOC^cqiMr-i i-HrtOOO 

OOMM OOiOOt^tO iO-i>03iNi-l O0500r-C0 lO'J'MINi-l OOJOOr^O lO-^COMi-H 

QOoooo oct>.f~t>.h- h-t--t^r»r- i^ooto<n o-^ooto oo>cioic loioioioi.i 

ooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo 



U5TOC0 COC^<NCM(N i-Hi-Hr-ioO O C5 05 O 00 OO OS r^ l>- tv O <0 O lO lO tO -^ ■^ rf n 

«Oi-io 05ooi^o«:i ^c^MrfO oh-oiO"* roc^ — oos oor-oiO'^ roc^^oo 

oowoo t^i^t^i^t^ t^i^t^r^t^ ooooco ooo - 

ooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooo 

cooio -rf^itnn nc^oiiH'^ 1^-h ooo 05C505Woo cot^t»r»o tooidoio 

"iiaioo t^om-^iro c^-hoooo t^oo'i'co --loooot^ toiOTfcoiN i-iooooh- 

oor^t^ r, t>. h, t-. I-, t^r^t^oo oooco© ooo " " " 

OOO ooooo ooooo ooooo ooo 

«^-»»< ■^nnnoi (NiN^-i'-irt ooooo ooooooor- t>-t^ooo o>o>0'>)"j< 

C<t»0 iC*CO(M>-i OO00h»O iO'^J'M-hO OOOI^OiO -^ n Oi '-i O 05»t>.0i0 

xr^t>- r- 1- r>- 1^ t^ t>.oooo ooooo iooloioo " " 

OOO ooooo ooooo OOOOO OOOOO 

NrtO 0005005 oooooot»t>- r-oooio lOO'^'^Tfi eocorcic^c^ (n^i-i^o 

co-^ TOM00500 r-oo-^eo m — oooo h-oo-^M cirt005oor»0'C')'W 

OOlN.t* t^r-h-OO ooooo O00ic«0 lOvOiOiOO voiOO-^-^ Tj^'^'^'^M* 

ooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo 

iorhco rTrococTci ,-i—< 1-1^0 ooooo ooooaor-h. t^oooo 10 m ■»»'■* tj< 

t-iN-H 005001^0 'O'^MiN^ oor^oo -^coc^-ho O5oor~oio T}<ro(Ni-io 

^.^^^« t>.oooo ooooo ooiooio looiooio •^•^•^•^^■tj* Tf<-^'»^Tt<Tt< 

000 ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo 

M M -< — I -H — 1 o^ ooTooToo oooot^ t^r- o o o o o 

tcooo t^O'-o^co (NOOoot-- om-fMc<i i-ioo5cor» _ ._ 

1^00 ooooo OOOiOiO lO'CiOiCO lO'O-'f^'^ -^T^T^Tf-^ ■^■^COCOM 

000 ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo 



>0 O 'O ■<*' ■* ■^■^•^■^■^ 

ooooo ooooo 



uinn roc^oici-H i-i^ooo O050»oo oot^r~t»o 

lf)005 OOt^OO-* MM— 1005 t^-O'O'i'CO (Ni-iOO!/3 

0010 LOOiOOuT O'OiO'O'* •^-f-^^>l< ^^^t^c^ 

000 OOOOO ooooo ooooo OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO 



Oit^t^ t^OOOiO lOiO'^'^'Ti* COCCCOC^C^ <Nt-H,-i^HO 000050 OOCCOOt^t^ 

OOMM —lOOCOt^ OiO-tMM — iO0500t^ OiO-fCTN .-HOCOt^O lO-^fCJC-lrH 

ujiraio "Oloi"!"^ Tf-f-f-fT)" Tf-^ccroco rocorococo wmmnc-i (Mc<imc^w 

000 OOOOO OOOOO ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo 



lOlO'l'rl"-^ COCCMC-JO) (Mi-l>-li-<0 000050 OOOOOOh-t-- 

0>0-*icOC^ >-iOO00t>- "" " ■' "" ~ 



TjlTjirOMCO COMTOMCO MMMMC^J 

OOOOO OOOOO ooooo 



136 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 






<NC5'<«'iOtD h-OOOOfl lOCOCO 0>OOU50 lOO>OOiO OlOO 

ooooo ooo-i« — iMciMco TfTcmioco to^-t^oooo omo 

CJM(NM(N WWNCSM WMMt^M M M W M Ci (N N M IN C^ C^ CI CO 



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flCJCICICl CIMCICIW CICICJCJM ClNOe^N WdC^CICJ MCICO 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



137 



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t» 'J* O ^ Cs 

M M M O) IN CI C-1 C^ . 



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OCOQGCOt- C)t>.C-»t>.M t-.— -^ — O .-HO-HUIO LOC-OOO C. -1" 

COCOMC->— I ^OOC. O ODXt^t^O Oi-OLOTfrlfl COCOMMi-i CO 

(NMMMM OMC-li-trt ,-ir-irtr-li-l ,-irtrtrtrt f-(,-(rHi-t.-l i-h-h 

t^O-^MO Or-'O'CCO (NOCJXt^ OCOCOCIO OXOitlcO CJO 

o M t>- c) t>v ■— o-ho—i to-HLOcn 0'-ooi--to rro-rO'^ c. •• 

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OC1C4C1CJ ClMClr-!.-. ,_rtrt«r-( ^^wi-crt .-H — — i-Hi-l C — 

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b-TfO'tO) TfOCOXCO XC-OX«t^ Clt^Cll^C) t^^^rtO — 'O 

dcj—iwo CO oxx t^r^o^i-o v-o-ji-j-coco cici-".-io oo 

c^cqcqcio ci-^^rtrt rti-irt—n-i ,_ ^ •-< i-. i-h ,-,-1^— i,-i ,-ho 



138 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



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N CO •* 1.0 ■£> 


l^XOSO — 
|.» t^ t^ X X 


M CO •>»' lO to 
XXXXX 


t~xoo — 

X X X CSCS 


MCO'^'O 
OS OS CS ^ 















PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 139 



CO t^C00)O'-< NC<5'<*<>OCO r-OOOlOC^ U50»00"5 OU50100 loomcus OiOO 



CO ooooo 000»0»0 iO"^»OU5iO Tj- -^ ^^ CC (N W ^-h ,-t c O OOiCOOO^* i>-oo 
O ooooo ooooo OOOOO ooooo OOOOO 0;0s0005 05030 

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eo C<5(N<NOr-i >-c-h0001 OiOOOOOt- OtJiNOOO OTO^C-O ■*"-iC:OM OOO-* 

00 t^-Om-^J'ffO N-HOCit- O^O'^CO-H 00CO00r;t^ (Nt^MO" O-hiOO'O o-^j-C". 

o ooooo oooiOLO io»CiOioio ■^■^rrcccci cir- »— oo oooooot^ r^oo 

ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo aa-c-.G-.a osc-. 



^ 








^ r~, ^H1-I 1~1 




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oco 


o 


iO lO »0 Ti< Tj< 


•<)<m«i^: N 


N N -< — o 


SB t^ L- ^t -H 


00 O ?t M C-. 


t- TT <N c; uo 


coot^ 




O O •* M N 




O O ■* TO -^ 


t^ <M t~ C^) t^ 


— o — o o 


IC CmO'* 


CiTrcO 






OOiOiO "fl 


»0 lO »^ lO lO 


■* ■* ^: ^T (M 


IN — — OO 


o c. 00 1- 1^ 


O OiO 


o 


ooooo 


ooooo 


ooooo 


ooooo 


ooooo 


CS O C: C. 05 


OC3C-. 



ooooo OOO 



Oi oooot-*t^t^ ooooio io^-«t*-^co c^oiMio-^ ^o:Ol'0c^i or*"^c^oo ocoo 

o ujtj'cocS'h 00500r-o ■O'reoNO t-.—'O'-io ^-ujoico lOO'^cco oOMoo 

O ooooo 0»0i0»0i0 iOiC»OiOiO -^Tt^CCCCW C^^"00 OOOXt^t^ OOO 

O ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo 0500005 OOO 



ooooo ooo 



^^ ^-hOOO OOOWOO 00t^t>.OO UKN^OOt^ ■* — o: t-O NCt^ifl-H OOON 



o u5-*<«(N"-i ooot^oio Tj-rte^rto Ort00"0 Oico-wo -^o ccx^5 r»e^t~ 

— ._ ._ -_--_--_- _. — j_, c.ocat^t^ ooio 

) O ooooo OOO 

<0 OOCOO OOO 



o ooooo loious'f^o oiOiCiOTji •^■»i'r?rcc^) M — OOO oocxr^t^ ooo 

O ooooo ooooo ooooo OOOOO ooooo ooooo OOO 



cc roMMc^-< M — ooo oooxt^ t^TfCJCX o^: — or~ ^^oocc OoOt)< 

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o ooooo loioioioio »OL':icio-^ ■^■^^tcc'N — •-'OOo ooooot^-r* ooo 

O ooooo OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO CiC:C-^Ci<J> OOO 



^ 










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rifci^oyy 


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ro N — OOOO t^Oii^TfW W-<0 CCOOOCOOrt t^Olt^INO .-^O — OO lOO'* 

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O OOOOO OOOOO ooooo OOOOO OOOOO ooooo OOO 

^ —1^^^^ ^^^^^ rtrt^^^ ^^w-H.H ^r-i_,-.ei O OO OO o oo^ 

O 00'<J'T)<r)< rOCCNNN rtrH-HOO OOO IN —I OOOM — O Orr — OO INOO 

e^ — OOOOt- Oit^Ti-r^lN -hOOOOO lNt~Mt^lN 0"-iO — O OOO-rO -^OTO 

O ooooo ooooo OO-^-^-^ -^CCCCINC^ '-'^COO OOOCOt^O OOO 

o OOOOO OOOOO ooooo OOOOO ooooo ooooo O-OO 



^ rt -H .-ll-ll-l 














o o 1" •«}<■* CO 
»— 1 O O 00 1^ o 
o ooooo 
o ooooo 


.0553 
.0543 
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0522 
0511 


-^-<ooo 

OO00t~'<J< 

O Tf •>*> Tj" ■* 

ooooo 


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— O — O — ' 
Tf CO COCHIN 

ooooo 


0158 
0105 
0053 
0001 
9948 


o CO — 00 o 
o •* o CO 00 
oooot^t-o 
ooooo 


MOO 

CO ooM 

OOO 

OOO 



<o ooooo ooo 



PO lNC^C^-4-H -hOOOO CiOOoeoOt- OCOINOOO OCOOOO t—OOOM Ot^'* 

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O ooooo OOOO'^ '*'*'<r'T-'* -^COCOIN-H — OOOO OOOOt»t^O OOO 

O 00 0_0 OOOOO ooooo ooooo OOOOO ooooo OOO 

-< -<-<-ii-l-H wH^w^ ^.-,rt_i^ _^^^^ ^.- <^0 OO OOO o o__o_ 

OOOOO ooooi^i^r^ ooooo '*■— -ot^-o cocooo-r -"oo-ro t»o — 



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- - - .__--_ 500 XXt^t^O OOO 

;00 ooooo OOO 

■•OO ooooo OOO 



o o o lO o OOO-"— Tf -r -r •* -H nnc-ic^^ •— c o o o x x t» t^ o _ . . 

O ooooo OOOOO ooooo OOOOO OOOOO ooooo OOO 



50 t^WOO-H NWt)<0 t-OOOON OOOOO OOOOO ooooo OOO 
O ooooo ooooo OOO— i-H — NMCOCO ri<Tj<0 00 Ol^t^XCO OOO 
r4 ,«rt,-iMcq iNmnmm NMNMN NiNMMN NMNININ INMINININ minco 



140 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Boiling and Mkltinu Points of Organic Bodies* 




Acetone .... 
Acid: 

Acetic. . 

Benzoic. 

Butyric. 



Carbonic. 
Formic. . . 
Stearic. . . 
Succinic. . 
Alcohol: 

Amyl. ... 
Ethyl.... 



Methyl. 
Aldehyde. . . 

Aniline 

Benzene. . . . 



16.71 
121.0 

- 3.12 

- 78.2 

8.51 

68.4 

185.0 



-130.0 
(about) 



- 6.0 
5.4 



57.1 



118.1 
249 . 1 
162.0 
(about) 
-67.0 
100.6 



132.0 

78.2 

64.7 

20,8 

183.7 

80.0 



Camphor 

Chloroform 

Cyanogen 

Ethane 

Ether 

Ethylene 

Ethylene dibro- 
niide 

Glycerin 

Methane 

Naphthalene 

Nitrobenzene. . . . 

Phenol 

Carbon disul- 
phidc 

Carbon tetra- 
chloride 

Toluene 



177.7 
63.2 
•34.4 
■177.5 
•117.6 
■169.0 



- 20.0 
-184.11 

80.1 
5.17 

41.1 



22.0 
98.0 



205 . 

61.2 

-20.7 

-93.0 

34 6 

-102.5 

IGO.O 
291.0 
-164.7 
217.72 
208.3 
181.4 

46.3 

76.7 
110.0 



0.00002 ] 10 



' For the molting points of the elements, see p. 254. For mcltinK points 
of inorganic compounds, see p. 216 et seq. This table was taken from the 
" Annuaire pour 1914, Bureau des Longitudes." 

The Thermal Properties of Steam 

Probably the most critical investigation yet made of the 
thermal properties of steam was that of G. A. Goodenough of 
the University of Illinois, from whose work the following for- 
mulas are taken: 

The relation found between the pressure and temperature 
of the steam is as follows: 

log p = 10.5688080 - ^^I^^ _ 0.0155 log T 
- 0.004062587' + 0. 00000400555 T^ 

[ ^ \ 100 / ^L 100 JJ 

where p is the pressure in pounds per square inch, and T the 
absolute temperature in Fahrenheit units, while t is the tempera- 
ture in Fahrenheit degrees. The absolute zero is taken as 
— 459. 0°F. For the specific volume of the steam Professor 
Goodenough gives the expression : 

V - 0.017 = 0.59465- - (1 + OMUQpV^) -— 
p 1 

where v denotes the volume in cubic feet per pound, and log 
Ci = 10.82500. The "heat content" of steam at different 
temperatures and pressures is: 

i = 0.320r + 0.00006372 _ _^^ 
_ Cspd + a0342p^^) ^ Q ^jQ333^ ^ ^^g ^ 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



141 



where 

log Cz = 10.79155 

The entropy of superheated steam is given by the relation: 

1 1 7Q1 ^ 
s = 0.73683 log T + 0.0001267 - ^^- '^^'^ 



- 0.25355 log p - 



C«p(l + 0.0342p) 



0.08085 



where 



log C4 = 10.69464 



The thermal properties of steam at very high pressures and 
temperatures are stated to be as follows: 



Tempera- 
ture, 
degrees F. 



Pressure, 
lb. per 
sq. in. 



Volume 
of 1 lb., 
cu. ft. 



Weight 

of 1 
cu. ft., 

lb. 



Heat content of 



Liquid, Vapor, 
B.t.u. B.t.u. 



Latent 
heat, 
B.t.u. 



600.0 


1540.4 


0.272 


3.68 


604.5 


1164 


560 


620.0 


1658.7 


0.241 


4.15 


633.0 


1151 


518 


640.0 


2056.6 


0.187 


5.35 


663.0 


1136 


473 


660.0 


2360.8 


0.151 


6.63 


700.0 


1112 


412 


680.0 


2699 . 1 


0.118 


9.86 


745.0 


1080 


335 


700.0 


3074.5 


0.080 


12.46 


823.0 


1016 


193 


706.3 


3200.0 


0.048 


20.92 


921.0 


921 






The following note and table, giving the constants of steam at 
ordinary temperatures, is from "Lubricants," 1914, p. 10. 

The temperature of steam in contact with water depends upon 
the pressure under which it is generated. At ordinary atmos- 
pheric pressure (14.7 lb. per square inch) the temperature is 
212°F., but as the pressure increases the temperature of both 
the steam and the water also increases. 

Saturated steam is steam of the temperature due to its pres- 
sure, while superheated steam is steam heated to a temperature 
above that due to its pressure. Saturated steam cannot be 
cooled except by lowering its pressure. Steam in contact with 
water cannot be heated above the temperature due to its 
pressure. 

The latent heat or heat of vaporization is obtained by sub- 
tracting from the total heat at any given temperature the heat 
of the liquid. Since the "total heat" is greater as the pressure 
increases, it will take more heat and consequently more fuel, to 
make a pound of steam as the pressure increases. 



142 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 





Table of Properties of Saturated Steam> 




Pres- 


Tem- 


Total heat in heat 
units above 32°F. 


Heat of 
vaporiza- 


Density 
or weight 


Volume 
in cubic 


Factor 


sure in 
pounds 


pera- 






tion of 
latent 


of equiv- 
alent 


ture, 
Fahren- 






in 


per 


In the 


In the 


heat (L) 


pounds 


feet of 


evapor- 


square 
inch 


heit 


steam 


water 


in heat 
units 


of 1 
cu. ft. 


1 lb. 


ation at 
212°F. 


1 


101.99 


1113.1 


70.0 


1043.0 


0.00299 '334. 5 


0.9661 


2 


126.27 


1120.5 


94.4 


1026.1 


0.00576 


173.6 


0.9738 


3 


141.62 


1125.1 


109.8 


1015.3 


0.00844:118.5 


0.9786 


4 


153.09 


1128.6 


121.4 


1007.2 


0.01107 


90.33 


0.9822 


5 


162.34 


1131.5 


130.7 


1000.8 


0.01366 


73.21 


0.9852 


6 


170.14 


1133.8 


138.6 


995.2 


0.01622 


61.65 


0.9876 


7 


176.90 


1135.9 


145.4 


990.5 


0.01874 


5.3 . 39 


0.9897 


8 


182.92 


1137.7 


151.5 


986.2 


0.02125 


47.06 


0.9916 


9 


188.33 


1139.4 


156.9 


982.5 


0.02374 


42.12 


0.9934 


10 


193.25 


1140.9 


161.9 


979.0 


0.02621 


38.15 


0.9949 


15 


213.03 


1146.9 


181.8 


965.1 


0.03826 


26.14 


1.0003 


20 


227.95 


1151.5 


196.9 


954.6 


0.05023 


19.91 


1.0051 


25 


240.04 


1155.1 


209.1 


946.0 


0.06199 


16.13 


1.0099 


30 


250.27 


1158.3 


219.4 


938.9 


0.07360 


13.59 


1.0129 


35 


259.19 


1161.0 


228.4 


932.6 


0.08508 


11.75 


1.0157 


40 


267.13 


1163.4 


236.4 


927.0 


0.09644 


10.37 


1.0182 


45 


274.29 


1165.6 


243.6 


922.0 


0.1077 


9.285 


1.0205 


50 


280.85 


1IG7.6 


2,50.2 


917.4 


0.1188 


8.418 


1.0225 


55 


286.89 


1109.4 


256.3 


913.1 


0.1299 


7.698 


1.0245 


60 


292.51 


1171.2 


261.9 


909.3 


0.1409 


7.097 


1 . 0263 


65 


297.77 


1172.7 


267.2 


905.5 


0.1519 


6.583 


1.0280 


70 


302.71 


1174.3 


272.2 


902.1 


0.1628 


6.143 


1.0295 


75 


307.38 


1175.7 


276.9 


898.8 


0.1736 


5.760 


1 . 0309 


80 


311.80 


1177.0 


281.4 


895.6 


0.1843 


5.426 


1.0323 


85 


216.02 


1178.3 


285.8 


892.5 


0.1951 


5.126 


1.0337 


90 


320.04 


1179.6 


290.0 


889.6 


0.2058 


4.859 


1.0.3.50 


05 


323.89 


1180.7 


294.0 


886.7 


0.2165 


4.619 


1 . 0362 


100 


327.58 


1181.9 


297.9 


884.0 


0.2271 


4.403 


1 . 0374 


105 


331.13 


1182.9 


301.6 


881.3 


0.2378 


4.205 


1 . 0385 


110 


334.56 


1184.0 


305.2 


878.8 


0.2484 


4.026 


1.0396 


115 


337.86 


1185.0 


308.7 


876.3 


0.2589 


3.862 


1.0406 


120 


341.05 


1186.0 


312.0 


874.0 


0.2695 


3.711 


1.0416 


125 


344.13 


1186.9 


315.2 


871.7 


0.2800 


3.571 


1.0426 


130 


347.12 


1187.8 


318.4 


869.4 


0.2904 


3.444 


1.0435 


140 


352.85 


1189.5 


324.4 


865.1 


0.3113 


3.212 


1.0453 


150 


358.26 


1191.2 


330.0 


861.2 


0.3321 


3.011 


1.0470 


IGO 


363.40 


1192.8 


335.4 


857.4 


0.3530 


2.833 


1.0486 


170 


308.29 


1194.3 


340.5 


853.8 


0.3737 


2.676 


1 . 0502 


ISO 


372.97 


1195.7 


345.4 


850.3 


0.3945 


2.535 


1.0517 


190 


377.44 


1197.1 


350.1 


847.0 


0.4153 


2.408 


1.0531 


200 


381.73 


1198.4 


354.6 


843.8 


0.4359 


2.294 


1.0545 


225 


391.79 


1201.4 


365.1 


836.3 


0.4876 


2.051 


1.0576 


250 


400.99 


1204.2 


374.7 


829.5 


0.5393 


1.854 


1.0605 


275 


409.50 


1206.8 


383.6 


823.2 


0.5913 


1.691 


1.0632 


300 


417.42 


1209.3 


391.9 


817.4 


0.644 


1.553 


1.0657 


325 


424.82 


1211.5 


399.6 


811.9 


0.696 


1.437 


1.0680 


350 


431.90 


1213.7 


406.9 


806.8 


0.748 


1.337 


1.0703 


375 


438.40 


1215.7 


414.2 


801.5 


0.800 


1.250 


1.0724 


400 


445.15 


1217.7 


421.4 


796.3 


0.853 


1.172 


1.0745 


500 


406.57 


1224.2 


444.3 


779.9 


1.065 


0.939 


1.0812 



• Kent, "Mechanical Engineer's Pocket-Book, " New York, 1913, p. 836. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



143 



Vapor Tensions op Various Metals^ 

(As calculated by J. W. Richards, "Metallurgical Calculations") 



Vapor tension, 


Mercury 


Lead 


Silver 


Gold 


Cadmium 


Zinc 


mm. of mercury 


at C.° 


at C.° 


at C.° 


at C.° 


at C.° 


at C.» 


0.0002 





625 


729 


942 


183 


248 


. 0005 


10 


658 


766 


987 


200 


267 


0.0013 


20 


691 


802 


1031 


216 


286 


0.0029 


30 


724 


839 


1075 


233 


305 


0.0063 


40 


757 


876 


1120 


250 


324 


0.013 


50 


790 


913 


1165 


267 


344 


0.026 


60 


822 


949 


1209 


283 


363 


0.050 


70 


855 


986 


1254 


300 


382 


0.093 


80 


888 


1023 


1298 


317 


401 


0.165 


90 


921 


1059 


1343 


333 


420 


0.285 


100 


954 


1096 


1387 


350 


439 


0.478 


110 


987 


1133 


1432 


367 


458 


0.779 


120 


1020 


1169 


1476 


383 


477 


1.24 


130 


1053 


1206 


1520 


400 


496 


1.93 


140 


1086 


1243 


1565 


417 


516 


2.93 


150 


1119 


1280 


1611 


433 


535 


4.33. 


160 


1151 


1316 


1654 


450 


554 


6.41 


170 


1184 


1353 


1699 


467 


573 


9.23 


1801 


12171 


13901 


17431 


4831 


592» 


14.84 


190 


1250 


1427 


1788 


500 


611 


19.90 


200 


1283 


1463 


1832 


517 


630 


26.25 


210 


1316 


1500 


1877 


533 


649 


34.70 


220 


1349 


1537 


1921 


550 


668 


45.35 


230 


1382 


1574 


1965 


567 


687 


58.82 


240 


1415 


1610 


2010 


584 


706 


75.75 


250 


1448 


1647 


2055 


600 


726 


96.73 


260 


1480 


1684 


2099 


617 


745 


123.0 


270 


1513 


1720 


2144 


634 


764 


155.0 


280 


1546 


1757 


2188 


650 


783 


195.0 


290 


1579 


1794 


2233 ■ 


667 


802 


242.0 


300 


1612 


1830 


2277 


684 


821 


300.0 


310 


1645 


1867 


2322 


700 


840 


369.0 


320 


1678 


1904 


2366 


717 


859 


451.0 


330 


1711 


1941 


2410 


734 


878 


548.0 


340 


1744 


1977 


2455 


750 


897 


663.0 


350 


1777 


2014 


2500 


767 


915 


760.0 


357> 


18002 


20402 


25302 


7802 


9302 






J 


V.tmosph( 


ires pressL 


re 




2.1 


400 


1951 


2197 


2722 


851 


1012 


4.25 


450 


2116 


2380 


2945 


934 


1107 


8.0 


500 


2280 


2564 


3167 


1018 


1203 


13.8 


550 


2445 


2747 


3390 


1101 


1298 


22.3 


600 


2609 


2931 


3612 


1185 


1394 


34.0 


650 


2774 


3114 


3835 


1268 


1489 


50.0 


700 


2938 


3298 


4057 


1352 


1585 


72.0 


750 


3103 


3481 


4280 


1435 


1680 


102.0 


800 


3267 


3665 


4502 


1519 


1776 


137.5 


850 


3436 


3848 


4725 


1602 


1871 


162.0 


880 


3525 


3958 


4858 


1652 


1928 



1 Approximate boiling points in vacuo. 

2 Approximate boiling points at normal pressures. 



144 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Mean Values of the Vapor Pressure op AsjOj 



Temper- 
ature 


Vapor 
pressure 


AsjOi per 
1000 cu. 
ft. of gas 


Temper- 
ature 


Vapor 
pressure 


AssOi per 
1000 cu. 
ft. of gas 


100 
120 
140 
160 
180 
200 


Mm. of mer- 
cury 
. 000266 
0.00180 
0.01035 
0.0473 
0.186 
0.653 


Pounds 

0.000386 

0.00261 

0.0150 

0.0685 

0.270 

0.947 


°C. 

220 
240 
260 
280 
300 


Mm. of mer- 
cury 

2.065 

5.96 
15.7 
38.5 
89.1 


Pounds 

3.00 
8.71 
23.2 
58.6 
144.0 




1 



This table, from "Tech. Paper 81," U. S. Bureau of Mines, may be used 
as a rough basis for the calculation of arsenic in smeltery gases. The vapor 
pressure of arsenic volatilized from flue dust at a given temperature is about 
half of the value in the table for that temperature. The heat of sublimation 
of arsenic varies from about 28,000 gram-cal. at 110°C. to about 25,000 at 
290°C. per gram-molecule of arsenic (396 grams). 

Cryohydr.\tes. Salt and Ice Mixtures' 



Name of salt 


Cryohydric point, 
degrees C. 


Percentage an- 

liydrous salt in 

ice mixture 


Calcium chloride 


-55.0 
-24.0 
-22.0 
-17.5 
-15.0 
- 5.0 


29 8 


Sodium bromide 

Sodium chloride 

Sodium nitrate 


41.33 
23.60 
40.80 


Ammonium chloride 

Magnesium sulphate 


19.27 
21.86 



' General Electric Review" 1915. 

Cooling Mixtures of Salt and Water' 



Mixed with 
100 parts water 



Temperature falls 



From C." 



ToC 



Alum-crystallized 

Ammonium carbonate 

chloride 

nitrate 

sulphate 

sulphocyanate 

Calciurn chloride crystallized 

Magnesium sulphate crystallized... 

Potassium chloride 

iodide 

nitrate 

sulphate 

sulphocyanate 

Sodium acetate, cryst 

carbonate, cryst 

chloride 

hyposulphite, cryst 

nitrate 

phosphate, cryst 

sulphate, cryst 



14 
30 
30 
60 
75 

133 

250 
85 
30 

140 
16 
12 

150 
85 
40 
36 

110 
75 
14 
20 



10.8° 

15.3 

13.3 

13.6 

13.2 

13.2 

10.8 

11.1 

13.2 

10.8 

13.2 



10.8 
12.5 



9.0 
3.2 

- 5.1 
-13.6 

6.8 
-18.0 
-12.4 
-3.1 
-3.0 
-11.7 

- 3.0 
-11.7 
-23.7 

- 4.7 
1.6 

10.1 

- 8.0 

- 5.3 
7.1 
5.7 



> Cbemeb and Bicknell's "Chemical and Metallurgical Hand Book.* 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



145 



Capillary Constants for Molten Metals 

(Given by Landolt, r X h = a-)^ 
These are the products of the rise (or degression) of the metal by the 
radius of the tube, or the rise or depression in tubes of 1 cm. radius. 



Metal S.W.Smith Quincke Siedentopf Grunmach 



Selenium. . 
Antimony. 

Bismuth. . . 



Lead 

Mercury. 

Tin 



Cadmium.. 
Aluminum. 

Zinc 

Silver 



Copper. 

Gold... 
Iron. . . 



8.65 

6.91 

7.53 

8.36 

8.12 

6.72 

6.73 

14.57 

14.55 

[14.97 




19. 

19. 

/28. 
130. 

15. 

14. 

/25. 
\27. 



.41 
.90 

.76 
.98 
.234 

43 



8.755 
9.778 



17.87 



/ 7.39 
\ 6.09, 

10.27 



21.25 
No values given 



StSckle 
6.548 



Gradenwitz 
14.5 



Heydweiller 
6.90 



Comparison of Values for Surface Tensions 
Obtained by Various Workers 

(Given by Landolt)' 



of Metals 



Metal 


S.W.Smith 


Quincke 


Siedentopf 


Grunmach 






Dynes per 
centimeter 


Dynes per 

centimeter 

92.5 

317.2 

464.9 

r 535.9 

457'"^- 
I mm. 

547.2 

C 681.2 

598 '"^- 
1, mm. 

No 1 
/ 967.4 \ 
\ 1103.7/ 
815.0 

782.4 


Dynes per 
centimeter 


Dynes per 
centimeter 


Dynes per 
centimeter 




274.0 
346.0 

424.5 
447.5 

480.0 

520.0 
707.5 










429.5 
509.5 

519 ""^- 
mm. 






Lead 


] 482'"^- 
J mm. 

[491.2 1 
1405.0/ 

352 1 

359/ 

led 




Mercury 


StSckle 




612.4 

624 '"^- 
mm. 

/alues recorc 


435.6 










Zinc 




Cadmium.. . . 


832.0 






Silver 


858.0 
1018.0 

1178.0 
1350.0 




Gradenwitz, 
751.0 


Gold 


581.0 






Heydweiller 
612.2 


Copper 























• Sydney W. Smith, paper before the Institute of Metals, September, 1914. 
10 



146 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



The surface tensions of liquid metals are periodic functions of 
their atomic weights. In each period the surface tension 
decreases slightly, the metal of lowest atomic weight having the 
highest surface tension. 

Heat Conductivity (K) 
A plate of the given substance 1 cm. thick, with parallel sides 
having a difference in temperature of 1°C., conducts enough 
heat per square centimeter per second to heat K grams of water 
from 0° to 1°C. The table is one compiled from various sources. 
See also Bering's Thermal Resistivity Table on p. 148. 



Metals 



Temperature, 
degrees C. 



Aluminum 

Aluminum 

Aluminum 

Antimony 

Antimony 

Bismuth 

Bismuth 

Bismutn 

Brass, red 

Brass, red 

Brass, yellow 

Brass, yellow 

Cadmium 

Cadmium 

Cadmium 

Copper 

Copper 

Copper ; 

Copper (containing iron) 

Copper (phosphor bronze) 

Copper (phosphor bronze) 

German silver 

German silver 

Gold 

Iron 

Iron, wrought (1 per cent. C.) 
Iron, wrought 



Iron, wrought 

Iron, wrought 

Iron, wrought 

Iron, wrought 

Iron (pure) 

Iron (Bessemer steel) 

Iron (puddled) 

Lead 

Lead 

Magnesium 

Mercury 

Mercury 

Mercury 

Nickel 

Palladium 

Platinum 

Silver 

Steel (1 per cent. C.) 

Tin 

Tungsten 

Wood 8 metal (99.0.5 Bi + 0.95 Sn) . 
Wood's metal (93.86 Bi + 6.14 Sn). 
Zinc 



18 

100 

-IGO 

to 30 

100 



100 

-186 



100 



100 



100 

-160 



100 

-160 

to 30 



100 

31 

100 

18 

-160 

18 

50 

100 

150 

200 

275 

18 

15 

15 

18 

100 

to 100 



50 

100 



18 

10 to 97 

10 to 97 

18 
to 30 
18 



to 30 



0.501 

0.492 

0.514 

0.044 

0.040 

0.0177 

0.0161 

0.025 

0.2460 

0.2847 

0.2041 

0.2540 

0.02213 

. 02045 

0.239 

1.0405 

0.908 

1.079 

0.954 

0.7198 

0.7226 

0.081 

0.0887 

0.700 

0.152 

0.144 

0.1772 

0.1567 

0.1447 

0.1357 

0.1240 

0.161 

. 0964 

0.1375 

0.083 

0.076 

0.376 

0.01479 

0.01893 

0.024 

0.14 

0.17 

0.19 

1.096 

0.115 

0.151 

0.36 

0.008 

0.012 

0.303 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



147 



Xon-metals 



Temperature, 
degrees C. 



Air 

Cement 

Coal 

Cotton (compressed). 

Cotton wool 

Felt 

Flannel - 

Glass (crown) 

Glass (flint) 

Ic 



Plaster of Paris 

Paraffin 

Quartz sand 

Slate 

Sulphuric acid 

Water 

Water 

Wood (dry pine), dry walnut 

Alumina brick 

Asbestos paper 

Cardboard 

Coke powdered 

Cork 

Firebrick 

Firebrick 

Firebrick dust 

Gas retort carbon, solid 

Graphite 

Graphite-retort dust 

Infusorial earth 

Infusorial earth 

Magnesia brick 

Magnesia-calcined Grecian granular. 

Magnesia-calcined light porous 

Magnesite-brick dust 

Mica (perpen. to cleavage) 

Paper 

Rubber, Para 

Sawdust 

Slag wool 





below 0° 
below 0° 
below 0° 



below 0° 
10-15 
10-15 





18-98 

below 0° 

9-15 


40.8 



0°-700° 



0°-100° 



0°-1300° 
0°-500° 
20°-98° 
0°-100° 



20°- 100° 
17°-98° 
0°-6.50° 
0°-1300° 
20°-100° 
20°- 100° 
20°- 100° 



0.00057 

0.0001625 

. 000405 

0.00055 

0.0004 

. 00009 

. 000355 

0.00163 

0.00143 

0.005 

0.0013 

. 0006 

. 00060 

0.00481 

. 000765 

0.001203 

0.001555 

. 0004 

. 00204 

. 0006 

. 0005 

. 00044 

0.00013 

0.00310 

0.00140 

. 00028 

0.0177 

0.012 

. 00040 

0.00013 

. 00038 

. 00620 

0.00045 

0.00016 

. 00050 

0.018 

0.0003 

. 00045 

0.00012 

0.00019 



148 MET.\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Table of Thermal Resistivities^ 
Approximately i\ Order of Resistivity 

(Ti'iiiperature in Centigrade degrees) 



Thermal ohms' 




Silver, O'-lOO" 

Copper (electrode mean), 100°-197° 

Copper (electrode mean), 100°-837° 

Copper, 0°-100°. about 

Copper 

Copper, cast 

Copper, rolled 

Copper, rolledi 

Aluminum, 0°-100° 

Graphite, Acheson (electrode mean), 10O°-390' 
Graphite, Acheson (electrode mean), 100°-914' 

Brass, 0°-100° 

Iron (electrode mean), 100°-398° 

Iron (electrode mean), lOC-SgS' 

Iron, wrought 

Iron, wrought, 0° 

Iron, wrought, 275° 

Iron, wrought 

Iron, cast 

Iron, cast, 30° 

Steel 

Steel 

Steel, various 

Steel, 10 per cent, manganese 

Platinum 

Platinum, 18°-100» 

Platinum 



' Hering uses an expression, the thermal ohm, which is the resistance 
through which 1 watt of heat flow will pass when the temperature drop 
is 1°C. Hence, if R is the thermal resistance in thermal ohms, W the 
flow of heat in watts and T the temperature in Centigrade degrees: 

T 

Or if r is the specific thermal resistance in thermal ohms i>er centimeter 
cube then 

where L is length and S is cross section. 

To reduce a thermal conductivity in gram calories per second to resistivity 
in thermal ohms, mujtiply the reciprocal of the conductivity by 0.2388, 
when both are for 1 cm.' To reduce gram calories to watts, multiply by 
4.186. In order to compare thermal resistivities Mr. Herino called that of 
silver the unit, and reduced all values to this base. 

To use the data of the table for all purposes it may be remembered that 
watts X 0.00134111 = horse power 
watts X 0.0568776 = B.t.u. per minute. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



149 



Thermal ohms' 



Inch 
cube 


Centi- 
meter 
cube 


Refer- 
ence 


0.72 


1.9 


H 


1.05 


2.7 


H 


0.33 


0.83 


CJ 


1.10 


2.8 


WP 


1.2 


3.0 


LB 


3.8 


9.6 


WQ 


4.1 


10.3 


WQ 


5.5 


14.1 


LB 


5.9 


15.0 


LB 


8.0 


21.0 


LB 


9.1 


23.0 


LB 


13.0 


34.0 


WQ 


16.0 


42.0 


P 


16.0 


42.0 


WQ 


16.0 


42.0 


LB 


9.8 


25.0 


P 


12.0 


31.0 


P 


19.0 


48.0 


LB 


20.0 


51.0 


P 


21.0 


53.0 


D 


22.0 


57.0 


WQ 


23.0 


57.0 


Z 


30.0 


77.0 


Z 


44.0 


112.0 


CE 


67.0 


171.0 


Z 


24.0 


61.0 


WQ 


25.0 


63.0 


WQ 


26.0 


67.0 


LB 


29.0 


72.0 


WQ 


35.0 


89.0 


WQ 


38.0 


96.0 


LB 


41.0 


104.0 


WQ 


43.0 


109.0 


LB 


44.0 


110.0 


N 


132.0 


336.0 


LB 


47.0 


120.0 


LB 


47.0 


120 


WQ 


52.0 


133.0 


WQ 


62.0 


160.0 


W 


72.0 


180.0 


LB 


87.0 


220.0 


LB 


96.0 


240.0 





109.0 


276.0 





110.0 


280.0 





131.0 


333.0 


LB 


105.0 


266.0 


LB 


221.0 


562.0 





178.0 


453.0 


N 


169.0 


430.0 


N 


187.0 


477.0 


LB 


204.0 


518.0 


P 


139.0 


353.0 





166.0 


422.0 


N 


221.0 


562.0 


N 


416.0 


1016.0 


S 


239.0 


606.0 


LB 



Carbon (electrode mean) 100°-942'' 

Carbon (electrode mean) 100°-360° 

Lead 

'Lead 

Lead, O^-lOO" 

Plumbago brick, about 1000° 

Carborundum brick, about 1000° 

Mercury, 0°-50° 

8uartz, 0° 
raphite (probably plumbago) 7° 

Retort carbon, 0° 

Magnesia brick, about 1000° 

Stone, calcareous, fine 

Chromite brick, about 1000° 

Ice 

Marble, fine grained, gray 

Marble, coarse grained, white 

Marble, 30° 

Stone, calcareous, ordinary 

Firebrick, probably room temperature 

Firebrick, about 1000° 

Firebrick, mean for 500°-1300° 

Firebrick, mean for 0°-1300° 

Firebrick, about 400°-800° 

Firebrick, mean for 0°-500° 

Checker brick, about 1000° 

Gas retort brick, about 1000° 

Slate, 94° 

Building brick, about 1000° 

Glass pot, about 1000° 

Porcelain, 95° 

Terracotta, about 1000° 

Chalk, solid 

Cement, Portland, neat, 35° 

Cement, Portland, 90° 

Lava 

Silica brick, about 1000° 

Kieselguhr brick, about 1000° 

Red brick wall, average 8-in.-40-in. walls 

Water, room temperature 

Glass, 28° 

Plumbago, 20°-155°, 26.1 per cent, solid matter 
Fine sand, 20°-155°, 51.4 per cent, solid matter 
Coarse sand, 20°-155°, 52.9 per cent, solid 

matter 

Cork, solid 

Plaster of Paris, 0° 

Plaster of Paris, 20°-155°, 36.8 per cent, solid 

matter 

Slag concrete, 1 slag: 0.61 cement by weight, 50° 

Pumice stone, 18.2 lb. per cu. ft., 50° 

Pumice stone 

Brick dust, sifted 

Asbestos, 20°-155°, 34.2 per cent, solid matter 

Asbestos, 36 lb. per cu. ft., 600° 

Asbestos, 36 lb. per cu. ft., 50° 

Asbestos with air cells 

Cardboard, below 0° 



150 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Thermal ohms.' 



Inch 
cube 



Centi- 
meter 
cube 



Ebonite, 48° 

Petroleum, 13" 

Wood pine, parallel to fiber 

Many li<iuids (hydrocarbons, etc.) 

Anthracite 

Chalk, 20°-155°, 25.3 per cent, solid matter... 

Very porous slag, 22.5 lb. per cu. ft., 50° 

Zinc white, 20°-155°, 8.8 per cent, solid matter 

Infusorial earth, 21°-175* 

Infusorial earth 20°-155°, 11.2 per cent, solids. 
Infusorial earth, 20°-155°, 6 per cent, solid 

matter 

Infusorial, earth, burned, 12.5 lb. per cu. ft., 

450° 

Infusorial earth, burned, 12.5 lb. per cu. ft., 50° 
Infusorial earth, loose, 21.8 lb. per cu. ft., 350°. 
Infusorial earth, loose, 21.8 lb. per cu. ft., 50°. 

Infusorial earth 

Magnesia carb., 85 per cent., 20°-18S° 

Magnesia, calcined, 20°-155°, 28.5 per cent. 

solids 

Magnesia, calcined, 20''-155°, 4.9 per cent. 

solids 

Magnesia calcined, 20°-155°, 2.3 per cent. 

solids 

Magnesia, calcined, 21°-175° 

Charcoal, pine, 20°-155°, 11.9 per cent, solid 

matter 

Charcoal, from leaves ,11.9 lb. per cu. ft., 100° 
Charcoal, from leaves, 11.9 lb. per cu. ft., 50°. 

Charcoal 

Feathers, 20°-155°, 2 per cent, solid matter 

Sawdust, 13.4 lb. per cu. ft., 50° 

Sawdust 

Sawdust, 13.4 lb. per cu. ft.. 50° 

Cork, granulated and compressed, 20°-188°. . . 

Cork, ground, 10 lb. per cu. ft., 200° 

Cork, ground, 10 lb. per cu. ft., 50° 

."kir, 20°-155° 

.\ir, 0° 

Cotton wool, 20°-155°, 1 per cent, solid matter. 
Cotton wool, 20°-155°, 2 per cent, solid matter. 

Cotton wool, 5.05 lb. per cu. ft., 100° 

Cotton wool, 5.05 lb. per cu. ft., 50° 

Cotton wool 

Cotton wool, loose 

Cotton wool, compressed 

Hair felt, 20°-155°, 9.2 per cent, solid matter. . 

Hair felt, 21°-175° 

Hair felt 

Hair felt, below 0° 

Lampblack, 20°-155°, 5.6 per cent, solid matter 

Fine quartz sand 

Silk, 6.3 lb. per cu. ft., 100° 

Silk. 6.3 lb. per cu. ft., 50° 

Wool, sheep's, 20°-155°, 2.1 per cent, solid 

matter 



251 
265 
313 
313 
317 
332 
356 
398 
415 
435 

472 

263 
477 
427 
562 
745 
537 

160 

544 



616 



637 

672 

796 

796 

803 

844 

905 

1010 

1050 

1110 

1200 

1675 
1220 
1090 
1430 
1890 
1370 

470 

1380 



554 


1410 


572 


1450 


494 


1260 


537 


1370 


603 


1530 


723 


1840 


577 


1470 


014 


1560 


620 


1570 


765 


1950 


467 


1190 


614 


1560 


797 


2030 


143 


364 


1700 


4320 


596 


1520 


659 


1570 


572 


1460 


627 


1600 


830 


2110 


2170 


5500 


2810 


7120 


633 


1610 


790 


2010 


865 


2200 


1080 


2740 


697 


1770 


718 


1820 


662 


1690 


752 


1920 



1570 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



151 



Thermal ohms' 



Inch 
cube 



Centi- 
meter 
cube 



Refer- 
ence 



Wool, sheep's, 8.5 lb. per cu. ft., 50° 
Wool, sheep's, 8.5 lb. per cu. ft., 100 

Wool, sheep's 

Mineral wool, 21°-175° 

Mineral wool, 0°-lS° 

Hard rubber 

Wood, pine, radially 

Loose fibrous materials, 9° 

Flannel 



676 

745 

803 

737 

1010 

1060 

1070 

1540 

2650 



1720 
1890 
2050 
1870 
2570 
2680 
2720 
3920 
6720 



N 

C 

N 

B 

C 

LB 

LB 

LB 

LB 



B— George M. Brill. Trans., Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., XVI, p. 827- 
Coverings on 8-in. steam pipes. 

C — J. J. CoLEMA.v. Engineering, Sept. 5, 1834, p. 237. Ice melted in 
cube surrounded with the materials. Temperatures 0-18° and 0-38° C. 
The values were given relatively to each other; to reduce them to absolute 
measure it is here assumed that the value for sawdust is 620, thermal ohm, 
inch cube units. 

CE — Clement and Egt. 

CJ — CULVERT and Joh.vson. Relative values based on silver. Reduced 
here on the basis that the conductivity of silver is 1.0 in gram calories per 
second, centigrade, centimeter cube units. 

D — Depretz, Hood. " Warming and Ventilating Buildings," p. 249. 
Given relatively to marble, here assumed to be 10 thermal ohms, inch cube 
units. 

H — Carl Hering. "The Proportions of Electrodes for Furnaces." 
(Table.) Paper read before the Am. Inst. Elec. Eng., March 31, 1910. 
Mean values when materials are used as furnace electrodes. 

LB — Landolt and Boernstein tables. The values here chosen are 
mostly approximate means of the generally numerous and sometimes 
greatly differing values given by different observers. For the individual 
values and for the authorities see those tables. They also include values for 
very many other materials. 

N — Wilhelm NcssEL. Zeit. Ver. Deut. Eng., June, 1908, p. 906, table, 
p. 1006. Materials were placed between two concentric metallic spheres or 
cubes. Heat generated electrically in interior. Temperature measured 
with thermocouples at numerous depths in the material after several days' 
beating. As here given they represent the resistivities at the temperatures 
stated, not the means over a range. Probably the best and most reliable 
determinations published. His conductivities are here assumed to be in 
terms of kilogram calories per hour, centigrade, meter cube, units; although 
not so stated directly in the original, it is undoubtedly what is meant. An 
abstract appeared in the Eng. Digest, August, 1908, p. 168, in which the units 
are reduced to thermal units, feet, inches and Fahrenheit degrees; the 
formula there given omits to say that it is necessary to multiply by the 
temperature also. 

O — Prof. Ordwat. Trans., Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., Vol. VI, 1884-5, p. 
168. Tested in plates 1 in. thick between two flat iron surfaces, one of them 
heated by steam, the heat emitted by the other being measured calorimetric- 
ally. Extended, carefully made researches: presumably very good values. 
There is an error in the heading in Table VII; square inch should read square 
meter, as in the others. 

P — Peclet, Box. "Practical Treatise on Heat." Presumably ordinary 
weather temperatures. 

S — -H. G. Stott. Power, 1902. Pipe coverings. 200 ft. of 2-in. pipe heated 
electrically to constant temperature. Coverings were somewhat over 1 in. 
thick; they are here reduced to 1 in. Heat transmitted to air, hence these 
resistances include that at the surface. 

W — Wolff. Jour. Frank. Inst., 1893. The transmission of heat from 
the interior to the exterior of buildings through the walls; hence ordinary 
weather temperatures. Prescribed by law by German Government for heat- 



152 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



ing plants. _ Said to agree well with good American practice. The value 
here given is an average of all the individual ones, omitting the first one, 
which differed greatly from all the others. 

WF — WiEDE.MANN and Franz; relative values based on silver. Reduced 
here on the basis that the conductivity of silver is 1.0 in gram calories per 
second, centigrade, centimeter cube, units. 

WQ — WoLOQDiNE, QuENEAU. The temperatures were about 1000°C.; 
the materials were those of commerce and do not refer to extra pure or to 
inferior grades. The present writer is of the opinion, based on the method 
used in the tests, that these values are probably too low. 

Z — Source lost, but probably fairly good values. 

For further information the reader is referred to Metallurgical and Chemical 
Engineering, September, 1909, p. 383; February, 1909, p. 72; December, 
1911, p. 652. 

According to William Nussel, thermal conductivity increases by Ji?.* 
for each degree Centigrade rise in temperature. 

Thermal Conductivity of Refractories' 



Woodland 
firebrick 


Quartzite 

(ganister and 

clay) 


Star silica 

(ganister and 

lime) 


Magnesite 
(dead burned) 


SiOj 52.93 

AIjO. 42.69 

FejOi 1.98 


73.91 
22.87 
1.48 
0.29 
0.31 
1.20 


95.85 
0.88 
0,79 
1.80 
0.14 
0.39 


2.50 
0.50 
7.00 


CaO 0.33 

MgO 0.38 


2.75 
86.50 




0.10 


Density 1.91 

/Catl00°C 0.0043 

A' at 1000°C. . . 0.0086 


1.91 
0.0051 
. 0086 


1.56 
. 005G 
0.0108 


2.46 
1 0.0343> 



Flow of Heat Inward from a Heated Plane Face^ 

Starting with the simple fundamental law for the flow of 
heat in the steady state — namely, that the amount of heat 
conducted varies directly as the conductivity, area, time and 
temperature difference, and inversely as the thickness — it is not 
particularly difficult to derive the .solution for this case with the 
aid of Fourier's Series. For such derivation, however, the 
reader is referred to any treatise on heat conduction where he 
will find it given in the form : 

V^J X 

2hVt 
This means that for a body initially at the zero of our tem- 
perature scale, whose plane surface is suddenly heated to and 
maintained at To, the temperature 7" at a distance x from this 
surface will be given t seconds later by this integral. As to the 
meaning of h, a little thought will serve to show that inasmuch as 
the temperature of the substance must be raised by the heat 

' From a paper by Botd Dudley, Jr., read at the Atlantic City meeting 
of the American Electrochemical Society, April, 1915. 

' From 445° to 830°C. K is expressed in gram calories per second per 
inch cube per degree Centigrade, a peculiar unit. 

» Taken from an article by L. R. iNQERSOLLin Eng. News, Oct. 30, 19 J 3. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



153 



wave as it travels into the body, the rate of this penetration will 
depend not onlj' on the conductivity, but on the specific heat 
and 'density of the material as well. This is taken account of 
in the constant h which is defined by the relation 

cp 
k, c and p being respectively the conductivitj', specific heat and 
density of the material. The quantities x, h and t being known, 
T can be determined. Tables I and II give the values of this 
integral, and of the constant h^, or thermal diffusivity. 

Table I. — Values of Integral E = —p | e~ 

V 71 



v_ 



2hVt 



x/2hVt 


E 


x/2hVt 


E 


x/2h\/T 


E 


0.00 


1.000 


0.45 


0.525 


1.40 


0.048 


0.02 


0.987 


0.50 


0.480 


1.50 


0.034 


0.04 


0.955 


0.55 


0.437 


1.60 


0.024 


0.06 


0.932 


0.60 


0.396 


1.70 


0.016 


0.08 


0.910 


0.65 


0.358 


1.80 


0.0109 


0.10 


0.888 


0.70 


0.322 


1.90 


0.0072 


0.12 


0.865 


0.75 


0.288 


2.00 


0.0047 


0.14 


0.843 


0.80 


0.258 


2.10 


0.0030 


0.16 


0.821 


0.85 


0.229 


2.20 


0.0019 


0.18 


0.800 


0.90 


0.203 


2.30 


0.0011 


0.20 


0.777 


0.95 


0.179 


2.40 


0.0007 


0.25 


0.724 


1.00 


0.157 


2.50 


0.0004 


0.30 


0.671 


1.10 


0.120 


2.60 


0.0002 


0.35 


0.621 


1.20 


0.090 


2.70 


0.0001 


0.40 


0.572 


1.30 


0.066 


00 


. 0000 



Examples. — The use of these tables is best shown by solving 
some specific examples: 

1. A massive granite block at 20°C. (68°F.) has one face 
(rapidly) heated to 200°C. (392°F.). What will be the tem- 
perature at a depth of 10 cm. (4 in.) after 1 hour? 

Since the theory is based on the assumption of an initial 
temperature of zero the temperature scale must be shifted in 
this case by subtracting 20°, which will be added again later. 
Taking h^ from Table II as 0.0155, t as 3600 (seconds) and x 
as 10 (cm.), the quantity x/2hVt becomes 0.67. This gives, 
from Table I, E = O.S-l; hence the rise in temperature would be 
T = 180E, or 61°, making a final temperature of SrC. (178°F.). 

2. The surface of a dry soil initially throughout at 6°C. 
(43°F.) is cooled to -20°C. (-4°F.). How long before water- 
pipes at a depth of 152 cm. (5 ft.) will be in danger of freezing? 

Here we have, after shifting the temperature scale, 
-6 = -26E, or E = 0.23 

From Table I, then, x/2hVT = 0.85, which, with h^ = 0.0031, 
gives t = 2,000,000 seconds or 30 days. 



154 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Taule II. — Values of Thermal Conductivity Constants in 
C. G. S.> Units' 



Material 



Tempera- 
ture, 
deg. C. 



Con- 
ductiv- 
ity, A: 



Dif- 
fusiv- 
ity, ht 



Air... 

Aluminum 

Brass (yellow) 

Brick (firebrick).. . . 
Brick (in masonry).. 
Concrete (cinder).. . 
Concrete (stone).. . . 

Copper 

Cork (ground) 

Glass (ordinary).. . . 

Granite 

Ice., 




18 

0-800 



Iron (wrought or mild steel) 

Iron (cast, also high-carbon steel) 

Lead 

Limestone 

Magnesium carbonate (85 per cent. 

steam-pipe covering) 

Marble (white) 

Nickel 

Rock material, average 

Sandstone 

Silver 

Snow (fresh) 

Soil (average, Jamp) 

Soil (very dry) 

Water 

Wood (dry pine — across grain^ 

Wood (dry pine — with grain) 



18 



18 

is' 



000055 

480 

204 

0040 

0020 

00081 

0022 

918 

00012 

0024 

0081 

0052 

1436 

108 

0827 

0050 

00017 

0050 

142 

0042 

0050 

006 

0003 

0037 

00088 

00143 

00009 

00030 



0.179 

0.826 

0.339 

0.0074 

0.0050 

0.0031 

0.0058 

1.133 

0.0017 

. 0057 

0.0155 

0.0112 

0.173 

0.121 

0.237 

0.0092 



. 0090 

0.152 

0.0118 

0.0133 

1.737 

. 0033 

. 0055 

0.0031 

0.00143 

. 00068 

0.0023 



Flow of Heat Inward from Two Heated Faces 

If a plate or slab of tliickness I and initial temperature zero 
have both its faces suddenly heated to and kept at To, the tem- 
perature T in the middle plane, which will obviously be the last 
part of the body to heat up, mav be obtained from the equation 

\ IT l^ 6w I' I 

I being the time in seconds and h?- the thermal difTusivity. To 

' The use of this system is almost compulsory in cases where thermal 
diffusivity is involved, since it is the only one in common use which is consist- 
ent in its choice of fundamental units. Thus the steam engineer's con- 
ductivity unit of the B.t.u. per hour, per square foot, per degree F., per inch 
in thickness, is not available in this case since it involves two different 
units of length, i.e., the inch and foot. Similar objections may be raised 
against most of the other units in common use with the exception of the 
C. G. S. 

Most of the values for metals are those of Jaqer and Diesselhorst, Abh. 
d. phys-tech. Reichsanstalt, Vol. 3, p. 269 (1900). The others have been 
compiled from various sources. When not otherwise specified, ordinary 
temperatures are assumed. 

' This table is also taken from IhfOERSOLL'a article. Some of these con- 
stants differ from those given in the table on p. 146, but the differences are not 
serious, and since his diffusivity constants have been computed on this basin, 
it seems better to let the table stand as originally printed. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



155 



simplify computation, the values of this series have been tabu- 
lated as in Table III. 



Table III. — Values of the Function 



y = 1 - — flO-x - 4-10-'^ + 4-10-"x_ 
X \ 6 O 



>' 



here 1 = 0.434 



hhrU 



I 


y 


X 


V 


X 


V 


0.01 
0.02 
03 


0.0000 
0.0000 
. 0000 
0.0001 
. 0005 
0.0010 

0.0021 
0.0037 
0.0055 
0.0081 
0.0113 
0.0150 

0.0194 
0.0241 
9.0294 
0.0351 

0.0412 


0.11 
0.12 
13 


0.0546 
0.0692 
0848 


0.36 
0.38 
0.40 
0.45 
0.50 
0.60 

0.70 
0.80 
0.90 
1.00 
1.25 
1.50 

1.75 
2.00 
2.50 
3.00 
3.50 
4.00 


0.4444 
0.4693 
0.4931 
. 5482 
. 5974 
0.6802 

. 7460 
0.7982 
0.8397 
0.8727 
0.9284 
0.9597 

0.9774 
0.9873 
0.9960 
0.9987 
0.9996 
0.9999 


0.035 

0.04 

0.045 

0.05 

0.055 

0.06 

0.065 

0.07 

0.075 

0.08 
0.085 
0.09 
0.095 

0.10 


0.14 
0.15 
0.16 

0.17 
0.18 
0.19 
0.20 
0.22 
0.24 

0.26 
1.28 
0.30 
0.32 

0.34 


0.1009 
0.1176 
0.1345 

0.1517 
0.1690 
0.1862 
0.2033 
0.2372 
0.2702 

0.3022 
0.3331 
0.3727 
0.3912 
0.4184 









Examples. — A dry spruce cross-tie 11.4 X 17.8 cm. (43^^ X 7 
in.) in section and 71 cm. (28 in.) long, and at an initial tem- 
perature of 15°C. (59°F.), is placed in an oven which heats its 
surface to 137°C. (278°F.) for \Q]4 hours. What should be 
the temperature at the end of this period for a point near the 
center of the tie? 

As the heat penetration will be largely due to conduction 
across the smallest dimension of the tie we shall neglect the other 
faces altogether. We have then, effectively, a plate of thickness 
11.4 cm. and diffusivity 0.0068 (pine wood in Table II), which 
gives X = 0.85. Then from Table III, y = 0.82, making a rise 
in temperature of 0.82 (137° - 15°), or 100°. This gives a 
final temperature of 115°C. (239°F.). In an actual experiment 
this was found to be 113°C., checking our theory much more 
closely than could be expected, considering the approximations 
we have made in neglecting the other faces. 

In the same way we can readily show b}^ a few minutes' work 
with a slide-rule that thecenter of aplateof steel 2.54 cm. (1 in.) 
thick, which is plunged into molten lead, should rise to within 
2 per cent, of the temperature of its faces in less than half a 
minute; the center of a firebrick 6.3 cm. (23^ in.) thick, heated 
by flue gases in a regenerator, should show more than half its 
surface change in temperature in 10 minutes, and more than 
three-quarters in 20 minutes; a disk of glass 20.3 cm. (8 in.) 
thick, which has been subjected to a recent heating or cooling 
of a dozen degrees should be kept with faces at constant tem- 



loG METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



peraturc for upwards of 10 hours to insure that the interior 
temperature is uniform to a small fraction of a degree. 

Relative Conductivities of Metals for Heat and Electricity 

The following table, compiled from various sources, is 
intended to show merely the general correspondence between 
conductivity for heat and for electricity. For ordinary work, 
the table of heat conductivities just preceding, and of electric 
resistivity just following, should be used. The electric conduc- 
tivities are the reciprocals of the resistivities given in the later 
tables. 



Metal (in vacuo) 



Heat 



Elec- 
tricity 



Metal (in vacuo) 



Heat 



Elec- 
tricity 



Silver 100 

Copper I 74 

Gold. 54.8 

Aluminum ! 31.33 

Zinc I 28.1 

Brass 24 

Cadmium 20.06 

Tin ' 1.3.4 



100 
77.43 
55.19 



27.39 
22.0 



Iron 

Steel 

Platinum 

Lead 

German silver 
.Antimony. . . . 

Bismuth 

Mercury 



11.9 
10.3 
9.4 
7.9 
6.3 
4.03 
1.8 
1.3 



14.44 



10.53 
7.77 
6.0 



Rkl.\tiox of He.^t asu Electric Cont)Uctivity» 



Material 


Thermal conductivity 

Electrical conductivity 

at IS^C. 


Temperature 

coefficient of 

this ratio, 

per cent. 


Copper, commercial 


6.76 X 1010 
6.65 X 1010 

6.71 X 1010 
6.86 X 1010 
7.27 X 10-10 
7.09 X 1010 
6.99 X 1010 

7.05 X lO'O 

6.72 X 1010 

7.06 X 1010 
7.15 X 1010 

7.35 X 1010 

6.36 X 1010 
7,76 X 1010 
7.. 53 X 1010 
7.54 X 1010 

8.02 X 1010 

8.03 X 1010 
9.03 X 1010 
9.64 X 1010 

11.06 X 1010 

9.14 X 1010 




Copper (1), pure 

Copper (2), pure 


0.39 
0.39 




0.37 


Gold (1), pure 

Gold (2), pure 


0.36 
0.37 


Nickel 


0.39 


Zinc (1) 


0.38 




0.38 




0.37 




0.40 




0.34 




0.43 


Platinum (1) 






0.46 




0.46 


Iron (1) 


0.43 


Iron (2) 


0.44 


Steel 


0.35 


Bismuth 


0.15 


Constantan (60 Cu, 40 Ni) . . 

Manganin (84 Cu, 4 Ni, 

12 .Mn) 


0.23 

0.27 







1 Table used by Sir J. J. Thomso.v at a lecture before the Institute of 
Metals, May, 1915. Attributed by him to Jaoer and DiEsaELBORST. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



Resistivity of Metals 

(Microhms per cm.') 



157 





-160° 


0° 


18° 


100° 


Temp, 
coeff. at 0° 




0.81 


2.8 
36.0 
55.55 
7.0 
1.58 
7.5 


2.94 
40.5 
119.0 
7.54 
1.78 
10.5 
9.71 
2.42 


4.13 

im'.s" 

9.82 
2.36 


. 0040 




0.0041 


Bismuth 




. 0035 


Cadmium (drawn) 

Copper (drawn) 


2.72 
0.49 


. 00428 
0.0039 


Cobalt 




■■'slii' 


. 00336 


Gold 


0.68 


"ssls" 


. 0037 






Iridium 




9-15 
13.9 
20.8 












16.8 
18.8 
27.7 


. 0062 


Iron (wrought) 


5.4 
7.43 


"i9!6" 

8.4 

4.35 

94.07 


0.0058 




0.0039 














0.0038 






95.57 

4.12 

19.9 
11.8 
9.53 
10.7 
11.0 


"25!6" 
15.7 


0.00072 


Molybdenum 




. 0050« 


Steel 








Nickel 


5.9 




0.00625 


Osmium 










13.8 
14.0 


0.0035' 


Platinum 


2.4* 


9.0 
6.64 


0.0037« 










6.0 
1.65 






Silver 


0.56 


1.50 
4.74 


2.13 


. 00377 


Sodium! 








25.03 
14.6 
21.0' 












0.00336 


Tellurium 






. 0040 


Thallium 




17.6 • 








40.1 
11.3 

4.81 
6.1 






Tin (drawn) 

Tungsten (annealed) . . . 


3.5 
""2!2'" 


10.0 
4.42 
5.6 


15.3 
6.65 
7.9 


0.0043 
0.00516 
0.00365 







' At - 183°. 2 At 25°. ' At 20°. * At -204°. 6 From 18° to 100°. 

The values at low temperatures are mostly Lee's; those at 18°, Jaeger and 
Diesselhorst's; those at 0° from a table compiled by Watt's, "Laboratory 
Course in Electrochemistry," while those at 100° are from various sources. 

Alloys^ 





-160° 


0° 


18° 


100° 


Temp, coeff. at 0° 


German silver* 




26.6 
95.5 




27.6 


. 0003 






0.00044 




4.1 


6.6 
49.0 

43.50 

5-10 
31.25 


49.1 
42.1 


0.0010 




f -0.000050 to 


Manganin'. 


43.13 




+0.000050 
/• 0.000002 to 



























' Temperature coefficients from " Standard Handbook." 

• 62 per cent. Cu, 15 Ni, 22 Zn. 
' 84 per cent. Cu, 4 Ni, 12 Mn. 

♦ Most samples of mangatiin have a zero temperature coefficient from 30* 
to 40°C. 



158 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Resistivities at High Temperatures' 

I Values in italics are merely exterpolated) 



rti)(>'(\ 


.Microhms, 


(J<i2'-t'. 


cm. cb. 




5.0 




5.1 


Gold, solid 


6.62 




10.0 


Brass, 2-1, solid 


12.5 


Molybdenum, solid 


16.5 


Tungsten (a. b\ solid 


18.0 


Platinum (b>, solid 


25.3 


Cadmium, fused 


34.12 


Platinum (al, solid 


34.4 


Tantalum, solid 


36.0 




36.60 


Iron (a), solid, about 


52.0 


Tin, fused 


54.62 


Lead-tin alloy, fused 


81.0 


Ferronickel, solid 


94.0 


Lead, fused 


102.85 




109.0 


Krupp metal, solid 


115.0 


Nichrome 11, solid 


119.0 


Bismuth, fused 


139.9 


Antimony, solid 


152.0 




Ohms 


Graphite (b) 


0.00080 




0.00084 




0.0027 


Carbon (d) 


0.0028 




0.0033 


Carbon (b) 


0.0037 




0.22 




0.094 to 




0.23 


Lead chloride, fused, 520°. . 


0.418 


Silver chloride, fused 


0.547 


Lead chloride, solid 


0.824 


Silfrax B 


0.92 


Copper chloride, fused 


2.50 




2.70 


Carbon grains (b), about. . . 


4.8 


Carbon grains (a), about. . . 


8.5 




10.0 




19.7 




60.0 


Silicon powder 

Glass, about 


120.0 


330.0 


Iron oxide, FeiOa, powder. 


1200.0 


Copper oxide, CuiO, powder 


1570.0 


Manganese oxide, MnOi, 




powder 


2200.0 


Copper oxide, CuO 


.5640.0 



1000°C. 


Microhms, 


1832°F. 


cm. cb. 


Copper, solid 


9.42 
12.54 
17.01 


Gold, solid 


Silver, fused 


.■*.luminum, fused 


24.0 1 


Molybdenum, solid. . . . 


28.5 


Tungsten (a), solid 


30.5 


Tungsten (b), solid. . . . 


33.4 


Platinum (b1, solid. . . . 


40.8 


Brass, 2-1, fused 


41.0 


Tantalum, solid 


57.0 


Platinum (a), solid. . . . 


66.0 


Tin, fused 


68.0 


Lead-tin alloy, fused... 


98.0 


Ferronickel, solid .... 


105.0 


Iron (a), solid, about. . 


111.0 


Calido, solid 


122.0 1 


Lead, fused 


125.0 


Nichrome II 


128.0 


Antimony (b), fused... 


136.0 


Bismuth, fused 


1C7.5 




Ohms 


Graphite (b^ 


00065 


Graphite (a) 


0.00086 
0.0021 
0.0024 
0.0030 




Carbon (a) 




Carbon (b) 


0.0034 
0.12 


Carbon powder 


Silfrax B 


0.84 


Sodium chloride, fused . 


0.90 


Glass, roughly about.. 


1.0 


Graphite grains 


1.7 


Carbon grains (b) 


1.9 


Carbon grains (a) 


2.8 


Silicon powder 


3.5 




3.7 
4.8 


Kryptol 


Porcelain, about 


15.0 


Manganese oxide pow- 




der 


15.7 


Copper oxide, CuO, 




18.0 
26.7 


Zinc oxide powder 


Iron oxide, FeiOj, 




powder 


31.4 




110.0 


Magnesium oxide pow- 


der 


1400.0 
8000.0 


Alundun) 



• A table compiled by C.\nL Hering, "Metallurgical and Chemical Engi- 
neering," January, 1915. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



159 



1500°C. 
2732°F. 



Microhms, 
cm. cb. 



loOO°C. 
2732°F. 



Microhms, 
cm. cb. 



Silver, fused 

Copper, fused 

Aluminum, fused. . . . 

Gold, fused 

Molybdenum, solid. . 

Tungsten, solid 

Tungsten (b), solid. . 
Platinum (bl, solid. . 
Tantalum, solid (bt.. 
Tantalum, solid (a).. 

Tin, fused 

Platinum (a), solid. . 
Iron (a), solid, about 

Calido, solid 

Lead, fused 



23.0 
24.8 
29.0 
37.0 
40.5 
43.0 
50.0 
52.6 
74.4 
78.0 
80.5 
98.0 
131.0 
136.0 
148.0 



Iron (b), fused 

Graphite (b) 

Graphite (a) 

Carbon (d) 

Carbon (a) 

Carbon (b) 

Xernst filament, about, 

Refrax 

Silfrax B 

Carbon grains (b) 

Graphite grains 

Kryptol 

.\lundum, about 



166.0 
Ohms 
. 00058 
. 00089 
0.0016 
0.0022 
. 0029 
0.5 
0.5 
0.7 
0.85 
1.2 
3.4 

750.0 



Notes. — The resistivity depends to some extent on the state 
of the metal. In general, cold drawing increases while anneal- 
ing diminishes the resistance. Winding a wire into a coil appar- 
ently increases its resistance. For pure metals the resistance 
is roughly proportional to the absolute temperature and would 
apparently vanish at absolute 0°. For alloys the rule does not 
hold even approximately. For pure metals the Brinxell 
hardness number is indirectly proportional to the electric 
conductivity. 

In "Engineering," Apr. 3, 1914, appeared a table of the 
relative resistances of metals in the liquid and solid states at 
the melting point. 



Metal 



resistance of liquid 
resistance of solid 



at melting point. 



Sodium 

Potassium 

Tin... 

Cadmium 


1.35(a) 
1.36(a) 
2.2 (6) 

1.8 (6) 

1.9 (6) 


1.47(d) 

1.54(d) 2.1(c) 

2.21(e) 

1.96(e) 


'2'.12{g)' 
l-97(ff) 


Lead 


1.95(e) i 




Thallium 


2.00(e) ! 




Zinc 


2.0 (6) 
4.0 (a) 
0.7 (&) 
0.46(6) 


! 

4.08(/) 1 




Mercury 

Antimony 


1.5 (h) 


Bismuth 


0.45(e) 


0.46(g) 



(a) A. Matthiessen. 
(6) L. DE LA Rive. 

(c) W. Siemens. 

(d) E. F. NORTHRUP. 

(e) G. ViNCENTiM and D. Omodei. 
(/) P. Cailletet and E. Boutt. 
(g) G. Vassura. 

(A) L. Grcnmacb. 



1()0 MET.\LLrROISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



VoLTTME Resistivity of Solid Dielectrics^ 

(Materials arranged in order of decreasinj? resistivity) 



Resistivity 
ohms-cm. 

ooobxib^' 

5000X10" 
.5000X10" 
1000X10" 
i 200X10" 
100X10" 
50X10" 
I 50X10" 

50X10" 

40X10" 

20X10" 

20X10" 

20X10" 

20X10" 

20X10" 

10X10" 

10X10" 

10X10" 

8X10" 

8X10" 

8X10" 

5X10" 

3X10" 

3X10" 

2X10" 

2X10" 

2X10" 

2X10" 

1X10" 

1X10" 



Material 



Special paraflSn over 

Ccreain over 

Fused quartz over 

Hard rubber 

Clear mica 

' Sulphur 

' Amoerite 

' Rosin 

' Mica (India ruby slightly 

Btained) 

G. E. No. 55 R 

Hallowax No. 505.5 B. . . . 
Micafbrown African clear) 

Bakelite L558 

' Electrose No. 8 

Selenium (in dark) 

» Parowax (paraflBn') 

Glyptol 

JShellac 

Kavalier glass 

"Insulate No. 2 

' Sealing wax 

' Yellow electrose 

* Duranoid 

sMurdock No. 100 

' Yellow beeswax 

Khotinsky cement 

Ebonite 

Porcelain 

»G. E. No. 5.5A 

' Sloulded mica 



Unglazed porcelain 300X101= 

Redmonite (157.4) 200X10'- 



Material 




Black electrose 

Tetrachlornaphthalene.. 
Mica(India ruby stained) 

German glass 

Paraffined mahogany. . . 

Stabalite 

Plate glass 

Hallowax No. 1001 

Dielectrite 

Gummon 

Tegit 

Opal glass 

Paraffined poplar 
Paraffined maple 
Italian marble. . . 
Bakelite micarta 
Black condensite 
Yellow condensite 

Vulcabeston 

White celluloid 

Hard fiber 

Black galalith 

Lavite 

White galalith 

Hermit 

Red fiber 

Marble, pink Tennessee. 

Gutta percha. . . .'. 

Marble, blue Vermont. . 

Ivory 200X10' 

.Slate 100X10« 

Bakelite No. 140 20X10» 



' From publications of U. S. Bureau of Standards. 

' .\pparent resisti\'ity taken after the voltage had been applied for 15 
minutes. 

It should be noted that the superficial resistivity in moist air 
may be 10 to 100,000 times less than the internal resistivity, 
and that to a large extent it is the skin resistance that determines 
the usefulness of a conductor. 

The following table of superficial and volume resistivities is 
taken from La Genie Civil, June 30, 1917, and is for a satura- 
tion of 90 per cent, moisture in the air surrounding the dielectric. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



161 



Bakelite No. 1 

Bakelite No. 558 

Celluloid 

Ebonite (new) 

Fiber (red) 

Ivory 

Marble — Italian 

Tennessee 

Vermont (blue) 

Mica (clear) 

Micanite 

ParafiBn 

Porcelain (enameled) .... 
Porcelain (not enameled) . 

Quartz (fused) 

Shellac 

Slate 

Sulphur 

Wood — acacia paraffined. 

• — maple paraffined. 

— poplar paraffined. 



Internal 


Superficial resis- 


resistivity, 


tivity, 


air at 


ohms cm. 


90 per cent, hum 


2 X 


10" 


2 X 


108 


2 X 


10" 


9 X 


ion 


2 X 


1010 


1 X 


10» 


1 X 


10"5 


1 X 


10» 


5 X 


109 


2 X 


108 


2 X 


108 


4 X 


107 


1 X 


lO'O 


2 X 


10' 


5 X 


109 


3 X 


10' 


1 X 


10» 


1 X 


10' 


2 X 


10" 


5 X 


10» 


1 X 


lO's 


3 X 


10» 


>5 X 


lO's 


1 X 


10" 


2 X 


1015 


6 X 


108 


3 X 


10" 


6 X 


10' 


>5 X 


1018 


2 X 


108 


1 X 


101' 


1 X 


1010 


1 X 


108 


1 X 


10' 


1 X 


10" 


1 X 


lOK 


4 X 


1012 


7 X 


10» 


3 X 


1010 


2 X 


10» 


5 X lO'O 


2 X 


10« 



Dielectric Constants Compared with Air^ 

The inductivity, dielectric constant, or specific inductive ca- 
pacity X of a material may be defined as the ratio of the ca- 
pacity of a condenser with the material as dielectric to its capacity 
when the dielectric is dry air. That is, if two exactly similar 
condensers, except for the dielectrics, have one plate of each 
connected, the other plate earthed, then the distribution of 
charge on the two will be proportional to K. 



Solids 


K 


Solids 


K 




3.0 

1.86 
7.5-7.7 
2.05-3.15 




3 5-3 6 






2 2 


Calcite 




2.2-3.9 






2.17 




6.8 

5-7 

7-9 
6.8-10 

3.6 

6.3 

93.9 

2.1-2.3 

8.3 

4-8 

2-2.5 
2.8-3.8 
1.7-2.3 

1.8 
4.4-6.8 

4.5 
1.77-2.6 

5.6 

4-8 

6.1 
2.7-3.7 






(;iass, crown 

Glass, heavy crown.. 
Glass, flint 


Liquids 


K 


Gutta percha 


Alcohol, methyl 

Alcohol, ethyl 


35.4 at 13.4°C. 


loe (■ 2°t 


26.8 at 14.7°C. 


India rubber 

Marble 




16.0 at 20°C. 


Bromine 


3.1 


Mica 

Paper, dry 

Paper, impregnated. . 

Paraffin wax 

Pitch 

I'urcelain 

(Juartz 


Carbon disulphide 

Carbon tetrachloride.. . . 
Olive oil 


2.62 
2.25 at 18°C. 
3.1-3.2 


Kerosene 

Petroleum crude 

Water 


4.6-4.8 

2.0-2.2 

26 






Rt'sin 

Korksalt 


Gases vary from 0.9995 for helium 
to 1 . 0023 for carbon disulphide vapor. 


Pubber, vulcanized . . 


Shellac 


at 15°C. and 760 mm. p 


ressure. 



' Compiled from various authorities. 
11 



102 ME'IWLLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Resistivity of Electrolytes 

(KoHLn.^uscii and IIolborn) 



Grains sub- 




Resistivity, 
ohms per cc. 


Temperature 


Gram 


stance in 100 g. 
of solution 


Sp. gr. 


coefficient 
for 1°C. 


equivalents 
per liter 




H-SO, at 18°C. 


1.0 




21.93 
9.24 


0.00112 
0.00115 


0.204 


2.5 


' "iioiei' ' 


0.519 


5.0 


1.0.«1 


4.82 


0.00121 


1.065 


10.0 


1 . 0673 


2.57 


0.00128 


2.182 


15.0 


1.1036 


1.85 


0.00136 


3 . 384 


20.0 


1.1414 


1 . 54 


0.00145 


4.067 


30.0 


1.2207 


1.36 


0.00162 


7.487 


40.0 


1 . 3056 


1.48 


0.00178 


10.68 


50.0 


1.3984 


1.86 


0.00193 


14.30 


60.0 


1..5019 


2.70 


0.00213 


18.42 


70.0 


1.6146 


4.67 


0.00250 


23.11 


80.0 


1 . 7320 


9.13 


0.00349 


28.33 


85.0 


1 7827 


10.30 


0.00365 


30.98 


90.0 


1.8167 


9.38 


0.00.320 


33.43 


95.0 


1.836S 


9.84 


. 00279 


35.68 


97.0 


1.8390 


12.50 


0.00286 


36.47 


90.4 


1 . 8354 


118.00 


0.00400 


37.22 




HCl at 10°C. 


5.0 


1.0242 


2.55 


0.00159 


1.408 


10.0 


1.0490 


1.59 


0.00157 


2.884 


15.0 


1.0744 


1.35 


0.00156 


4.431 


20.0 


1.1001 


1.32 


0.00155 


6.050 


25.0 


1.1262 


1.39 


0.00154 


7.741 


30.0 


1.1524 


1.52 


0.00153 


9.506 


35.0 


1.1775 


1.70 


0.00152 


11.33 


40.0 


1.2007 


1.95 




13.22 










KOH at 15°C. 


* 4.2 


1.0.382 


6.85 


0.00188 


0.619 


8.4 


1 . 0777 


3.69 


0.00187 


1.580 


12.6 


1.1177 


2.67 


0.00189 


2.515 


16.8 


1.1588 


2.20 


0.00194 


3.477 


21.0 


1 . 2088 


1.97 


0.00200 


4.534 


25.2 


1.2439 


1.86 


0.00210 


5.599 


29.4 


1 . 2908 


1.85 


. 00222 


6.778 


33.6 


1.3.332 


1.92 


0.00237 


8.001 ' 


37.8 


1 . 3803 


2.10 


. 00258 


9.319 


42.0 


1.4298 


2.39 


0.00284 


10.730 




KCN at 15°C. 


3.25 


1.0154 


19.10 


. 00208 


0.508 


6.5 


1.0316 


9.80 


0.00194 


1.031 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 163 

Resistu'ity of Electrolytes. Continued 





Grams sub- 




Resistivity, 
ohms per cc. 


Temperature 


Gram 


Bt 


ance in 100 g. 
of solution 


Sp. gr. 


coeflScient 
■ for 1°C. 


equivalents 
per liter 




5.0 




AgNO 


at 18°C. 






1.0422 


39.47 


0.00219 


0.307 




10.0 


1.0893 


21.20 


0.00218 


0.642 




15.0 


1.1404 


14.78 


0.00216 


1.009 




20.0 


1.1958 


11.57 


0.00213 


1.410 




25.0 


1.2555 


9.53 


0.00211 


1.851 




30.0 


1.3213 


8.14 


0.00210 


2.338 




35.0 


1.3945 


7.17 


0.00208 


2.879 




40.0 


1.4773 


6.45 


0.00206 


3.485 




45.0 


1.5705 


5.88 


0.00205 


4.168 




50.0 


1.6745 


5.44 


0.00206 


4.940 




55.0 


1.7895 


5.09 


0.00207 


5.800 




60.0 
2.5 


1.9158 


4.80 


0.00210 


6.780 






Cu.SO* 


at 1S°C. 






1.0246 


92.4 


0.00214 


0.322 




5.0 


1.0513 


53.2 


0.00217 


0.661 




10.0 


1.1073 


31.4 


0.00219 


1.393 




15.0 


1.1675 


23.8 


0.00232 


2.202 




17.5 


l.?003 


21.9 


0.00237 


2.642 



RESISTrV'ITY OF ELECTROLYTES 



Grams substance 

in 100 g. of 

solution 



Potassium chlor- 
ide resistivity, 
ohms per cc. 



Sodium chloride 
resistivity, 
ohms per cc. 



Calcium chloride 
resistivity, 
ohms per cc. 



5 
10 
15 
20 
25 



14.49 
7.429 
'4 . 950 
3 . 735 



14.88 
8.257 
6.090 
5.109 
4.684 



16.48 
8.764 
6.645 
5.903 
5.615 



Grams substance | Cadmium chloride Ammon. sulphate Cadmium sul- 
in 100 g. of j resistivity, resistivity, phate resistivity, 

solution ohms per cc. ohms per cc. i ohms per cc. 



10 
20 
30 



37.59 



18.11 
9.901 
5.677 
4.363 



164 METALLT'RGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Resistivity of Electrolytes. Continued 



Nitric acid 



Sodium hydrate 











Grams HNOj per 


Resistivity, 


Grams NaOH 


Resistivity, 


100 cc. solution 


ohms per cc. 


per 100 cc. sol. 


ohms per cc. 


6.2 


3.205 


2.5 


9.266 


12.4 


1.845 


5.0 


5.076 


18.6 


1.449 


10.0 


3.205 


24.8 


1 . .302 


15.0 


2.890 


31.0 


1.023 


20.0 


3.058 


49.6 


1.577 


30.0 


4 . 9.-)0 


6.2 


2.016 


40.0 


8.621 



Electric Resistance of Some Metallic Oxides* 

(Ohms per Cubic Centimeter) 



Tern- 1 
pfrature CrjOj Fe»04 
deg. C. 1 


SnOi 


NiO 


CaO 



AhOi SiOs 



MgO 



ZrO 



400 
450 
500 
550 
600 

650 
700 
750 
800 
850 

900 
950 
1.000 
1.050 
1,100 
Gas 
blow 
pipe. . 



.\11 of these have a resistance of over 50,000 at room temperatures. 



6,000 
2.4.50 
1,250 
1,000 
850 

1,175 

1,010 

950 

690 

668 

520 
395 
345 
335 
330 



11,750 900.0 
4,300 400.0 
2,450 235.0 
1,450 125.0 
1,200 68.0 



845 
710 
510 
3.57 



56.0 
47.0 
42.0 
37.0 



2901 32.0 



210 
162 
127 
117 
105 



28.0 
25.5 
24.0 
23.0 
22.25 



3.000 

1,115 

490 

400 

330 

240 
195 
121 
220 
280 

190 

81 
115 

93 

45 I 



550 



190 



590 



600 



580 



It is safe to say that where the temperature exceeds 1500°C. it is impossibln 
to obtain even approximately good electrical insulation by any means what- 
ever. (NORTHBCP.) 

All metallic oxides are solids and have a lower specific gravity than have 
the metals. They melt at higher temperatures than do the metals. 

1 Zt. EleclTochem., 1907, xiii, 589; as given in Hofman's "General Metal- 
lurgy." 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 165 

Electrostatic Separation^ 
List of Minerals 

Good conductors Poor conductors 

Native metals Quartz 

Pyrite Quartzite 

Pyrrhotite Calcite 

Chalcopyrite Limestone 

Galena Porphyries 

Garnet Slates 

Molybdenum Sandstones 

Copper glance or chalcocite Garnet 

Silver glance or argent ite Spinel 

Gray copper or tetrahedrite Blende or sphalerite 

Most sulphides Smithsonite (ZnCOs) 

Most copper minerals Barite 

Most iron minerals Gypsum 

Most silver minerals Granite 

Most manganese minerals Fluorspar 

Tellurides Most silicates 

Hornblende Most gangue rocks 

Black sands Monazite 

THE ANNEALED COPPER STANDARD 

Translation from the French text adopted at the Inter- 
national Electrical Commission, Berlin. 

Report of the National Laboratories Concerning an 
International Standard for Copper 

/. Annealed Copper 
The following values should be taken as normal for annealed 
standard copper. 

1. At 20°C., the resistance of an annealed copper wire 1 meter 
long and having a uniform cross-section of 1 sq. mm. is \i^ 
ohm = 0.017241 . . . ohm. 

2. At 20°C., the density of annealed copper is 8.89 grams per 
cubic centimeter. 

3. At 20°C., the coefficient of variation of resistance with 
temperature of annealed copper, measured between potential 
terminals rigidly attached to the wire (constant mass), is 
0.00393=^54-5 per deg. C. 

4. Consequently, it follows from (1) and (2) that, at 20°C., 
the resistance of an annealed copper wire of uniform cross-section 
1 meter long and having a mass of 1 gram is (J^s) X 8.89, or 
0.15328 . . . ohm. 

//. Industrial Copper 

1. The conductivity of annealed copper should be expressed 
at the temperature of 20°C. in percentage of that of standard 
annealed copper, and ordinarily to a precision of 0. 1 per cent. 

1 R. H. Richards, "Ore Dressing," Vol. III. 



16(5 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

2. The percentage conductivity of annealed industrial cop- 
per should be computed in accordance with the following rules: 

(a) The observation temperature should not differ from 20°C. 
by more than 10°C. 

(b) The resistance of a wire of industrial copper one meter 
long and of 1 sq. mm. cross section, increases 0.000068 ohm 
per deg. C. 

(c) The resistance of a wire of industrial copper 1 meter 
long and of 1 gram mass, increases O.OOOGO ohm per deg. C. 

(d) The density of industrial annealed copper at 20°C. should 
be taken as 8.89 grams per cubic centimeter. 

This value of the density should always be employed in the 
computation of conductivity in percentage of that of the 
annealed copper standard. 

It follows from the above that if R is the resistance in ohms, 
at t deg. C. of a wire having a length of I meters and a mass 
of m grams, the resistance of a wire of the same copper 1 meter 
long and 1 sq. mm. cross-section will be 

Rm/(l^ X 8.89) ohms at t deg. C. and 

ftm/(P X 8.89) + 0.000068(20 - ohms at 20''C. 

The percentage conductivity of this copper is thus 



100 X 



0.01724 



^-3-^+0.000068(20-0 



Similarly, the resistance of a wire of the same copper 1 meter 
long and 1 gram in weight is 

Rm,'P ohms at l°C., and 

Rm/l^ + 0.00060(20 - ohms at 20''C. 

The percentage conductivity is thus 

0.1533 



100 X 



^ + 0.00060(20 - 



Note 1. The standard values given in (/) are mean values 
deduced from a large number of tests. Among a number of 
samples of copper of normal conductivity, the density may differ 
from normal density up to 0.5 i)er cent., and the temperature 
coefficient of resistivity may differ from the normal up to 1 per 
cent.; but between the limits indicated in (//) these deviations 
will not affect the values of the computed percentage conduc- 
tivity, if the resulting values are limited to four significant digits. 

Note 2. The values above stated correspond to the follow- 
ing physical constants for standard annealed copper, all at the 
temperature of 0°C. 

Density, 8.90 grams per cubic centimeter. 

Coefficient of linear expansion 0.000017 per deg. C. 

Resistivity, 1.5879' microhm-cm. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



167 



Volume resistivitj' temperature-coefficient 0.00429'^ per deg. 
C. from and at 0°C. 

Resistance temperature coefficient at constant mass, 0.00427 
= ^34.5 per deg. C. from and at 0°C. 



Kelvin's Rule for Power Transmission 

The most economica/ section of conductor is that for which 
the annual interest on capital outlay is equal to the annual cost 
for energy wasted. 

Copper Wire Table 

Solid wires are not made larger than No. 0000. A solid wire larger than 
a No. 3 is infrequently used, and the constants for wires larger than a No. 3 
are given for stranded wires. Although wires are sometimes used as large 
as 2,000,000 circular mils, wires larger than 1,000,000 circular mils are not 
common, and are omitted from the table. The carrjing capacities are those 
prescribed by the National Electrical Code. 



Gage 


Area in 

circular 

mils 


Resistance 

in ohms per 

1000 ft. 

at 25°C. 


Carrying 
in an^ 


capacity 
peres 


Weight 
in pounds 


number 


Rubber 


Other 


per 
1000 ft. 








insulation 


insulation 




18 


1,620 


6.51 


3 


5 


4.92 


16 


2,580 


4.09 


6 


10 


7.82 


14 


4,110 


2.58 


15 


20 


12.4 


12 


6,530 


1.62 


20 


25 


19.8 


10 


10,400 


1.02 


25 


30 


31.4 


8 


16,500 


0.641 


35 


50 


50.0 


6 


26,300 


0.403 


50 


70 


79.5 


5 


33,100 


0.320 


55 


80 


100.0 


4 


41,700 


. 253 


70 


90 


126.0 


3 


52,600 


0.201 


80 


100 


159.0 


2 


66,400 


0.163 


90 


125 


205.0 


1 


83,700 


0.129 


100 


150 


258.0 





106,000 


0.102 


125 


200 


326.0 


00 


133,000 


0.0811 


150 


225 


411.0 


000 


168,000 


0.0643 


175 


275 


518.0 


0000 


212,000 


. 0.0510 


225 


325 


653.0 




250,000 


0.0432 


240 


350 


772.0 




300,000 


0.0360 


275 


400 


926.0 




400.000 


0.0270 


325 


500 


1,240.0 




500,000 


0.0216 


400 


600 


1,540.0 




600,000 


0.0180 


450 


680 


1,850.0 




700,000 


0.0154 


500 


760 


2,160.0 




800,000 


0.0135 


550 


840 


2,470.0 




900,000 


0.0120 


600 


920 


2,780.0 




1,000,000 


0.0108 


• 650 


1,000 


3,090.0 



' These two numerical values will probably be changed to 1.5880 and 
0.00428 by the National Physical Laboratories. Since reference is made 
exclusively to the values at 20°C. when measuring and stating percentage 
conductivity, these physical constants for 0°C. are of secondary importance 
in engineering. 



168 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Properties of Re.sistor Wires' 





Compoeition 


Resistivity, 20''C. 


Maximum 

WorkioL' 

t't..p , 


Material 


Microhm- 
cm. 


Dill. ft. 


Copper 

German silver 

Manganin 


Annealed 
Cu 58. Ni 18, Zn 24 
Cu84, Ni4, Mn 12 

Cu. Ni 

Cu. Mn. Al 

Cu 50, Ni 30, Zn 20 

Cu, Ni 

Cu. Ni 

Cu, Ni 

Cu 60. Ni 40 

Nickel steel 

Nickel steel 

Nickel steel 

Ni - Cr 

Ni - Cr 

Ni - Cr 

Ni - Cr 

Ni - Cr 


1.724 
33.3 
41.4 - 
73.8 
42.6 
46.7 
48.2 
48.8 
49.0 
49.0 
50.0 
85.9 
87.0 
87.2 
95.5 
96.0 
99.6 
109.5 

119..T 


10.37 
200.0 
249.0- 
443.0 
256.0 
280.0 
290.0 
294.0 
295.0 
295.0 
300.0 
517.0 
524.0 
525.0 
575.0 
580.0 
600.0 
660.0 
720.0 


260 
260 
100 


Monel metal 

Therlo.... 


480 
200 




370 


la la 




Raymur. 






Tico 




Phenix 


540 




540 


Calido 


1090 


Tophet 






900 


Nichrome II 

Calorite 


1100 

870 



Fusing Currents for Copper Wire 

The following table has been tested for copper-wire fusing currents and 
was found to be closely correct for average conditions, according to the 
Electrical Review. 



Size wire. 


Fusing current, 


Size wire, 


Fusing current. 


B. &S. 


ampere 


B. &S. 


ampere 


30 


10 


18 


80 


28 


15 


17 


100 


26 


20 


16 


120 


25 


25 


15 


140 


24 


30 


14 


160 


22 


40 


13 


200 


21 


50 


12 


240 


20 


60 


11 


280 


19 


70 


10 


330 



If heat be developed in an electrical conductor faster than it 
can be dissipated from its surface by radiation and convection, 
the temperature will rise. The allowable rise in tempera- 
ture is one of the limiting features of the current-carrying 
capacity of any conductor, since the rate at which heat will be 
di.ssipated will depend upon many conditions, such as the size 
and structure of the conductor, the kind and amount of insula- 
tion, if any, and the location with respect to other bodies. It is 
not possible to give any general definite rule for carrying ca- 
pacity that will be true for all conditions. 

1 Standard Electrical Handbook. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



169 



The general subject of fusing currents for copper wire was 
investigated by W. H. Preece, who developed the formula: 

/ = ad^^ where / is the fusing current in amperes, d is the 
diameter of the wire in inches, and a is a constant depending 
on the material. He found the following values for a.^ 



Copper 

Aluminum . . . . 
Platinum. . . . . 
German silver 
Platinoid 



10,244 
7,585 
5,172 
5,230 
4,750 



Iron 

Tin 

Solder (2 Pb : 1 Sn).. 
Lead 



3,148 
1,642 
1,318 
1,379 





Wire Resistance 


Tablei 




Gage No. 
B. &S. 


Diam. in 
mils, 


Cross-section 
at 20°C., 


Copperi2 
ohms per 


Aluminum, 3 
ohms per 


20°C. 


sq. in. 


1000 ft. 


1000 ft. 


0000 


460.0 


0.1662 


0.04901 


0.0804 


00 


364.8 


0.1045 


0.07793 


0.128 


1 


289.3 


0.06573 


0.1239 


0.203 


2 


257.6 


0.05213 


0.1563 


0.256 


4 


204.3 


0.03278 


0.2485 


0.408 


6 


162.0 


0.02062 


0.3951 


0.648 


8 


128.5 


0.01297 


0.6282 


1.03 


10 


101.9 


0.008155 


0.9989 


1.64 


12 


80.81 


0.005129 


1.588 


2.6.1 


14 


64.08 


0.003225 


2.525 


4.14 


16 


50.82 


0.002028 


4.016 


6.59 


18 


40.30 


0.001276 


6.385 


10.5 


20 


31.96 


. 0008023 


10.15 


16.7 


22 


25.35 


0.000504G 


16.14 


26.5 


24 


20.10 


0.0003173 


25.67 


42.1 


26 


15.94 


0.0001996 


40.81 


67.0 


28 


12.64 


0.0001255 


64.90 


106.0 


30 


10.03 


0.00007894 


103.2 


169.0 


32 


7.95 


0.00004964 


164.1 


269.0 


34 


6.. 305 


'0.00003122 


260.9 


428.0 


36 


5.000 


0.00001964 


414.8 


689.0 


38 


3.965 


0.00001235 


659.6 


1080.0 


40 


3.145 


. 000007766 


1049.0 


1720.0 



Sparking Distances in Electrical Installations. — A mass of 
reliable data is now available concerning sparking distance 
between electrodes of simple geometrical form (needle points, 
disks, spheres, etc.), under various conditions, but little infor- 



* "Standard Electrical Handbook.' 
2 Standard annealed, at 20°C. 
» Hard drawn, at 20°C. 



170 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



mation has hitherto been a\'ailable concerning sparking dis- 
tances between metallic conductors and walls in workshops and 
on switchboards, etc. This problem, which is obviously of great 
practical importance was recently investigated by Gino Rehora 
(see also Atti dell' Associazione Elettrot. Italiana No. 31,913), 
and the first result deduced was the fact that a grain of dust or a 
fine hair or fiber would often suffice to start discharge from a 
high-tension conductor. A point or anguhirity in a conductor 
may cause a discharge to occur which would otherwise require 
30 per cent, higher pressure than that actually operative; it is 
therefore ver\' desirable that all metal subject to high-tension 
current should be as free as possible from points and angularities 
of any kind. The black lines frequently seen on switchboards 
and walls behind high-tension conductors reveal the presence 
of sustained feeble discharges which bombard the surface near 
the conductor with particles of dust. 

From observ^ations made in 30 installations, working at pres- 
sures between 3000 and 110,000 volts, Rebor.\ derives a curve 
showing the minimum safe distance between conductor and 
earthed walls or metal covers, etc. As shown by the following 
data, his limits are rather less stringent than those recommended 
(but not always observed) by the G. E. C: 



P. D. j 


20 40 


60 


80 


100 j Kilovolte 


Minimum distan ce [ Rebora 100 200 
between conductor ' < 
and earth 1 G E. C. 150j 300 


330 
450 


450 
620 


1 
590 Mm. 

1 
770 Mm. 



As regards the effective height of porcelain insulators of 
P3'lon form, used as intermediate insulators on distribution 
boards, etc., this height increases almost linearly at the rate of 
5 or 53^ mm. per kilovolts for pressures up to 80 kv., and 
then increases more rapidly, to a total of 580 mm. for 100 kv. 
and 930 mm. for 130 kv. In deriving these data, Maorim, 
A. E. G., and Richard Ginori insulators were tested. 

In the course of investigations conducted in the Ecole Poly- 
technique de Milan with a view to determining the laws of dis- 
charge between conductor and masonry, etc., copper wires, 2, 4, 
5, 6 and 8 mm. in diameter, a bar 3 X 10 mm., and a brass tube 
2 ^^2 mm. in external and internal diameter were used. As 
second electrodes were employed in turn walls of cement, stone, 
hollow brick, etemite, and metal frameworks. The maximum 
testing pressure available was 100 kv. at 42 cycles per second. 
When the conductor under test was pointed straight at the wall, 
breakdown occurred at 20 per cent. — 25 per cent. lower P. D. 
(for separations of 100 to 250 mm.) than would be required 
to produce discharge between needle points the same distance 
apart. This is a result of great practical importance, since live 
metal parts are frequently so arranged in high tension installa- 
tions as to produce reductions in the factor of safety. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



171 



Thermoelectricityi 
When two different metals are brought into contact so that 
he two junctions are at different temperatures, there will usu- 
lly be a slight current of electricity produced. The effective 
lectromotive force is 

{T, - T,)[iB' - B") + (C - C") ^' + ^^ ) ] 

"^°^*^ ^ 100,000,000 

rhere T2 and Ti are the temperatures of the junctions, and 
i and C constants as given in the following table: 



Metal 


B C 


Metal 


B 


C 




+ 1734 
+ 1139 
+ 61 
+ 260 
+ 244 
+ 1207 
+ 234 


-4.87 
-3.28 
-1.10 
-0.75 
-0.95 
-5.12 
+ 2.40 


Silver 

Gold 

Copper 


+ 214 

+ 283 

+ 136 



- 43 

- 77 


+ 1.50 


teel 


+ 1.02 


oft platinum 


+ 0.95 
+0.00 




Tin 


+ 0.55 


;vrnian silver 


Aluminum .... 


+ 0.39 











The behavior of nickel is anomalous. Antimony and bis- 
luth. produce the greatest current of any two metals, but here 
gain, the constants vary greatly according to the absolute 
einperatures of the junctions. See also p. 308. 





Penetrating 


POW'ER OF 


X-rays" 




Substance 


Specific 
gravity 


Trans- 
parency 


Substance 


Specific 
gravity 


Trans- 
parency 


TattT 

.luininum. . . 
,lass 


1.00 
2.67 
2.70 
7.29 
7.16 
7.78 
8.51 


1.000 
0.380 
0.340 
0.118 
0.116 
0.101 
0.095 


Copper 

Silver 

Lead 

Mercury . . . 

Gold 

Platinum.. . . 


8.92 
10.24 
11.39 
13.59 
19.63 
21.53 


0.084 
0.070 
0.055 
0.044 




0.030 




0.020 














The folio 
lost solids 
-lie re are sc 
nportant 1 

Comparis 
hree stanc 
pecific gra 
ensities of 

Air (dry) 
eniperatur 

Water (n 
t 30°F., b£ 
O'F., bar. 

' ■ Encycloi 

= The wave 

iblp i.s from 

1 


Sp 

wing tab] 
and liquid 
parate tat 
minerals, 
on of Star 
ards com 
Lvity of 1 
these star 
is 14.418 
e and pres 
lax. densil 
IT. 29.92 ii 
30 in., voh 

jedia Ameri 
length of 3s 
the General 


ecific Gra 

es give tl 
s of impor 
)les for wa 

idards. — ] 
monly us 
;ases, liqi 
idards are 
times as 
sure, volu 
.y, 4°C.) i 
1.; and 8 
ime for vc 

'ana," Vol. 
.-rays is api 
Electric Rei 


vity Tables 
le average 
tance in mir 
ter, mercury 

iydrogen, a 
3d in the d 
lids and sc 
as follows: 
leavy as hy 
me for volur 
s 773 times 
15 times as 
)lume. 

XV, "Thermo 
larently about 
iew. 


specific gr 
ling and m 
, gases anc 

r and vvat 
eterminat 
)lids. Th 

drogen, at 

ne. 

as heavy 

heavy as 

electricity." 
10-» to 10- 


avities of 
etallurgy. 
i the most 

er are the 
on of the 
e relative 

the same 

as dry air 
dry air at 

8 cm. The 



172 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Specific Gravities and LTmt Weights of Solids and Liquids 



Substance 



Average 

sp. gr. 

(water = 1) 



Average 

weight 

(lb. per ou. ft.'* 



Alcohol, pure at 20° 

commercial 

Aluminum (cast) 

(rolled) 

Antimony 

Argon (liquid, — 185°) 

Arsenic (amorphous) 

(crystallized) 

(molten) 

Asbestos 

Ashes (packed) 

Asphalt (1 to 1.8) 

Barium 

Beryllium 

Bismuth (com'l) 

(distilled) 

(molten) 

Boron 

Brass, cast (7.8 to 8.4) 70 Cu. 30 Zn. 

rolled, 70 Cu. 30 Zn 

Brick (fire) 

(soft) 

Brickwork, masonry (1.8 to 2.3) 

Bromine (at 0°C.) 

Bronze (8.7 to 8.9) 

Cadmium 

(molten) 

Caesium 

Calcium 

Carbon disulphide 

Celluloid 

Cement, loose 

Cerium 

Chalk 

Charcoal 

Chromium •• 

Clay (1.8 to 2.6) 

Coal, anthracite (1.3 to_1.7) 

bituminous (1 .2 to 1 .5) 

cannel, gas coal (1.18 to 1.28) 

lignite, brown coal 

Cobalt 

Coke, loose piled 

Concrete 

Copper, cast (8.6 to 8.8) 

deposited 

molten 

rolled (8.8 to 8.95) 

Cork ■. 

Diamond 

Earth, loose to well rammed 

wet, flowing mud 

Emery 

Erbium 

Ethyl ether 

Gallium 

Germanium 

German silver 



0.789 
0.834 

2.56-2.71 
2.66 
6.71 
1.4 
6.71 
5.73 
5.71 
3.2 
0.72 
1.4 
3.78 
1.93 

9.74-9.92 
9.78 
10.04 
2.45 
8.1 
8.4 



3.187 
8 8 
8.60^8.70 
7.99 
1.87 
1.85 
1.29 
1.4 
1.3-2.0 
6.68 
2.5 



6.52-6.73 

2.2 

1.5 

1.3 

1.23 

1.1 
8.50-8.80 



2.3 

8.7 

8.92 

8.22 

8.9 

0.24 

3.52 



4.0 

4.97 

0.735 

5.92 

.5.47 

8.45 



I From Kaye and L.\BY'.-i 
figure appears high. 



•Physical and Chemical Constants. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 173 

Specific Gravities and Unit Weights of Solids and Liquids 



Substance 



Average 

sp. gr. 

(water = 1) 



Average 

weight 

(lb. per cu. ft.) 



Glass 

( heavy flint) 

Glycerin 

Gold (19.25 to 19.37) (20 Karat = 16.47) 

(distilled) 

Granite (2.56 to 2.88) 

Graphite (average value) 

Gravel, loose 

Greenstone (trap) 

Gypsum, ground or calcined, loose 

well shaken 

uncalcined 

Hornblende 

Ic 



Iodine 

Indium 

Iridium 

Iron, cast gray, 7.08, white.. 

(molten) 

rolled .' 

wrought, sheet (7.6 to 7.9) . 

Ivory 

Lanthanum .•....■ 

Lead 



2.52 
2.93 
1.26 
19.31 
19.27 
2.72 
2.2 



0.92 ' 

4.95 

7.12 

22.42 

7.6 

6.88 

7.68 

7.8 

1.8.3-1.92 

6.15 

11.34-11.40 1 



Lignite. .;.... 

Lime (quicklime) 

ground, loose (66 lb. per bushel) . 

Limestone 

Lithium 

Loam 

Magnesium 

Manganese 

Marble (2.5 to 2.8) 

Marl . 



Mercuryi (32°F.) . 

(62°F.) 

solid, - 40°F. . 
Mica. 



Molybdenum 

Mortar 

Neodymium ._ ._ 

Nickel .'.....'.' ." 

Niobium 

Oils (0.910 to 0.975), weight given in pounds 
per gallon: 

Animal, lard 

sperm (pure) 

whale 

Mineral, petroleum (crude) 

gasolene 

kerosene (coal oil) 

naphtha 

Vegetable, cottonseed 

linseed (boiled) 

(raw) 

olive 

rape (colza) 



1.5 



2.7 
0.59 



1.74 
7.392 
2.65 



13.5955 

13.555 

15.632 

2.8 

8.60 



6.956 
8.86 
12.7 



0.916 
0.880 
0.925 
0.77-1.06 
0.700 
0.8C0 
0.730 
0.923 
0.933 
0.780 
0.917 
0.915 



157.0 
200.0 

88.7 



1203.0 
170.0 
137.0 

95-120 
170-200 

56.0 

64.0 
130-150 
200-220 

57.5 
309.0 
444.0 
1400.0 
450.0 
429.0 
480.0 
485.0 



384.0 
707-711 

75.0 

93.75 

53.0 
168.0 

36.8 

65-100 
109.0 
461.0 
160-180 
100-140 
850.0 
847.0 
976.0 
175.0 
537.0 

90-105 
434 . 
553.0 
793.0 



7.64 
7.34 
7.72 



5.84 
6.68 
6.09 
7.70 
7.79 
6.51 
7.65 
7.63 



' See also special table on p. 176. 
• Given as 8.30 by Ntstbom. 



174 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Specific Gravities and Unit Weights op Solids and Liquids 

1 Average 



Substance 



sp. gr. 
(water — 



Oemium 

PallBdium 

Peat (dry, unpressedl 

Phosphorus (red) 

(whiter 

Pitch 

Platinum wire 

Potassium . _. 

PrsBseodymium 

Pumice 

Quartz 

(broken) 

Rhodium 

Rosin 

Rubber, hard (purei 

Rubber, hard (commercial) . . 

Salt *... 

Samarium 

Sand (dry) 

(wet) 

Sandstone (2.1 to 2.71 

Selenium (gray metal) 

(red) 

Shale (2.4 to 2.81 

Silicon (arnorphous) 

(crystallized) 

Silver (cast) 

(electrolytically deposited) . 

( molten) 

Slate (2.7 to 2.9) 

Snow (fresh, dry) 

(wet) 

Soapstone 

Soda ash 

Sodium 

Steel (7.69 to 7.93)' 

Strontium 

Sugar 

Sulphur 

Tallow 

Tantalum 

Tar 

Tellurium 

Thallium 

Thorium 

Tin (cast) 

(molten) 

Titanium 

Traprock 

Tungsten 

Uranium 

Vanadium 

Water' (max. density 4°C.) . . 

(pure, 62°F.) 

(pure, 212°?.) 

sea, average 

Wai (bees) 



22.48 
11.90 



2.34 
1.837 
1.155 
21.5 
0.875 
6.475 



2.65 



12.60 

1.1 

1.12-1.25 

1.25-1.40 



7.75 



2.4 
4.8 
4.47 
2.6 
2.00 
2.195 
10.75 
10.53 
9.51 
2.7 



2 

972 

85 

54 

6 

2.07 

94 

6 



25 

85 

16 

29 

02 

87 » 



3-20. 

69 

50 



999 

958 

028 

97 



I Average 
1 weight 
l(lb. per ou. ft.) 



' Pure and soft. The specific gravity decreases as the carbon increases. 

' See special table on p. 175 for water. 

• Given in Hofman's "General Metallurgy" as 5.30. 

Note. — Most of the constants for the chemical elements are taken from the 
" Annuaire pour 1915 der Bureau des Longitudes." omitting the last figure. 

For the specific gravities of the metals, there are usually two values given. 
The low figures are usually those of oaat metals, the high ones of metal either 
finely rolled or drawn into fine wire. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



175 



Substance 



Average j Average 

sp. gr. weight 

(water = I) (lb. per cu. ft.) 



Wood, dry, seasoned: 

Ash, white 

Birch 

Cedar, white . . -. 

red 

Cherry. 

Chestnut 

Elm 

Ebony 

Fir, Douglas 

Hemlock 

Hickory 

Mahogany, Spanish. 

Honduras 

Maple 

Oak, live 

white 

black, jack, etc. . . 

Pine, white 

yellow. Northern.. 

Southern 

Poplar (cottonwood) . 

Spruce 

Sycamore 

Walnut 

Yttrium 

Zinc 

_ ( molten) 

Zirconium 



0.6-0.8 



0.8 



0.52 



3.8 
7.15 
6.48 
6.25 



38.0 
41.0 
23.0 
35.0 
42.0 
41.0 
35.0 
76.0 
20.0 
25.0 
53.0 
53.0 
35.0 
49.0 
59.0 
48.0 
35-45 
25.0 
34.0 
45.0 
33.0 
25.0 
37.0 
37.0 
237 . 
446.0 
405 . 
390.0 



Densities of Water at Different 


Temperatures^ 


0°C. 


0.999868 


15 


0.999126 


29 


0.995971 


1 


0.999927 


16 


0.998970 


30 


1 0.995673 


2 


0.999968 


17 


0.998801 


31 


0.995367 


3 


0.999992 


18 


0.998622 


40 


0.99224 


4 


1.000000 


19 


0.998432 


50 


0.98807 


5 


0.999992 


- 20 


0.998230 


60 


0.98324 


6 


0.999968 


21 


0.998019 


70 


0.97781 


7 


0.999929 


22 


0.997797 


80 


: 0.97183 


8 


0.999876 


23 


0.997565 


90 


0,96534 


9 


. 999808 


24 


0.997323 


100 


. 95838 


10 


0.999727 


25 


0.997071 


110 


0.951 


11 


. 999632 


26 


0.996810 


150 


0.917 


12 


0.999525 


27 


0.996539 


200 


0.863 


13 


. 999404 


28 


0.996259 


250 


0.79 


14 


0.999271 






300 


0.70 



1 The above tables are founded on Thiessen'3 figures as given in "Annuaire 
pour 1914, Bureau des Longitudes." Other authorities give values somewhat 
under his. 



170 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Propertie.s of W.\teu' 



Tempera- 


Weight in 




Tempera- 


Weight in 




ture, 
deg. F. 


pounds per 
cubic foot 


volume 


ture, 
deg. F. 


pounds per 
cubic foot 


volume 


32.0 


62.418 


1.00011 


100 


62.02 


1 . 00686 


39.1 


62.425 


1.00000 


120 


61.74 


1.01138 


60.0 


62.41 


1 . 00025 


140 


61.37 


1.01678 


60.0 


62.37 


1.00092 


160 


60.98 


1.02306 


62.0 


62.355 


1.00110 


180 


60.55 


1.03023 


70.0 


62.31 


1.00197 


200 


60.07 


1.03819 


80.0 


62.23 


1.00332 


210 


59.82 


1.04246 


90.0 


62.13 


1.00496 


212 


59.76 


1.04332 



For .sea water, multiply the above by 1.026. One U. S. gallon of water 
at 62°F. weighs 8.3350 lb. Water freezes at 32°F.; is at its niaximuni den- 
sity at 39.1°F., British standard for sp. gr.,62°F.; boiling point at sea-level, 
212°F. 

' From Pierce and Carver's "Formulas and Tables for Engineers." 

Payne's Table for Water in Air' 

The following table will give the amount of water weighed in air with 
brass weights necessary to fill a liter flask to the 1000 cc. mark at 20°C. 



Temperature 


Apparent 


Temperature 


Apparent 


of water 


weight 


of water 


weight 


15 


998.0 


24 


996.6 


16 


997.9 


25 


996.3 


17 


997.7 


26 


996.1 


18 


997.6 


27 


995.9 


19 


997.5 


28 


995.6 


20 (standard) 


997.3 


29 


995.4 


21 


997.1 


30 


995.1 


22 


996.9 


31 


994.9 


23 


996.8 


32 


994.5 



> Foulk's "Manual of Qualitative Analysis." 





Den.sities op 


Mercury^ 




Tempera- 
ture deg. F. 


Pounds per 
cubic inch 


Tempera- 
ture deg. F. 


Pounds per Tempera- 
cubic inch ture deg. F. 


Pounds per 
cubic inch 



10 
20 
30 
32 


0.4928 
0.4923 
0.4918 
0.4913 
0.4912 


40.0 
50.0 
58.1 
60.0 
70.0 


0.4907 
0.4903 
0.4899 
0.4898 


80 
90 
100 
110 


0.4888 
0.4883 
0.4878 
0.4873 



Tempera- 


Grams per 


Tempera- 


Grams per 


Tempera- 


Grams per 


ture deg. C. 


cc. 


ture deg. C. 


cc. 


ture deg. C. 


cc. 


-20 


13.6450 


40 


13.4973 


100 


13.3518 


-10 


13.6202 


50 


13.4729 


150 


13.233 





13.5955 


60 


13.4486 


200 


13.068 


10 


13.5708 


70 


13.4243 


2.50 


12.998 


20 


13.5462 


80 


13.4001 


300 


12.881 


30 


13.5217 


90 


13.3759 











'Ellenwood's "Steam Charts." 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



177 



Kirby's Table of Weights op Ore in Place' 



Material 



Weight per cubic 
foot 



Cubic feet per ton 



Theoret- Prac- 
ically,2 tically, 
pounds pounds 



Theoret- 
ically 



Prac- 
tically 



Galena 

Pyrite 

Blende 

Hematite 

Limonite 

Dolomite 

Limestone, andesite, syenite . . 

Vein quartz, granite and granitic 
rocks 

Clay, quartz, porphyry, trachytes, 
rhy elites 

Vein quartz, with 15 per cent, galena. 

Vein quartz, with 15 per cent, pyrites 

Vein quartz, with 10 per cent, hema- 
tite 



465 
313 
250 
303 
238 
175 
168 

168 

163 
187 
180 



426 
286 
235 
267 
213 
160 
154 

148 

136 
164 
160 



4.3 
6.4 
8.0 
6.6 
8.4 
11.4 
11.9 

11.9 

12.3 
10.7 
11.1 



4.7 
7.0 
8.5 
7.5 
9.4 
12.5 
13.0 

13.5 

14.5 
12.2 
12.5 

12.9 



'R. H. RiCH.\RDS, "Ore Dressing, Vol. II." 

2 Calculated from specific gravity of pure unaltered specimens. 

McDonald's Table of Weights of Ore^ 



Material 



Weight per cubic 
foot 



In place, | Broken, 
pounds pounds 



Cubic feet per ton 



In place 



Broken 



Granite and porphyry. 

Gneiss 

Greenstone and trap . . 

Limestone 

Slate 

Quartz 

Sandstone 

Earth in bank 

Earth dry and loose. . . 

Clay 

Sand 



170 
168 
187 
168 
175 
165 
151 
111 



118 
80 



97 
96 
107 
96 
95 
94 



11.8 
11.9 
10.7 
11.9 
11.4 
12.1 
13.2 
18.0 



20.6 
20.8 
18.7 
20.8 
21.1 
21.3 
23.3 



74 



27.0 



17.0 
25.0 



• Probably for ore as delivered to mill. 



Weight of Rock and Sand^ 



Cubic feet 
per ton 



Weight in 
pounds per 
cubic foot 



Sulphide ore in place 

Sulphide ore broken 

Oxidized ore in place 

Oxidized ore broken 

Quartz in place (sp. gr. = 2.65) . 

Quartz broken 

Earth in bank 

Earth, dry and loose 

Clay. 



Loose sand 

MiU taiUng2 (sp. gr. 2.7) 

Sand collected under water 

Transferred sand (before leaching) . 

Leached sand (after transferring) . . 



11 to 13 

15 to 18 

14 to 18 

22 to 24 

12.0 

21.0 

18.0 

27.0 

17.0 

25.0 

21.5 
26.0 
24.0 



154 to 182 

111 to 133 

111 to 143 

81 to 91 

165.0 

94.0 

111.0 

74.0 

118.0 

80,0 

93.0 
77.0 
83.3 



' From MacFarren's "Cyanide Practice. 
San Francisco, Calif. 

' W. A. Caldecott, Journ. Chem., Met. 
1910. 

12 



' "Mining and Scientific Press," 
and Min. Soc. of S. A., Oct. 



178 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
DENSITY AND HARDNESS OF MATERIALS' 

Specific u j„„„ 

gravity HardnoM 

Acids and oxides: 

Arsenious acid, AsiOs 3 . 69-3 .70 1.5 

Boric acid, BiOH)j 1.48 1.0 

Titanic acid, anatase, TiOj 3.88 5.5-6.0 

brookite, TiOj 4.14 5.5-6.0 

rutile, TiOj 4.28 6.0-6.5 

Bauxite, AljOa • 2H2O 2.63-2.80 

Corundum, AlcOa 3.90^.02 9.0 

Cuprite, CujO 5.99 3.75 

Diaspore, Al(OH)rAl!0) 3.37 6.5 

Tin oxide (cas.oiterite), SnOj 6.30-7.10 6.5 

Melaconite (black copper), CuO 6.20-6.30 3.0-4.0 

Hematite, FeiOa 4.54-5.28 6.0 

Magnetite. FesOi 4.94-5.18 5.5 

Ferric oxide (hydratedWimonite 3.60-4.00 5.5 

Ice at 0°C 0.92 

Magnesia (periclase) , MgO 3 . 67 6.0 

Magnesia (hydrated, brucite). Mg(0H)2 2.35 2.5 

Manganese oxide, braunite 4.75 6.0-6.5 

hausmannite, MnjO* 4.72 5.0-5. 5 

pyrolusite, MnO: 4.82-4.97 2.0 

Silica, agate, Si02 2.58-2.62 6.0 

quartz. SiOi 2.65 7.0 

Opal (hydrated silica) 2.03-2.09 5.5-6.5 

Uranium oxide (pitchblende) 6.01-8.07 5.5 

Zincite. ZnO 5.57 4.0-4.5 

Aluminates: 

Spinel. MgO- AI2O3 3. .55 8.0 

Anorthite, CajAhSiiOu 2.7 6.0-7.0 

Antimonides: 

Breithauptite. NiSb 7 . 54 5.5 

Antinionite, Sb2S3 4.57 2.5 

Arsenides: 

Cobalt arsenide, smaltite. (Co. Ni)As} 6.41 5.5 

Copper arsenide, domeykite, CujAs 7.75 3.0-3.5 

Nickel arsenide, niccolite, NiAs 7 . 72 5.5 

Borates: 

Boracite. MgrChBisOjo 2.91-2.97 5.0-7.0 

Borax, Na2B.O7l0H2O 1.72 2.0 

Bromides: 

Silver bromide, AgBr 5.80-6.00 2.0-3.0 

Carbonates: 

Aragonite, CaCOa 2.93-2.94 3.5-4.0 

Azurite, 3Cu3Cj07-7H20 3 . 70-3 .83 4.0 

Calcite, CaCOj 2.70-2.73 3.0-3.65 

Cerussite, PbCOj 6.57 3.25 

Dolomite, MgCa(C02)2 2.83-2.94 3.75 

Malachite, Cu2C0«-H20 3.93 3.5 

Magnesite, MgCOi 3.0 3. ,5-4. 5 

Siderite, FeCOa 3.83-3.88 3.5-4.0 

Smithsonite, ZnCOj 4.30-4.45 5.0 

Stronianite, SrCOa 3.60-3.71 3.5-4.0 

Witherite, BaCOj 4.28 3.5 

Chlorides: 

Atacamite, Cu2(0Hj)Cl 3.70 3.0-3.5 

Calomel, Hg2Cl2 6.48 1.0-2.0 

Carnalhte, KMgCh-eHiO 1.6 1.0 

Cerargvrite, AgCl 5.31-5.43 1.5 

Rock salt, NaCl 2.26 2.5 

Sylvite, KCl 1.90-2.00 2.0 

Chromates: 

Lead chromate. PbCrO« 5.90-6.10 2.5-3.0 

Chromite, FeCriO< 4.32-4.50 5.5 

'From "Annuaire pour 1914. par le Bureau des Longitudes." 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 179 

I^S Hardness 

Fluondes: 

Cryolite, NasAlFs 2.96 2.5 

Fluorite, CaFs 3.14-3.19 4.0 

MolyMates: 

Wulfenite, PbMoOi 6.95 3.0 

Niobates and Tantalales: 

Fergusonite, Y, Er, Ce, Nb, Ta, 5.84 5.5-6.0 

Niobite, FeNbiOe 5.60-6.00 6.0 

Samarskite 5. 54 5. 0-6 . 

Tantalite, FeTasOe 7.03 6.0 

Nitrates: 

Saltpeter, KXO3 1.94 2.0 

Phosphates: 

Apatite 2.90-3.20 5.0 

Autunite 3.57 2.0-2.5 

Monazite (Ce, La)P04 5.00-5.09 5.2 

Pyromorphite, Pb6Cl(P04)3 6.59-7.05 3.5-4.0 

Turquoise 2.52-2.80 6.0 

ChalcoUte 3.40-3.60 2.0-2.5 

Silicates: 

Albite 2.60-2.62 6.0 

Amphibole 2.92-3.59 5.5 

Andalousite, AljSiOs 3.14-3.16 7.5 

Augite 3.20-3.50 5.0-6.0 

Emerald (beryl) 2.67-2.75 7.5-8.0 

Epidote 3.46 6.5 

Feldspar orthoclase 2 . 50-2 .59 6.0 

albite 2.60-2.62 6.0 

oligoclase 2.61-2.64 6.0 

andesite 2.67-2.68 

labradorite 2 . 70-2 .72 6.0 

anorthite 2.75 

Gadolinite, Ba2FeYjSi20io 4.23-4.33 6.5-7.0 

Granite 3 . 42-4 .20 

Hornblende 2.90-3.40 5.0-6.0 

Hypersthene (Fe,Mg)Si03 3.36-3.42 5.0-6.0 

Idocrase 3.29-3.43 6.5 

Jadeite, NaAl(Si03)2 3.28-3.35 6.5-7.0 

Lapis-lazuli 2.50-3.04 5.0-5.5 

Peridote 3.33-3.41 6.5-7.0 

Phenacite, BeaSiOi 2.96 7.5-8.0 

Olivine (Mg,Fe)2Si04 3.30-3.50 6.0-7.0 

Mica 2.70-3.10 2.0-2.5 

Pyroxene, diopside 3.32 4.0-6.0 

augite 3.30 5.5 

hedenbergite 3.50 

Quartz, SiOa 2.65 7.0 

Rhodonite 3.64 5.5-6.5 

Serpentine 2.6 3.0-4.0 

Sillimanite. Al20Si04 3.24 7.5 

Thorite, ThSi04 4.19-5.22 4.5-5.0 

Wiilemite, Zn2Si04 4.01 5.0 

Wollastonite. CaSiOs 2.80-2.90 4.5-5.0 

Zircon, ZrSiOi 4.04-4.67 7.5 

Hydraled silicates: 

Calamine, Zn2(OFD2Si03 3.35-3.50 5.0 

ChrysocoUa, CuSi03-2H20 2.00-2.20 3.5 

Halloysite 1.92-2.12 

Kaolin 2.5 1.0 

Magnesite, HiMgjSisOio 1.80-2.20 2.0-2.5 

Pyrophyllite, HAl(Si03)2 2.78 1.5 

Talc 2.71 1.0 

Thomsonite 2.38 5.0-5.5 

Silicohorate: 

Tourmaline 3.04-3.20 7.0-7.5 



180 MET/UJ.URGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Svlf; Hardness 

Silicochlonde: 

Pyrosmalite 3.08 4.0-4.5 

Sodalite 2.38-2.42 6.5-6.0 

Silico-fluorides: 

Leucophane 2.97 4.0 

Mica 2.71-3.13 2.0-3.0 

Topaz 3.51-3.58 8.0 

Siliconiobate: 

Wohlerite 3.41 5.5-6.0 

Sulphates: 

Anclesite, PbS04 6.26-6.30 3.0 

Anhydrite. CaSOi 2.90-2.96 3.0-3.5 

Baritc. BaS04 4.48-4.72 3.0 

Cclestite, SrSOi 3.92-3.96 3.0-3.5 

Epsoniite, MKSO)-7H2t) 1.75 2.0-2.5 

Gl.iuberite, Na2.S()4 2.64-2.85 

Gypsum. CaS04-2H20 2.33 2.0 

Kainit, MgSO«-KCl-3HsO 2.1 2.5 

Sulphides: 

Argentite, AgiS 7.24 2.5 

Bisinuthinite, 61283 6.40 2.0 

Blende (sphalerite), ZnS 4.09 3.5-4.0 

Bornite, CusFeSa 4.40-5.50 3.0 

Chalcocite. Cu2S 5.78 2.75 

Chalcopyrite, CuFeS2 4.17 4.0-4.2 

Cinnabar, HeS 8.12-8.20 2.5 

Erubescite. CuaFeSa 5.05 3.0 

Galena, PbS 7.26-7.60 2.75 

Greenockitc, CdS 4.99 3.0-3.5 

Marcasite, FeS2 4.77-4.86 6.0-6.5 

Millerito, NiS 5.65 3.5 

Molybdenite, M0S2 4.94 1.5 

Orpiinent. AS2S3 3.45 1.75 

Pyrite. FeSi 4.85-5.04 6.0 

Pyrrhotite, FeS 4 . 62 4.0 

Realgar, AsS 3.64 2.0 

Stibnite, Sb2S3 4 . 62 2.0 

Sphalerite, ZnS 4.09 3.5-4.0 

Sulph-anlimonides: 

Bournonite, PbCuSbSs 5.75-5.83 2.5-3.0 

Jamcsonite, PbFeSbsSu 5.61 2.5 

Pyrargyrite, AgaSbSs 5.86 2.5 

Sulph-arsenides: 

Cobaltite, CoAsS 6.26-6.37 5.5 

Enargite, CusAsS* 4 . 36 3.0 

Mispickel, FeAsS 5.22-6.07 5. .5-6.0 

Proustite, AgjAsSs 5. 50 2 . 0-2 . 5 

Tellurides: 

Nagyagite, Au, Pb, Sb, Te, S 6.68-7.20 1.0-1.5 

Tetradymite, Bi, Te, S 7.41 1.5-2.0 

Petzite (.\g,Au)2Te 8.83 2.5-3.0 

Sylvanite, AuAgTei 8.28 2.0 

Tilanatea: 

Ilmenite, FeTiOs 4.89 5.0-6.0 

Tungstales: 

Scheelite, CaWO* 6.07 4.5-5.0 

Wolframite (Fe,Mn)W04 7.14-7.36 5.0-5.5 

Vanadates: 

Descloizite 5.84 3.0-5.0 

Vanadinite, Pb4Cl(VO<)3 6.66-7.23 3.0 

Combustibles: 

Anthracite 1.34-1.46 

Asphalt 0.83-1.16 

Bituminous 1 . 28-1 .36 

Lignite 1 . 10-1 .35 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



181 



The Principal Concentrating Ores and Gangues^ 

i!^y Hardness 

Lead: 

Galena 7.26-7.60 2.0-3.0 

Cerussite 6 . 57 3 . 75 

Anglesite 6.26-6.30 3.0 

Copper: 

Melaconite 6.0 3.0-4.0 

Cuprite 3.99-4.02 

Chalcocite 5.78 2.75 

Bornite 4.40-5.50 3.0 

Chalcopyritc 4.17 3.5-4.0 

Malachite 3.93 3.5-4.0 

ChrysocoUa 2.00-2.20 2.0-4.0 

Iron: 

Mispickel 5.22-6.07 5.5-6.0 

Magnetite 4.94-5.18 5.5-6.5 

Pyrite 4.85-5.04 6.0-6.5 

Marcasite 4.77-4.86 6.0-6.5 

Pyrrhotite 4 . 62 4.0 

Zinc: 

Smithsonite 4.30-4.45 5.0 

Sphalerite 4.09 3.5-4.0 

Willemite 4.01 5.0 

Gangues: 

Barite (heavy spar) 4.48-4.72 3.0-3.5 

Manganese garnet 4.10-4.50 7.0 

Iron garnet 3.90-4.40 7.0 

Lime garnet 3.40-3.50 7.0 

Fluorite (fluorspar) 3 . 14-3 .19 4.0 

Anhydrite (gypsum) 2.90-2.96 1.5-2.0 

Dolomite 2.83-2.94 3.5-4.0 

Quartz 2.50-2.80 7.0 

Calcite 2.70-2.73 3.0 

Kaolimite 2 . 40-2 .60 1.0 

Hematite 4 . 50-5 .30 5.5-6.5 

Serpentine 2.6 3.0-4.0 

Spinel 3.50-3.60 8.0 

Talc 2.50-2.80 1.0 

Miscellaneous: 

Hornblende 2.90-3.50 5.0-6.0 

Monazite ; 5.0 5.2 

Pitchblende 6.4 5.5 

Rutile 4.20-4.30 6.0-6.5 

Thorianite 8 . 00-9 .70 7.0 

Thorite 4.6 

Wolframite 7.10-7.90 5.0-5.5 

Graphite 2.09-2.23 

J From Megraw's "Practical Data for the Cyanide Plant." For a longer 
table, based on acid radicals, see p. 178. 



182 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Specific Gravity and Absolute Weight of Gases 



Gas 



Formula 



Molecu- 
lar wt. 
= 16 



Weight 
of 1 liter 
in grams 

at 0°C. 
and 760 

mm. 
pressure 



Sp. gr. 

AiT= 1 



Wt. of 1 
cu. ft. in 
lb. at 32° 

F. and 
29.92 in. 

pressure 



Acetylene 

Air 

Aldehyde 

Ammonia 

Alcohol, ethyl 

Alcohol, amyl 

Alcohol, methyl 

Argon 

Arsine 

Benzetie 

Boron chloride 

Boron fluoride 

Bromine 

Butane 

Cyanogen 

Chlorine 

Chlorine monoxide.. . 
Chlorine dioxide. . . . 

Carbon dioxide 

Carbon monoxide.... 
Carbonyl chloride. . . 
Carbonyl sulphide. . . 

Ethane 

Ethylene 

Fluorine 

Helium. ............ 

Hydrobromic acid. . . 
Hydrochloric acid. . . 
Hydrofluoric acid. . . . 

Hydriodic acid 

Hydrogen 

Hydrogen arsenide... 
Hydrogen sclenide. . . 
Hydrogen sulphide.. . 
Hydrogen phosphide. 
Hydrogen telluride... 
Hydrocyanic acid.. . . 

Iodine 

Krypton 

Methane 

Neon 

Methyl chloride 

Mercury 

Nitrogen 

Nitrous oxide 

Nitric oxide 

Nitrogen tetroxide. . . 
Nitrogen tetroxide. . . 
Nitrosyl chloride. . . . 

Oxygen 

Phosphine 

Phosphorus 

Propane 

Propylene 

Silicon fluoride 

Sulphur dioxide 

Xenon 

Radium emanation. . 
Water 



CjHi 



26.016 



C3H4O 

NHi 

CiHsOH 

CeHuOH 

CHjOH 

Ar 

AsHs 

C.H6 

BCI3 

BFi 

Brs 

C«H,o 

C:N2 

CI2 

ChO 

ClOs 

COj 

CO 

COC12 

COS 

C21I8 

C.H* 

F2 

He 
HBr 
HCl 

HF 

HI 

H2 
AsH. 
H2Se 
H2S 
PHa 
HjTe 
HCN 

I2 

Kr 
CH4 

Ne 
CH3CI 

Hg 

N2 
N2O 

NO 
NiO* 
N02 
NOCl 

O2 
PH. 

P4 
CjHs 
CjH. 
SiP\ 
SO2 

Xe 

Nt 
HjO 



44.032 
17.034 
46.048 
88.096 
32 . 032 
39.88 
77 . 984 
78.048 

117.38 
68.00 

159.84 
58.08 
52.05 
70.92 
86.92 
67.96 
44.00 
28.00 
98.92 
60.07 
30.048 
28 . 032 
38.00 

4.002 
80.928 
36.468 
20.008 

127.928 
2.016 
77.984 
81.216 
34.086 
34 . 064 

129.516 
27.018 

253.84 
82.92 
16.032 
20.0 
50.484 

200.6 
28.02 
44.02 
30.01 
92.02 
46.01 
65.47 
32.00 
34 . 064 

124.16 
44 . 064 
42.048 

104.3 
64.07 

130.2 

222.4 
18.016 



1.1708 
1.2928 
1.9811 
. 7708 
2.0862 
4.0696 
1.4483 
1 . 7809 
3.4589 
3.5821 
5.09 
2.99 
7.1437 
2.65 
2.335 
3.222 
3.8820 
3.0192 
1.9768 
1.2504 
4.47 
2.721 
1.3562 
1 . 2609 
1 . 635 
0.1782 
3.50 
1.6392 
0.9220 
3.057 
. 08987 
3.4589 
3.628 
1.539 
1.5293 
5.80 
1.226 
11.271 
3.708 
0.7168 
0.9002 
2.. 304 5 
9.0210 
1 . 2057 
1.9782 
1.3402 
4.1133 
2.0567 
2.92.53 
1.4291 
1.5193 
5.6318 
1.9660 
1.8783 
4.6fe4 
2.9266 
5.851 
9.727 
. 8063 



0.90561 

1 . 0000 

1.5324 

0.59623 

1.6137 

3.1479 

1.1203 

1.3776 

2.6755 

2.7708 

3.937 

2.312 

5.5258 

2.050 

1.806 

2.4923 

3 . 0028 

2.3354 

1.5291 

0.96720 

3.457 

2.1047 

1.0496 

0.97532 

1.2647 

0.1378 

2.707 

1.2G794 

0.71318 

2.8287 

0.069516 

2.67755 

2 . 80639 

1.1904 

1.18293 

4.486 

0.9483 

8.7183 

2.8682 

0.55446 

. 69634 

1.78261 

6 . 97850 

0.93265 

1.53021 

1.03669 

3.18178 

1 . 59092 

2.26282 

1 . 02803 

1.09788 

4.35639 

1.558 

1.45293 

3 . 60490 

2 . 26390 

3.7524 

7.5241 

0.6237 



0.07309 

0.08071 

0.12368 

0.04812 

0.13024 

0.25406 

0.09042 

0.11118 

0.21593 

0.22362 

0.3177 

0.1867 

0.44597 

0.1654 

0.14577 

0.20114 

0.24235 

0.18843 

0.12341 

0.07806 

0.2791 

0.16987 

0.08467 

0.07872 

0.1021 

0.01112 

0.2185 

0.10233 

. 05756 

0.22830 

0.005610 

0.21593 

0.22650 

0.09607 

0.09547 

0.3621 

0.05920 

. 70363 

0.23148 

0.04475 

. 05620 

0.14387 

0.56317 

0.07527 

0.12350 

. 08367 

0.25679 

0.12840 

0.18262 

0.08921 

0.09487 

0.35158 

0.12273 

0.11726 

0.29093 

0.18264 

0.36527 

0.60724 

. 050336 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 183 

The column headed Weight of 1 liter in grams, etc., is mainly- 
based upon the tables in "Annuaire pour 1914, Bureau des 
Longitudes" and in the "Annual Tables" published by the 
International Congress of Applied Chemistry. Other data 
are compiled from various sources. There is a wide variation 
in the results for these constants, even between the work of 
two supposedly equally qualified workers. For that reason 
I have, in several instances, cut out some of the last decimal 
places. In part this variation is caused by the effect of surface 
condensation of gas films on the apparatus worked with and in 
part it is probablv due to the shape of the vessel itself, as set 
forth by Morley in 189/1. 

The determination of these constants for gases is by no 
means a simple problem. So far as possible, the values are 
those obtained experimentally, and are not simply calculated 
from atomic weights. In the cases of such substances as 
mercury, water, etc., the values at 0° and 29.92 in. of mercury 
pressure are purely theoretical. The experiments for the 
determination of the constants have been made at higher 
temperatures and the values in the table calculated from the 
equation pv = RmT . 

The number of molecules per cubic centimeter of gas under 
standard conditions is about 27.09 X 10^^. 

Velocity of electrons, 2.36 X 10" to 2.85 X lO^o cm. per 
second. 

The value of the gas constant in the formula for perfect 
gases has been calculated by M. D. Berthelot for "Annuaire 
pour 1914, Bureau des Longitudes." He considers a large 
number of gases and obtains for the mean value in 

Tpv = RT 

R = 0.08207 

A gram molecule of gas at 0°C. and 760 mm. is 22,380 cc. 

If a gas be expanded or compressed so quickly that no heat 
is either absorbed or given off, then pv^-'^"^ = k. 

Critical Temperatures and Pressures^ 

The critical temperature of a gas is that temperature above 
which no pressure suffices to produce a liquid. The pressure at 
which a gas at the critical temperature begins to become a liquid 
is known as the critical pressure: 

'"Annuaire par 1914, Bureau des Longitudes." 



184 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Substance 



Critical 
tempera- 
ture, 
dcg. C. 



Critical 
pressure, 
atnios. 



Critical 

density 

calculated 



Elements: 

Argon 

Bromine 

Chlorine 

Helium 

Hydrogen 

loidine 

Krypton 

Mercury 

Neon 

Nitrogen 

Oxygen 

Xenon 

Inorganic substances: 

Am.monia, NHi 

Carbon monoxide, CO 

Carbon dioxide, COi 

Carbon disulphide 

Carbonyl sulphide, COS 

Germanium tetrachloride, GeCU 

Hydrochloric acid, HCl 

Hydriodic acid, HI 

Hydroselenic acid, HiSe 

Nitric oxide, N2O2 

Nitrogen monoxide, N:0 

Nitrosyl chloride, NOCl 

Phosphine, PHj 

Phosphorus trichloride, PCh. . . . 

Silicon hydride. Sill* 

Silicon tetrachloride, SiCli 

Sulphur dioxide, SO2 

Sulphuretted hydrogen. HiS. . . . 

Tin tetrachloride, SnCU 

Water, H2O 

Organic substances: 

Acetylene, C2H1 

Alcohol (ethyl), CjHsOH 

Benzene, CeHs 

Carbon tetrachloride, CCh 

Ethane, C2H« 

Ethylene. C2H« 

Naphthalene, CioHs 

Methane, CH« 

Pentane, C5H12 

Phenol, CeHiOH 

Toluene, CtHs 



-122.44 

302.2 

146.0 

-267.84 

-241.1 

512.0 

- 62.5 

1270.0 

< 205.0 

-145.1 

-118.8 

14.7 



131.0 
-139.5 

31.1 
273.05 
105.0 
276.9 

51.8 

150.7 

137.0 

-93.5 

36.5 
167.0 

51.3 
285.5 
- 0.5 
221.0 
157.0 
100.4 
318.7 
364.3 



35.5 
243.1 
288.5 
283.15 

32.1 
9.5 
468.2 
- 81.8 
197.2 
419.2 
320.6 



48.0 



83.9 
2.26 
11.0 



41.24 



29.0 
33.6 
50.8 
43.5 



113.0 
35.5 
73.0 
72.87 



78.0 
89.3 
36.95 
194.6 



61.7 

62.96 

47.89 

44.97 

49.0 

50.8 

39.2 

54.9 

33.0 



41.6 



0.547 
'6!643' 



0.299-0.296 
0.400 



0.326 
0.460 
0.4408 



38.0 




83.6 


0.462 


91.0 




71.2 




71.95 


0.524 


64.5 


' 6!534 


100 









0.520 



0.276 
0.305 
0.558 



0.210 



0.145 
0.232 



0.287 



How to Generate the Various Gases 
Acetylene. — Best generated from calcium carbide and water 
(CaCo + 2H2O = Ca(0H)2 + C2H2). Can also be prepared 
by the incomplete combustion of coal gas, or by the action of 
acetylene bromide on alcoholic potash (CjH^Brj + 2K0H = 
C2H2 4- 2H2O + 2KBr). Can also be bought compressed in 
cylinders. 

Ammonia. — Best generated by the action of calcium oxide on 
ammonium chloride. Can be bought compressed in cylinders. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 185 

Argon. — Can be obtained by depriving air of oxygen with 

phosphorus, then absorbing the nitrogen by red-hot magnesium. 

Arsine. — The gas may be obtained pure by the following 

Sn3As2 + 6HC1 = SSnCh + 2AsH3 

It is also formed when any arsenious compound comes into 
contact with nascent hj'drogen, which reaction forms the basis 
for the well-known Marsh test. The other hydride of arsenic, 
AS2H4, is a solid. 

Bromine. — Best generated by heating the easily purchased 
liquid bromine. 

Carbon Dioxide. — Best made by the action of hydrochloric 
acid on marble or sulphuric acid on sodium carbonate. Can 
also be bought compressed. 

Carbon Monoxide. — Best made pure by heating oxalic acid 
with concentrated sulphuric acid and absorbing the carbon 
dioxide in calcium hydrate emulsion: 

C2H2O4 + H2SO4 = CO2 + CO + H2SO4H2O 

Can also be made by passing CO2 over red hot coke or charcoal. 
This last reaction is not self-sustaining but requires considerable 
external heat. 

Chlorine. — Is readUy generated from a mixture of salt, man- 
ganese dioxide and sulphuric acid. 

(4NaCl -f- Mn02 + 4H2SO4 = 4HXaS04 + 2H2O + MnClj + 

2C1.) 
It is also readily purchased compressed in cylinders. 

Cyanogen. — This is easily made by heating mercuric cyanide. 
It is extremely poisonous. 

Ethane. — Must be made from a methyl halide, as : 

2CH3CI -I- 2Na = 2NaCl + CaHe 

Ethylene. — Is best formed bv treating an ethyl halide with 
potassium hydroxide (CsHsBr + KOH = C2H4 + KBr -|- H2O) 
or by treating ethyl alcohol with concentrated sulphuric acid. 

Hydrogen. — Formed by the action of hydrochloric or sul- 
phuric acid on metallic zinc, though the gas prepared in this 
way may contain hydrogen phosphide and arsine, so that it 
cannot be used for certain purposes. The Lane process pro- 
duces hydrogen by passing steam over red-hot iron, and reduc- 
ing the Fe304 formed with water gas, the iron being again used 
to produce further quantities of hydrogen. It can also be pro- 
duced by electrolytic methods (methods of Messerschmidt and 
of Bergius), and by the reactions Ca(0H)2 -f CO = CaCO., -f- 
H2 and CO + HoO^ = CO2 + H,. It is said the hydrogen for 
Zeppelin inflation is made by starting the decomposition of 
acetylene electrically, CoH. = 2C + H: + 47,800 cal. Jau- 
bert's method consists in preparing calcium hydride by pa.ssing 
hydrogen over calcium in an electric furnace, Ca -|- Ho = Call.., 
then later generating the hvdrogen where needed: CaH2 -t- 
2H2O = Ca(0H)2 -I- 2H2. Strictly speaking, this is a method 
of transporting hydrogen rather than of generating it. Jaubert 



186 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

also has patented a hydrogenite mixture, 5 parts feriosilicon, 
12 parts caustic soda and 4 parts slacked lime. Si + 2NaOH + 
Ca(OHU = Na.SiOj + CaO + 2H2O. Hydrogen may also be 
generated by the action of potassium or sodiimi on water. 

Hydrochloric Acid Gas. — Given off by the action of concen- 
trated sulphuric acid on aqueous hydrochloric acid. 

Hydrocyanic Acid Gas. — This is formed by heating sulphuric 
acid and sodium cj'anide. It is fearfully poisonous. 

Hydrogen Phosphide (Phosphine). — This is formed when 
phosphorus is boiled with strong potash or caustic soda, or 
caustic lime (4P + 3NaOH + 3H2O = SH-jNarOj + IHa). 
The gas as thus formed takes fire in contact with air, due to 
traces of P2H4. This compound can be removed by refrigerat- 
ing mixtures and the resulting gas will not take (ire sponta- 
neously. These phosphorous compounds are very poisonous. 

Hydrogen Selenide. — Formed by the action of dilute acids 
or aluminum selenide. This can be made by putting lump 
selenium in molten aluminum. A mask and gloves should be 
worn when making the selenide, as the mixture occasionally 
spatters badly. IVie utmod precaulion should he observed 
not to breathe the seleniurelted hydrogen. 

Hydrogen Sulphide. — Readily made by treating ferroua 
sulphide with hydrochloric acid, by the action of .sulphuric 
acid on low-grade mattes, or by melting paraffin and sulphur 
together. 

Hydrogen Telluride. — Formed bj' the action of water on 
aluminum telluride. This is made by putting lumps of 
tellurium in molten aluminum. The slag which forms on the 
surface is aluminum telluride. Goggles should be worn when 
making this compound. 

Kakodyl. — [(CH3)2As]2. This is formed by heating arsenious 
anhydride and potassium acetate in a closed retort. This is 
ordinarily a fetid, fuming liquid, violent, poisonous, and when 
pure, spontaneou.sly inflammable. 

Methane. — This is most easily prepared by heating a mixture 
of 2 parts sodium acetate, 2 parts potassium hydroxide and 3 
parts quicklime (NaCoHjO.. + ROII = 0114 + RNaCO,). It 
can also be made by passing carbon disulphide and water vapor 
over red hot copper (CS2 + 211.0 + 6Cu = CII4 + 2Cu ,S + 
2CuO). 

Nitric Anhydride. — Prepared by passing dry chlorine over dry 
silver nitrate at 9o°C. 

Nitrous Oxide. — Obtained by heating ammonium nitrate 
crystals (NH4NO3 = N2O + 2H2O). The reaction takes place 
at comparatively low temperatures. 

Nitrogen. — Can be readilj' obtained by absorbing the oxygen 
from the air with phosphorus. In this case it contains about 
one-eightieth of its mass in argon and traces of helium, xenon, 
etc. 

Nitrogen Peroxide. — Obtained by mixing two volumes of dry 
nitric oxide and one of oxygen together. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



187 



Nitric Oxide. — Obtained by the action of nitric acid on 
copper (3Cu + 8HNO3 = 3Cu(N03)2 + H2O + N2O.).. The 
gas is colorless, but oxidizes with air to nitrogen peroxide, a 
reddish-brown gas. 

(4AgN03 + CI2 = 4AgCl + 2N2O5 + Oo) 

Oxygen. — Is given off when manganese dioxide or potassium 
chlorate is heated, or, more safely, on ignition of a mixture of 
the two. Can also be made cheaply by electrolyzing dihite 
sulphuric-acid solution. Can be introduced into solution by 
hydrogen peroxide, sodium peroxide, fuming nitric acid, nitric 
acid, chloric acid, etc. The compressed gas is a common article 
of commerce. 

Phosphine. — See hydrogen phosphide. 

Sulphur Dioxide. — Formed by burning sulphur in air, or if 
wanted chemically pure, by the action of concentrated boiling 
sulphuric acid on copper (Cu + 2H2SO4 = CuSO* + 2H2O + 
SO2). 

Sulphur Trioxide. — This is most easily formed by roasting 
ferric sulphate. 

Principal Toxic Gases 

The following list, from an address of Prof. 1. Guareschi, 
before the Associazone Chim. Industr. on June 14, 1915, at 
Turin, is given because of the growing popularity of these 
compounds in warfare. 



Name 


Formula 


Sp. gr. 


Color 


Discovered 


Chlorine 

Hydrochloric acid 

Chlorine dioxide 

Bromine 


CI2 ' 

HCl 1 

CIO2 2 

Br2 1 

HBr 

N2O2 

N2O4 > 

NOCl 2 

COCb 2 

CO 

CO2 

HNC 2 
(CN^2 
CNCl 2 
CNBr 2 

NH3 

H2S 
SO2 2 

SO3 ' 

PH3 ' 
AsH3 ' 


2.45 

1.26 
1.28 

5.6 


Greenish 

yellow- 
Colorless 
Reddish 
yellow 
Red 


Seheele 1774. 

Priestley, 1772. 
H. Davy, 1815. 

Balard, 1823. 


Nitrogen dioxide 

Nitrogen peroxide 

Nitrosyl chloride 

Carbonyl chloride 

Carbon monoxide 

Carbon dioxide 

Hydrocyanic acid 

Cyanogen 

Cyanogen chloride. . . . 
Cyanogen bromide. . . . 
Ammonia 


1.039 

2.5 

2.33 

3.5 

0.9674 

1.524 

0.94 

1.808 

2.12 

3.60 

0.59 

1.18 

2.247 

2.74 

1.178 

2.69 


Colorless 

Red 

Colorless 

Colorless 

Colorless 

Colorless 

Colorless 

Colorless 
Colorless 
Colorless 


Priestley, 1772. 
Dulong, Gav-Lussac. 
Gay-Lussac, 1848. 
J. Davy, 1812. 
Lasonne, Priestley. 
V. Helmont 
(XVIIthV 
Seheele, 1782. 
Gav-Lussac, 1815. 
Berthollet, 1789. 
Serullas, 1827. 
Pripstlpv. 1775. 


Sulphureted hydrogen. 


Colorless iScheele," i777. 


Sulphur trioxide 

Phosphine 


Colorless XVth century. 
Colorless IGengembre, 1785. 
Colorless Seheele. 1775. 









' Positively stated to be used in warfare. 
' Probably being used. 
' Possibly being used. 



188 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Fluorixe Gas and Gaseous Fluorine Compounds 

(.\I1 toxic) 



Name 



Formula Sp. gr. 



Color 



Discoverer 





F, 
HjF, 
BF, 

SiF, 

CF« 
CHF, 
CHzFs 
CHsF 

PF, 

PF, 

POF, 

PCUF, 

SF, 
ScF, 
NOP 
NOjF 

SOFj 

SOjFi 

CjHjF 

C.H^Fj 

CHtF 

CHrF 

C«H«F 

CHjF 

CH.COF 

CrOiFj 

WF, 

BrF, 

IF, 


1.264 

1.7 

2.312 

4.684 

3.09 

3.06 

i!22" 

3.05 

4.5 

3.63 

5.41 
5.03 

iies"' 

2.24 

3.0 

3.55 
1.70 

2!i6' ' 
2.6 
2.. 58 
2.07 
2.16 


Yellow 

Colorless 

Colorless 

Colorless 
Colorless 
Colorless 
Colorless 
Colorless 
Colorkss 
Colorless 

Colorless 

Colorless 
Colorless 
Colorless 
Colorless 
Colorless 

Colorless 

Colorless 

Colorless 

Colorless 

Colorless 

Colorless 

Colorless 

Colorless 

Colorless 

Red 

Colorless 

Colorless 

Colorless 


Moissan, 1886. 


Hydrofluoric acid 

Boron fluoride 

Silicon fluoride 

Carbon fluoride 


Schcele, 1782 
Gay-Lussac and 

Thenard. 1809. 
Scheele, 1782. 
Moissan. 


Methyl difluoride 




Methyl fluoride 

Phosphorus trifluoride. 
Phosphorus pentafluor- 


Dumas and Peligot. 
H. Davy. 
Thorpe. 


Phosphoric oxyfluoride 
Phosphorus dichlor- 


Moissan. 


Sulphur fluoride 

Selenium fluoride 

Nitrosyl fluoride 

Nitrile fluoride 

Thionyl fluoride 

Sulphur dioxydifluoride 
Ethyl fluoride 


Moissan and Lebeau. 
Pridcaux, 1906. 
Gore. 1869. 
Moissan and Lebeau, 

1905. 
Moissan and Lebeau, 

1905. 
Moissan and Lebeau. 


Ethylene fluoride 

Propyl fluoride 

Isopropyl fluoride 

Isobutyl fluoride 

Allvl fluoride 


Chabri6. 
Meslans, 1894 
Mcslans, 1894. 
Moissan. 


Acetyl fluoride 

Chromyl fluoride 

Tungsten fluoride 

Bromine pentafluoride 
Iodine pentafluoride.. . 


Meslans. 
Olivieri, 1880. 
Roscoe. 
Lebeau, 1905. 
Moissan, 1902. 



On the subject of toxic gases, the following abstract of a lec- 
ture for Prof. Guareschi l)efore the Turin Academy of Science 
on the properties of soda-lime, will also be of interest. (The 
abstract is from Chemical Abstracts.) 

Man.v reactions which take place with NaOH or KOH or 
lime either not at all or only at high temperatures occur at 

Sliohtlt Toxic and the Rare Toxic Gases 



1 

Ozone 


0, 




C>)CtOi 


Chlorine suboxide 


ChO 


Nickel carbonyl . . . 


Ni(C0)4 


Nitrous oxide 


N2O 


Diazomethane 


CHjNj 


Nitrosyl dichloride 


NOCls 
HI 




NH, 


Hydriodic acid 


Boron chloride 


BCl, 


Stibine 


SbH, 


Boron hydride 

.'Vcetylene 


BiHio 


Hydrogen silicide 


SiH« 


CiHj 


Formaldelivde 


CH2O 


Methyl chloride. . . . 


CH.Cl 


Methyl oarbaniine 


C S NCH3 


Methyl ether 


(CH,)20 


Chromyl chloride 


CrOjCli 


Ethvl chloride 


CjH,C1 


Hydrous pho.sphide. . . . 


P2H4 


.Methyl pliospliide.. . 


CH3PH2 


Carbon oxj'sulphide.. . . 


COS 


Methyl arsenide. . . . 


A8H2CH, 


Thionyl chloride 


SOCI2 


Dimethyl arsine. . . . 


A8H(CH,)2 



i 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 189 

the ordinary temperature, and sometimes violently when soda- 
lime is employed. Further, soda-Ume constitutes the most 
efficient agent to combat poisonous, irritating, or tear-produc- 
ing gases, since it readily absorbs CI, Br, halogen hydrides, COo, 
SO2, COCI2, (CN)2, HCX, cvanogen chloride, bromide and 
iodide, S chloride, SOCl., XOCi; XO., AsHj, SbHs, HoSand HoSe, 
mercaptans, thiocyanic acid, indole, scatole, aldehydes, chloro- 
carbonic esters, aromatic chloro and bromo derivatives with 
the halogen in the side-chain, ethyl bromoacetate and chloro- 
acetoacetate, chloroacetone, bromoacetophenone, acetic anhy- 
dride, etc. The soda-lime acts far more energeticalh^ when 
recently prepared and stored in a hermetically sealed vessel. 
In view of its distinctive behavior it is probable that it contains 
a compound such as CaCOXa)., OH.Ca.OXa, or OH.Ca.O.Ca.- 
OXa. One hundred grams of soda-lime in fine granules will 
absorb 1,500-2,250 cc. of COClo if the latter is passed slowly 
through it, but samples prepared from marble exhibit a con- 
siderably lower absorptive capacity; when saturated with CO2, 
soda-lime, even when dry, is incapable of arresting COCI2. 
The latter is absorbed well by aniline and other compounds, 
but soda-lime appears to be the only absorbent of practical 
value. H2S is readily absorbed by soda-lime, which becomes 
black possibly owing to the formation of Fe sulfide. This reac- 
tion is attended with the development of a very considerable 
amount of heat, and when the current of gas is mixed with air 
the soda-lime becomes incandescent, while replacement of the 
air by O results in a violent explosion. This incandescence is 
observed only with freshly prepared soda-lime, which should 
consist of granules 1-3 mm. in diameter. One hundred grams 
of soda-lime absorb as much as 35 1. of HoS. Soda-lime also 
absorbs H2Se which produces rapid and intense irritation of 
the mucous membrane of the nose and is capable of paralyzing 
thp sense of smell for some hours or even days. No investiga- 
tion has been made on the action of soda-lime on H2Te, which 
is, however only slightly poisonous. SO2 is absorbed by soda- 
lime, rapidly at first and subsequently more slowly, 26 1. being 
taken up by 100 g. NO2 is absorbed readilj', but XO only 
slowly and to a limited extent. The mixture of HCl, XOCI, 
XOoCl and CI obtained from aqua regia is also rapidly absorbed, 
and the same is the case at first with (CX)2, of which more than 
6 1. are absorbed per 100 g. ; the employment of soda-lime to 
retain the (CX)2 emitted from blast furnaces is suggested. 
Cyanogen chloride, bromide, and iodide are likewise absorbed. 
Soda-lime rapidly absorbs CO2 and serves for the removal of 
the latter from CO, which at the ordinary temperature is ab- 
sorbed but slightly or not at all. Like all porous substances, 
soda-lime absorbs a httle XH3, but forms no compound and 
allows it to escape; in presence of soda-lime, however, NH3 
eauses at the ordinary temperature reactions which otherwise 
occur only at high temperatures. PH3 prepared by passing H 
into a flask containing 45-50 per cent. KOH solution and a few 
pif^ces of P, is spontaneously inflammable, but loses this prop- 



1!)() MET.AXLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

erty when passed through soda-lime; the latter also absorbs P 
vapor. AsHj and SbHs are absorbed by soda-lime. The latter 
may, therefore, be used to purify the H obtained by the action 
of acid on Fe or Zn, but it will not remove PH3, which is de- 
tected by the green color of the flame. Soda-lime absorbs 
many of the impurities of coal-gas and takes away its fetid 
odor; similar purification and deodorization occur with CoHj, 
which is not absorbed by soda-lime. Cr02Cl2 is rapidly ab- 
sorbed, no acid vapor passing. SOCI2 is immediately decom- 
posed with development of much heat but no incandescence, 
no trace being allowed to pass. Ethyl chloroformate is ab- 
sorbed with aviditv, heat being developed; only faint alcoholic- 

/9 

ethereal odor passes: ClCOjEt -1- Ca< | -v XaCl -|- EtOH 

\NaOH 
+ CaCOi. Chloroacetone is absorbed with generation of heat 
and replacement of the irritant vapor bv one with a pleasant 

/^ 
odor: CHzClCOMc + Ca< | -> OHCHjCOMe + NaCl + 

\\aOH 
CaO. w-Bromoacetophenone is absorbed. Ethyl bromoace- 
tate is not fixed. Ethyl a-chloroacetoacetate is readily ab- 
sorbed. Bromoacetyl bromide is immediately absorbed with 
liberation of heat. Benzyl l)romide and chloride are absorbed. 
Chlorobenzene is not readily absorbed. Crude xylyl or xylylene 
bromide, probably a mixture of co-bromoxylenes and w, w'-di- 
bromoxylenes are readily absorbed. Acraldehyde is readily 
absorbed. Furfuraldehyde is rapidly absorbed vvith develop- 
ment of heat. CH2O is absorbed. Thioformaldehyde is com- 
pletely and rapidly fixed. AcH is absorbed with development 
of heat. Pyrrole is absorbed but slightly or not at all. Indole 
and skatole are absorbed. S2CI2 is immediately absorbed with 
heating. Ethyl mercaptan is rapidly absorbed with marked 
development of heat. Thiophene is fixed either not at all or 
only in traces. HNC is rapidly absorbed with moderate heat- 
ing. SO3 is inefficiently fixed. Acetic anhydride is rapidly 
absorbed. Various esters imdergo hydrolj'sis. Gases and 
vapors of putrefaction are absorbed. Products of incomplete 
combustion of paper, wood, etc., are rendered quite odorless. 
In presence of soda-lime various synthetic reactions take place 
at the ordinary temperature; the results obtained in this direc- 
tion are to be published later. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 191 

Minimum Lethal Amounts and Tolerances (Per Cent.) 



Gas 


Rapidly 
fatal 


Usually fatal 
ill J-i to 1 Lour 


Usually endur- 
able }4 to 1 hour 


Prolonged ex- 
posure usually 
not harmful 


HCl 




1.5 -2.0 
0.01-0.06 
0.4 -0.5 
0.12-0.15 
0.5 -1.0 
0.4 -0.6 
0.5 -0.7 
2.0 -3.0 


0.05-1.0 

0.004 
0.05-0.2 
. 05-0 . 06 
0.3 -0.4 
0.1 -0.2 
0.2 -0.3 
0.5 -1.0 


0.01 


Br or CI 

so» 


about 1 


0.0001 
0.02-0.03 


HCN 

NHj 


about 0.3 
4-5 


0.02-0.04 
0.1 


PHj 




H2S 


1-2 


0.1 -0.15 


CO 


0.22 









For use in warfare, according to Prof. Vivian B. Lewes ^ a gas 
should have at least twice the specific gravity of air, and should, 
for ease of transportation, be easily liquefiable. The principal 
substances which can be used in respirators to absorb the gases 
more commonly used in warfare are: Carbonate or bicarbonate 
of soda; sodium hyposulphite; potassium iodide; an alkaline 
iodide used with an alkaline carbonate; a mixture of alka- 
line carbonates and thiosulphite; hyposulphite, carbonate and 
glycerin. 2 

Analyses of German Poison Gases^ 

1. AUyl-iso-thiocyanate (allyl mustard oil) CaHsNCS (shell). 

2. Benzyl bromide, CeHsCHsBr (shell). 

3. Bromo-acetone, CH2Br.CC).CH3 (hand grenades). 

4. Bromated methjd-ethyl-ketone (bromo-ketone), CHoBr.- 
CO.C2H5 or CH3.CO.CHBr.CH3 (shell). Dibrome-ketone, 
CHs.CO.CHBr.CH.Br (shell). 

5. Bromine, Br2 (hand grenades). 

6. Chloro-acetone, CH2CI.CO.CH3 (hand grenades). 

7. Chlorine, CI2 (cloud). 

8. Chloromethyl-chloroformate (palite),ClC00CH2Cl (shell). 

9. Nitro-trichloro-methane (chloropicrin or nitrochloro- 
form), CCI3NO2 (shell). 

10. ChlorosuLfonic acid, SO3H.CI hand grenades and 
"smoke pots "). 

11. Dichloro-diethylsulfide (mustard gas), (CH2ClCn2)2S 
(shell). 

12. Dimethyl sulfate, (CH3)2S04 (hand grenades). 

13. Diphenyl-chloro-arsine, (C6H6)2 AsCl (shell). 

14. Dichloromethyl ether, (CH2C1)20 (shell). 

15. Methyl-chlorosulfonate, CH3CISO3 (hand grenades). 

16. Phenyl-carbylamine chloride, CeHsNCCh (shell). 

17. Phosgene (carbonjd chloride), COCI2 (cloud and shell). 

18. Sulfur trioxide, SO3 (hand grenades and shell). 

19. Trichloromethyl-chloroformate (diphosgene, super- 
pahte), CICOOCCI3 (shell). 

20. Xylyl bromide (tolyl bromide), CH3C6H4CH2Br (shell). 

'"Engineering," July 23, 1915, p. 89. 

'"he Genie Civil," Sept. 25, 1915, p. 205. 

» Courtesy McKesson & Robins, New York City. 



192 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Incendiary Bombs. — According to Professor Vivian B. Lewes 
the principal ingredient of incendiary bombs is thermit, ignited 
by means of amorphous phosphorus. The latter substance is 
also used by the Germans in a type of shrapnel used for marking 
the range of artillery. The heat of the explosion converts the 
amorphous phosphorus into white phosphorus, the combustion 
of which produces fumes of phosphorus pentoxide, which are 
visible night and day. Wounds produced bj^ fragments of 
the.se shells are poisoned. 

Failure of Metals Under Repeated Stresses 

Materials subjected to repeated stresses fail eventually, even 
though the stresses are each less than their elastic limit. The 
smaller the stress, the greater the number of stresses required 





Torsion fatigue 


Bending 
fatigue 


Materiab 


Fl 1 C 


Fl 1 C 




Tons per sq. in. 


Tons per sq. in. 


Chrome nickel steel, F5117 


12.601 

11.371 

11.101 

10.701 

7.031 

9.69 

9.71 

11.04 

8.16 


0.50 
0.70 
2.42 
0.68 
1.91 
1.26 
1.55 
1.11 
1.55 






Nineteen samples of chrome nickel steel. . 






Manganese steel, F5109 




















14.08 
13.86 
13.82 
14.39 


4.70 




5.46 


Mild steel plates, high rcsult.s, R 


5.71 




4.36 






Mean for above mild steels 


9.65 


1.37 


14.04 


5.06 


Mild steels, exceptional qualities, Y 

Mild steels, exceptional qualities, F 


7.56 
8.64 


2.40 
1.26 


13.. 30 
doubt 


5.40 
ful 


Mild steel plates, low results, J 

Mild steel plates, low results, A 


7.01 
7.09 
6.33 
6.94 
5.64 
5.90 


1.36 
1.26 
2.03 
1.69 
1.43 
1.58 


9.36 
8.94 
8.95 
8.15 
9.69 
7.42 


5.31 
4.76 
5.13 


Mild steel plates, low results, U 

Mild steel plates, low results, Z 

Mild steel plates, low results, N 


5.61 
4.53 
5.17 


Mean 


6.47 


1.56 


8.75 


5.09 




6 831 1 f!l ' 








5.971 
6.221 
6.001 
5.501 
2.691 
2.161 
3.981 


0.97 
1.83 
0.61 
0.41 
0.97 
0.13 
1.61 
























Copper rods annealed, CU 










Cast iron (one sample), CI 










Phosphor bronze rods, as rolled, PB 

Magmalium rods, as rolled, MA 


7.821 
4.211 
5.801 


0.77 
0.78 
nega- 
tive 





















1 These fatigue limits were determined calorimetrically. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 193 

to produce rupture. C. E. SxROMEYERof Manchester, England, 
gives the following mathematical expression of these facts. 
There is some limiting value of stress which would just cause a 
piece of metal to break in an infinite mmiber of applications. 
Any stress less than this amount could be repeated forever 
without breaking the specimen. Any stress greater than this 
amount would certainly rupture the specimen in a finite number 
of applications. This stress may be termed the fatigue limit 
(Fl). If the number of repetitions of stress required to break 
the specimen be A'^;+ iS„ = the stress applied (the + sign indi- 
cates that the stress of Sn in tons per square inch may be applied 
alternately as a tension or compression, or an alternate twisting 
and bending); C a constant for the material under discussion; 
then 

The constants for various metals are given above. 



Some Properties of the Metals i 

Brittleness or Toughness (Marten's Formulae). — Toughness 
of test length = 

ultimate strength per cent, elongation in test length, 
yield point ^ ~ 100 

The metals then range in this order : 

Pb, Pt, Fe, Al, Ni, Zn, Sn, Cu, Au, Ag. 

DuctiUty.— W, Au, Ag, Pt, Fe, Ni, Cu, Al, Zn, Sn, Sb. 

By some authorities aluminum is placed fourth ; it has been 
drawn so fine that 11,400 yd. weigh only 1 oz. One ounce of 
tungsten at 0.0005 inch diam. equals 12,490 yd. (Fink). 

Tenacity.— Steel, Ni, Fe, Cu, Al, Au, Zn, Sn, Pb. 

MaUeabiUty.— Au, Ag, Al, Cu, Sn, Pt, Pb, Zn, Fe, Ni. 

The thinest metal leaf commercially attainable in 1914 was: 

Au, 0.000008 cm.; Al, 0.000020; Ag, 0.000021; Pt, 0.000025; 

Cu, 0.000034; Dutch metal, 0.00007 (Kaye and Laby). 

_., ^. .^ ,,, , T-i IN T^i i- -x toughness 
Plasticity (Marten s Formulae). — Plasticity = . " ^ X 

1000. 

Marten's Classification. — Fe, Pt, Ni, Al, Zn, Cu, Ag, Au, 
Pb, Sn. 

Kurnakofp^Schemtschuschny: K, Na, Pb, Tl, Sn, Bi, Cd, 
Zn, Sb. 

'H. O. HoFMAN, "General Metallurgy." 



13 



19-i MI:TALLURGIST8 and (UIEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Elastic Constants of Solids 



Hulk 
modulus 



Coctruinit of 
rigidity 



Young's 
modulus 



Brass 

Glass 

Iron (wrought). . . 

Steel 

Aluminum 

Bismuth, cast. . . . 

Cadmium 

Copper 

Gold 

Lead 

Nickel 

Palladium 

Platinum 

Silver 

Tin 

Bronze 

Const antan 

Manganin 

Zinc 

Phosphor bronze. 
German silver. . . . 

Magnesium 

Rhodium 

Tantalum 

Tungsten 



10.0 
4.0 



14.0 
18.4 
7.4(1 
3.14 
4.12 
13.1 
16.6 
5.0 
17.6 
17.6 
24.7 
10.9 
5.29 
9 . .52 
15.5 
12.1 
9.0 
12.0 



X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10> 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 



4.2 X 10' 
28.0 X 10' 
18.6 X 10' 



3.7 

2.4 

7.7 

8.2 

2.63 

1.20 

1.92 

4 . 55 

2.80 

0.562 X 

7.7 X 

4.04 

6.04 



10" 
10" 

10" 
10" 
10" 
10" 
10" 
10" 
10" 
10" 
10" 
10" 
lO'i 
lO'i 
10" 
10" 
10" 
10" 
10" 
10" 
10" 
10" 



10.4 
6.0 
19.6 
22 
7.05 
3.19 
4.99 
12.3 
8.0 
1.62 
20.2 
11.3 
16.8 



.90 
5.43 
8.08 
16.3 
12.4 
8.7 
12.0 
11.6 



X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 101 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 101 
X 10' 
X 10' 
X 10' 



42.2 X 10" 



The above vahies are mainly from K.^ye and Labv's, " Physical and 
Chemical Constants." 

If the volume of a body be altered without changing its 
shape, the stress divided by the strain is known as the bulk 



modulus: k = 



Av 



If a body be changed in sha^.e without changing its volume 
the modulus of elasticity is tlie ratio of the stress to the strain 
which produces it. 

Young's Modulus. — The number representing the pressure 
or tension on a bar in dynes per square centimeter divided by the 
compression or elongation so produced per centimeter of length. 

Tensile Strength of Some Metals at Ordinary 
Temperatures 

fPounds per scjuaro inch) 



Cobalt 

Nickel (hard drawn) 

Iron, rolled 

Iron, cast 

Steel (high tensile) 

Tungsten (hard) 

Platinum, wire, annealed. 

Platinum, cast 

SUver, cast 

Copper, cast 

Copper, sheet 

Copper, bolts 

Copper wire, hard drawn. 
Copper wire, soft drawn. . 

Gold, cast 

Gold wire, hard drawn. . . 
Gold wire, annealed 



75,000 
96,000 
55,000 
48,000 
450,000 
010,000 
32.000 
45,000 
41,000 
24,000 
30,000 
34,000 
60,000 
35,.500 
20,000 
37,000 
24,000 



Aluminum, cast 12,500 

Aluminum, rolled 19,290 

Aluminum, hammered. . . 22,575 

Aluminum, drawn I 17,007 

8,500 
5,000 
4,600 
5,800 
3,000 
2,050 
1.650 
1,720 
1,000 
60,000 



Tellurium, cast. 

Zinc 

Tin, cast 

Tin, drawn 

Bismuth, cast. . 

Lead, cast 

Lead, pipe 

Lead, sheet 

Antimony, cast. 

Tantalum 

Brass 50,000 

German silver 66,000 

Hard rubber 7,000 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



195 



Tensile 


Strengths at 


Low Temper.\tdres1 




In kg. per sq. cm. 




At - 252. 6°C. 


- 192°C. 


+ 17°C. 


Aluminum 


4,790 
6,510 


5,370 

4 880 

13,400 

19,700 

581 

16,100 

7,250 

5,390 


2,900 
3 580 


Gofd ..v.;;::::;: 


9,860 




21,700 
813 

10,500 
8,600 
6,400 


14 700 


Lead 


251 




11,100 




5,080 


Silver 


2,780 







H. O. HoF.M.'^.v, "General Metallurgy." 

' F. A. and C. L. Lindemann, Nernst's Festschrift, 1912, p. 264. 

Tensile Strength of Metals, Showing Effect of Drawing 
AND Rolling^ 



Lb. per stj. in. 



Cast 



Thin sheet 
metal 



Wire 



German silver . . . . 

Bronze 

Brass 

Copper 

Iron (length wisel.. 
Iron (crosswise) . . 
Steel (lengthwise). 
Tungsten 



23,714-40,450 
35,960 



24,781 



75,816-87,129 
73,380-92,086 
44,398-58,188 
30,470-48,450 
44,331-59,484 
39,838-57,350 
49,253-78,251 
400,000-610,000 



81,735-92,224 

78,049- 

81,114-98,578 

37,607-62,190 

59,246-97,908 



103,272-318,823 



'Rearranged from tests quoted in Kent's "Mechanical Engineers' 
Pocket Book." 

Coefficients of Linear Expansion per Degree Centigrade^ 





0°-100° 


- 190°-0° 


Aluininuni 


0.0000233 

0.0000168 

0.0000089 

0.000017 

0.0000157 

0.000019 

0.0000055 

0.0000185 

0.000031 

0.0000143 

0.0000123 

0.0000179 

. 0000054 

0.0000085 

0.0000145 


0.000183 


Antimony 




Antimony (normal to axis) 




Arsenic 




Bismuth 


0.000013 


Brass ■ 




Brick 




Bronze 




Cadmium 


0.0000446 


Cement 




Cobalt 




Copper 

Gas-carbon 


0.0000141 


Glass 




Gold 


0.0000132 



1 The coefficient of cubic expansion is 3 times the coefficient of linear 
expansion. 

' Hofman'8 "General Metallurgy," and" "Annuaire pour 1914, Bureau 
des Longitudes." 



190 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Coefficient of Linear Expansion per Degree Centigrade 



0°-100° 



- 190°-0'' 



(Iraphite.i^artificial) 

Indium 

Invar (68.8 per cent. Fe, 3G.2 per 

cent. Ni) 

Iridium 

Iron (cast) 

Iron (wrought) 

I^ead 

Magnesium 

Marble 

Mercury (solid) 

Nickel 

Osmium 

Palladium *. 

Platinum 

Potassium 

Rhodium 

Ruthenium 

Selenium (40°) 

Silver 

Sodium 

Steel 

Steel (hardened) 

Tellurium 

Thallium 

Tin 

Zinc 

Aluminum bronze 

Brass (Cu 66, Zn 34) 

Bronze (Cu 32, Zn 2, Sn 5) 

Constantan (Cu 60, Ni 40) 

German silver (Cu 60, Ni 15, Zn 25) . 

Magnalium (Al 86, Mg 13) 

Phosphor bronze (Cu 97.6, 2Sn, P 0.2) 
Platinum-iridium (Ir 10 per cent.) . . 

Solder (Pb 2 : Sn 1) 

Speculum metal (Cu 68, Sn'32). . . . 

Cement and concrete 

Glass, soft 68Si02, 14Na20, 7CaO. . . 
Glass, flint 45Si02, 8K2O, 46PbO . . . 

Granite 

Ice (-10°toO°) 

Masonry 

Rubber, hard 

Silica, fused (80° to 0°) 

(0° to 30°) 

(0° to 1000°) 

Sandstone 

Slate 



. 0000025 
. 0000459 

0.0000004 

0.0000067 

0.0000122 

0.0000119 

0.0000205 

. 0000276 

0.000007 

0.000181 

0.0000132 

. 0000068 

0.0000119 

0.0000090 

0.000083 

0.0000086 

0.0000099 

0.000037 

0.0000195 

0.000072 

0.000011 

0.0000136 

0.000017 

0.000031 

0.0000227 

0.0000294 

0.000017 

0.0000189 

0.0000177 

0.000017 

0.0000184 

0.000024 

0.0000168 

0.0000087 

0.000025 

0.0000193 

0.000010-14 

0.0000085 

0.0000078 

0.0000083 

0.0000507 

0.000004-7 

0.00004278 

0.00000022 

. 00000042 

0.000000.54 

0.000007-12 

0.000006-10 



. 0000057 
0.0000091 



0.0000271 
0.0000214 



0.0000101 



0.0000120 
0.0000088 



0.0000226 
. 0000264 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 197 

Cubic Expansion of Gases, per Degree Centigrade* 



Constant 
volume 



Constant 
pressure 



Air 

Carbon monoxide. 
Carbon dioxide . . . 

Cyanogen 

Hydrogen 

Nitrogen 

Oxygen 

Nitrous oxide 

Ammonia 

Sulphur dioxide . . . 

Argon 

Helium 



0.0036650 

0.0036667 

0.003688 

0.003829 

0.0036678 

0.0036682 

0.0036741 

0.003676 



0.0038453 

0.003668 

0.0036627 



0.003676 

. 0036688 

0.00371 

0.003877 

0.0036613 

0.003670 

0.00486 

0.0037195 

0.003854 

. 0039028 



Cubic Expansion of Liquids 

Mercury (0°-100°C.) 0.0001818 

Water see p. 174 

Burning oils of sp. gr. 0.795-0.825 r . . . 00072 

Benzine 0.00081 

Light lubricating oil 0.00068 

Heavy lubricating oil 0.00063 

Sodium (liquid) . 000226 

Hardness 
"The customary hardness test at the present time is that of 
Brinnell, which consists in making on a flat surface of the 
material an indentation by means of a small steel ball applied 
under known pressure. According to Rosenhain perhaps the 
best definition of hardness is "the power of resisting local dis- 
placement of portions of its surface." But it is at once evident 
that this power is by no means a simple and definite property of 
the material which will reproduce itself in all circumstances. 
Thus the displacement of a portion of the substance of a material 
may occur by plastic, flow — the material may be indented at 
one point while its level is raised at other points; in other cir- 
cumstances or in other materials the displacement may occur 
by direct fracture, as in the scratching of a brittle material. 
Either of these forms of local displacement maj^ be brought 
about by the application of a steadily increasing force or by a 
rapidly applied force, i.e., by a shock or blow. It is by no means 
certain that the power of resisting all these various forms of 
displacement will be identical or even proportional, so that the 
material which displays the highest scratch hardness is not 
necessarily the hardest under an indentation test. Where hard- 
ness is referred to, therefore, the manner of measuring it should 
always be specified. 

' From "Annuaire pour 1914, Bureau des Longitudes," with a few values 
from other sources. 



198 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Scale of Hardnkss (Mohs) 



Agate .... 
Alabaster. 



1 



Alum 2.0-2.5 

Amber.. 2.0-2.5 

Andalusite 7.5 

Anthracite 2.2 

Antimony 3.3 

Apatite S.Qi 

Aragonite 3.5 

Arsenic 3.5 

Asphalt 1.0-2.0 

Augite - 6.0 

Bervl 7.8 

Bismuth 2.5 

Calamine 5.0 

Calcite 3.0' 

Copper 2.5-3.0 

Copperas 2.0 

Copper sulphate 2.5 

Corundum 9.0 

Diamond 10. 0^ 

Dolomite |3 . 5-4 . 

Emery 9.0 

Feldspar I 6 . 0^ 

Fluorite 4.0^ 

Gold ;2. 5-3.0 

Granite j 7.0 

Graphite '0.5-1.0 



Gypsum 

Heavy spar. . . 
Hornljlende. . . . 

Iridium 

Jasper 

Kaolin 

Lead 

Meerschaum.. . 

Mica 

Nickel i5 

Onvx I 

Opal.. 

Palladium 

Platinum 

Quartz 

Ruby 

'Saltpeter 

Sapphire 

Serpentine 

Silver 

Spinel 

Stibnite 

Sulphur 

Talc 

Topaz 

Tin 

Zinc 

Zirconium 



2.01 

3.3 

5.5 

6.0 

7.0 

1.0 

1.5 
.0-3.0 
.5-3.0 
.0-5.5 

7.0 
.0-6.0 

4.8 

4.3 

7.01 

9.0 

2.0 

9.0' 
.0-4.0 
.5-3.0 

8.0 

2.0 
.5-2.5 

1.0 

8.0' 
.0-3.0 

4.0 

7.8 



"Among the various methods which have been proposed 
for the measurement of hardness, it seems probable that the 
Brinnell ball-test, measuring indentation hardness, is probably 
that one which most nearly approaches our fundamental ideal 
of constituting a measure of a single definite property. In 
this case the test probably measures a group of properties of a 
fairly simple type. That this is the case may be inferred from 
the fact that tests with balls of different diameter can be ren- 
dered fairly comparable." 

TT J load in kg. ^, . , 

Hardness = ? r- r-v— ^ — ——. — Xv radius of ball. 

area of concavity of mdentation v x<iuiuouiuttii. 

The Brixnell hardness number is nearh' proportional to the 
ultimate stress determined by tensile tests. On the other 
hand, ball-hardness number is not a safe guide as to the power 
to resist abrasion.* A better test for resistance to wear is 

'The materials marked thus (•) are the standards on this scale. The hard- 
ness is determined by scratching an unknown with these standards. One 
can scarcely determine within half a point what the hardness is. The finger 
nail may be assumed at about 2.5, and a knife blade at 6.5. 

' Rosenhain's "Introduction to Physical Metallurgy." 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



199 



probably that of the Derihox machine, in which the edge of a 
hard steel disc revolving in oil is pressed against the test speci- 
men. ^ Some comparative Brin'xell numbers and resistances 
to wear are given below. 

Botton'e's Sc.\le of H.^rdxess^ 





3010 
1456 
1450 
1410 
1375 


Copper 

Palladium. . . 
Platinum.. . . 

Zinc 

Silver 


1360 Iridium 

1200 Gold. 

1107 Aluminum... 
1077 Cadmium. . . 
990 Magnesium . 


984 
'■ 979 
821 
760 
726 


Tin 


651 


Manganese. 

Cobalt 

Nickel 

Iron 


Lead 

Thallium.. . . 

Calcium 

Sodium 

Potassium.. . 


570 
565 
405 
400 
230 








■■■■| r" 





Bhixxell Hardxess Nu>rBER.s^ 



Cooled 



500 kg. 3000 kg. Resistance 
(a) (6) I to wear 



Phosphor bronze: 

10 per cent. Sn Lime 

20 per cent. Sn Sand 

10 per cent. Sn, 10 per cent. Pb. Lime 

10 per cent. Sn, 10 per cent. Pb. Sand 

Gun metal: 

10 per cent. Sn, 2 per cent. Zn. . Sand 

10 per cent. Sn, 2 per cent. Zn. . Lime 

Manganese bronze { |=*^^^^g 




107 

196 

103 

69 

82 
107 
137 
143 



93-100 

143-158 

80-89 

65-70 

6.5-74 

86-93 

109-119 

124-130 



{a) 10 mm. ball, applied under 500 kg. pressure 15 seconds. 
(6) 10 mm. ball, applied under 3000 kg. pressure 30 seconds. 

L.\TEXT He.\t of Evaporatiox^ 



Air 

Aluminum 

Arsenic (sublimation) . . 
Antimony (calculated) . 
Acid, acetic 

formic 

Alcohol, ethyl 

methyl 

Ammonia (liquid NHi). 

Arsenic chloride 

Bromine 

Cadmium 

Carbon dioxide 

Carbon disulphide 

Carbon (calculated).... 

Chlorine 

Hydrogen 

Iodine 

Lithium (calculated) . . . 
Mercury 



51.0 
2227.0 
60.0 
359.0 
121.0 
120.7 
208.92 
263 . 86 
341.0 
53.0 
• 45.6 
398.0 
49.32 
86.67 
38.37 
61.9 
123.0 
24.0 

2.54 
68.0 



Magnesium 

Nitric anhydride (NjOi). 

Nitrous oxide (N2O) 

Nitric acid 

Oxygen 

Phosphorus 

Potassium 

Selenium 

Silicon (calculated) 

Silver 

Sodium 

Sulphur 

Sulphur dioxide 

Sulphuric acid 

Sulphuric anhydride 

Stannic chloride 

Tin 

Water 

Zinc 



1315.0 
44.81 
100.6 
115.08 

50.9 

287.0 

592.0 

140.0 

1262.0 

715.0 

1015.0 

72.0 

94.56 

122.1 

147.5 

30 .-53 
271.0 
5.38.0 
425.0 



' Proc. Int. Assoc, fur Testing Materials, June 1, 1912, p. 3. 

* Am. Jour. Sci., 1874, Vol. 150, p. 644. 
» Mftaux ft Alliayes, p. 8, 1915. 

♦ Most of these values are from J. W. Richards, "Metallurgical Calcula- 
tions," a few from Cremer and Bicknell's "Chemical and Metallurgical 
Handbook." 



200 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Latknt Heats of Fusion^ 



Aluminum 

Antimony* 

Bismuth 

Bromine 

Cadmium 

Calcium 

Copper 

Cobalt 

Gallium 

Gold 

Ice 

Iodine 

Iridium 

Iron — cast-white 
Iron — cast-gray. . 

Iron — pure 

Lead 

Magnesium 



100.0 
40.2 2 
12.64 
16.18 
13.02 
52.6 
43.3 
68.0 
19.11 
16.3 
79.77 
11.7 
26.1 
23.0 
33.0 
69.0 
5.37 
58.0 



Mercury 

Nickel 

Palladium 

Platinum 

Phosphorus 

Potassium 

Potassium nitrate . . 

Selenium 

Silicon 

Silver 

Steel 

Sodium 

Sulphur 

Thallium 

Tellurium 

Tin 

Water 

Zinc 




Latent Heats of Fusion — Compounds* 



Alumina 
Silica 
Titanium oxide 



Oxides 

AI0O3 
SiOj 
TiOj 
Haiides 

AsCl, 



Arsenic chloride 

Lead bromide PbBrj 

Lead chloride PbCU 

Manganese chloride MnCU 

Stannic chloride SnCU 

Nitrates 

Potassium nitrate KNOi 

Sodium nitrate NaNOa 



50.9 
76.1 
35.8 

69.74 
12.34 
20.90 
49.37 
46.84 

48.90 
64.87 



Silicates 
Al-calcium silicate (anorthite) 
Al-potassium silicate (orthoclase) 
Al-potassium silicate (microcline) 
Calcium silicate (wollastonite) 
Ca-magnesium silicate (malacolite') Ca3MgSi40i2 
Ca-magnesium silicate (diopside) CaMgSi206 
Magnesium silicate (enstatite) 
Magnesium silicate (olivine) 
Iron silicate (fayalite) 



CaAhSijOg 
KAlSisOj 
KAlSijOg 
CaSiOj 



MgSiO, 

Mg2Si04 

FejSiOi 



100 
100 

83 
100 

94 
100 
125 
1.30 



• Most of these values are from J. W. Richard's "Metallurgical Calcula- 
tions." a few from Ckemer and Bicknell's "Chemical and Metallurgical 
Handbook." 

» This is an experimental value. .Theory points to a value of about 16. 

» J. W. Richards, "Metallurgical Calculationa." 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



201 



Sulphides 
Lead sulphide PbS 104 

Specific Heats of Non-metals and Alloys ^ 



Material 



Specific 
heat 



Material 



Specific 
heat 



Solids: 

Asbestoa (20°-100°) 

Brass (red) 

Bras3 (yellow) 

Brickwork 

Carbon, graphite 

Clay 

Coal 

Fluorspar (30°) 

German silver (0°-100°) . 
Glass, crown (10°-50°) . . 
Glass, flint (10°-50°). . . . 

Granite (20°-100°) 

Ice 

Iron, pure 

Iron, cast 

Iron, wrought 

Marble (18°) 

Quartz (0°) 

Quartz (350°) 

Sand (20°-100°) 

Steel 

Stone 

Wood 



0.20 

0.09 

0.088 
About 0.2 

0.16 

0.19 

0.24 

0.21 

0.095 
0.16-0.20 

0.12 
0.19-0.20 

0.502 

0.116 

0.13 

0.11 

0.21 

0.174 

0.279 

0.19 

0.12 
About 0.2 
0.45-0.65 



Liquids: 

Alcohol, ethyl (40°) 

Alcohol methyl (12°) 

Benzene, CeHe (10°) 

Benzine 

Benzol, (19°-30°) 

Gasoline 

[Glycerine (18°-50°) 

Hydrochloric (HCl + lOHsO) 

(18°) 

Hydrogen (253°) 

Kerosene 

Load (molten) 

Mercury (5°-3G°) 

Nitric (HNOa + IOH2O) (18°) 
Nitrogen (-208° to -196°).. 

Oil, olive (7°) 

Oxygen (-200° to -183°). . . 

Sea water (17°) 

Sulphur (119°-147°) 

Sulphuric (H2SO4) (16°-20°) . . 
Sulphuric (H2SO4 + 5H2O) 

(lG°-20°) 

Turpentine (18°) 



0.65 

0.60 

0.340 

0.45 

0.4158 

0.53 

0.58 

0.749 

6.00 

0.47 

0.03 

. 0333 

0.768 

0.43 

0.47 

0.35 

0.94 

0.2346 

0.3315 

0.5764 
0.42 



The specific heat of a substance is the number of B.t.u.'s required to raise 
the temperature of a pound of the substance 1°F. or of 1 kg. of water 1°C. 
There is much discordant data on the subject and several tables are given. 
The user is advised to look over all of the tables, as the data is given in several 
forms. 





Specific Heats of Some Metals 


2 






Specifi 


c heat 


As a 
gas 


Metal 


Specifi 


c heat 




Metal 


At about 
15°C. 


At about 

melting 

point 


At about 
15°C. 


At about 
melting 
point 


As a 
gas 


Ag 


0.055 
0.107 
0.0.30 
0.068 
0.054 
0.106 
0.091 
0.116 
0.033 
0.030 
0.166 
0.941 
0.246 
0.035 


0.076 
0.308 
0.030 


0.046 

0.1852 


Mn... 
Mo... 
Na.... 
Ni.... 
Os.... 
P 


0.122 
0.066 
0.293 
0.109 
0.031 






Al 






Bi 




0.2174 


Cb 


0.161 




Cd 


0.062 

0.204 

0.118 

0.102 

0.032 

0.040 

0.23 

0.975 


0.0446 

6!625" 

6!i28" 

0.714 

0.2084 




Co 




0.064 


Cu.... 
Fe 

K . . 


Pb.... 
Pt.... 

Sr 

Sb.... 
Si 


0.030 
0.032 
0.0735 
0.048 


0.034 
0.046 




0.054 


0.416 
0.107 


Li 

Mg .. 


Sn.... 
Tl.... 
Zn.... 


0.055 

0.03355 

0.093 


0.059 


0.424 
0.024 


W 


0.122 


0.076 



'From Pierce and C.^hver's, "Formulas and Tables for Engineers," 
with some additions from other authorities. For the elements, see the table 
uii page 202. 

-The first two columns are from Hofman's "General Metallurgy," the 
values for the gaseous state are from J. W. Richards "Metallurgical Cal- 
culations." 



202 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Specific Heats of the Elements' 

A table compilpd from various sourci's. 



Substance' 


Tempera- 


.^P , 


Substance' 


Tempera- 


>•, 




ture' 


heat' 




ture' 


heat' 


Aluminum .... 


-182°- 15° 


0.168 


Lead 


300° 


0.0338 




17°- 100° 


0.217 




Molten 


0.0402 




600° 


0.282 


Lithium 


0°-19° 


0.837 


Antimony 


-186°- -79° 


0.0462 




0°-100° 


1.093 




l°-20° 


0.0503 


Magnesium. . 


-186°- -79° 


0.189 




Molten 






17°-100° 


0.248 




632°-830° 


0.0603 




225° 


0.281 


Arsenic: Cryst 


0°-100° 


. 0822 


Manganese. . 


-188°-20° 


0.093 


Amorph 


21°-65° 


0.076 




14°-97° 


0.189 


Barium 


-185°-20° 


0.068 


Mercury 


-213° 


0.0266 




0°-100° 


0.05 




0°-80° 


0.0331 


Beryllium 


0°-100° 


0.425 


Molybdenum 


-185°-20° 


0.063 


Bismuth 


-186° 


. 0284 




15°-91° 


0.072 




22°-100° 


. 0304 


Nickel 


- 186°- 18° 


0.086 




Molten 


0.0363 




18°- 100° 


0.109 


Bromine: Solid 


- 78°- -20° 


0.084 


XitroRpn, liq. 


-208° — 196° 


0.43 


Liquid 


13°-45° 


0.107 


Osmium 


19°-98° 


0.031 


Gas 


loO°-230° 


0.0570 


Palladium . . . 


18°- 100° 


0.059 


Boron, amorph. 


0°-100° 


0.307 


Phosphorus: 






Cadmium 


-186° 79° 


0.050 


Yellow 


- 78°-10° 


0.17 




Pure 18°-99° 


0.055 


Yellow 


13°-36° 


0.202 


Caesium 


0°-26° 


0.048 


Liquid 


49°-98° 


0.205 


Calcium 


0°-100° 


0.1704 


Red 


15°-98° 


0.17 


Carbon 


0°-20° 


0.145 


Platinum .... 


-186°- 18° 


0.0293 


Gas carbon.. . 


24°-68° 


0.204 




18°- 100° 


0.0324 


Charcoal 


0°-24° 


0.165 




1230° 


0.0461 


Charcoal 


0°-224° 


0.238 


Potassium . . . 


- 78°-23° 


0.166 


Graphite 


- 50° 


0.114 


Rhodium .... 


10°-97° 


0.058 


Graphite 


11° 


0.160 


Rutheniium . 


0°-100° 


0.061 


Graphite 


202° 


0.297 


Selenium: 






Graphite 


977° 


0.467 


Cryst 


22°-62° 


0.084 


Diamond 


11° 


0.113 


Amorph. . . . 


18°-38° 


0.095 


Cerium . 


0°-100» 


0.045 


Silicon, cryst. 


- 185°-20° 


0.123 


Chlorine, liquid 


0°-24° 


0.226 




57° 


0.183 


Chromium 


-200° 


0.067 




232° 


. 203 




0° 


0.104 


Silver 


-186°- -79° 


0.496 




17°-100° 


0.110 




15°-100° 


0.056 




400° 


0.133 




427° 


0.059 


Cobalt 


-182°-15° 


0.082 


Sodium: Solid 


-185°-20° 


0.234 




15°- 100° 


0.103 


Solid 


10° 


0.297 




15°-630° 


0.123 


Liquid 


128° 


0.333 


Copper 


-192°-20° 


0.079S 


Sulphur: 








20°- 100° 


. 0930 


Rhombic . . . 


17°-45° 


0.163 




900° 


0.118 


Liquid 


119°-147° 


0.235 




Molten 


0.1318 


Tantalum.. . . 


-185°-20° 


0.033 


Didymium .... 


0°-100° 


0.046 




58° 


0.036 


Gallium, solid . 


12°-23° 


0.079 


Tellurium.. . . 


15°- 100° 


0.0483 


Liquid 


12°-119° 


0.080 


Thallium. . . . 


- 192°-20° 


0.0300 


Germanium . . . 


0°-100° 


0.074 




17°-100° 


0.0335 


Gold 


-185°-20° 


0.035 


Thorium .... 


0°-100° 


0.028 




18°-990° 
Molten 


0.0303 
. 0358 


Tin 


-186- -79° 
19°-99° 


. 0486 






0.0552 


Indium 


0°-100° 


0.057 




Molten 




Iodine 


9°-98° 


0.054 




240° 


0.064 




Vapor 


0.03489 


Titanium. . . . 


- 185°-20° 


0.082 


Iridium 


-186°- 18° 


0.0282 




0°-100° 


0.113 




18°- 100° 


0.0323 




0°-440° 


0.162 


Iron 


- 192°-20° 


0.089 


Tungsten .... 


-185°-20° 


0.036 




20°- 100° 


0.119 




20°- 100° 


0.034 




225° 


0.137 


Uranium 


0°-98° 


0.028 




0°-1100° 


0.153 


Vanadium. . . 


0°-100° 


0.115 




Molten 


0.25 


Zinc 


-233° 


0.0268 


Lanthanum . . . 


0°-100° 


0.045 




- 192°- 20° 


0.084 


Lead 


-253° 

- 192°-20° 


0.120 
0.0293 




20°- 100° 
300° 


0.093 




0.104 




1.5°-100° 


. 0.300 


Zirconium.. . . 


0°-100° 


0.068 



' See also the table on p. 201 . 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



203 



Specific Heats of Metals for t° Centigrade^ 

Aluminum . 2220 + . 00005< 

Antimony 0.04864 + 0.0000084i 

Beryllium . 3756 + . 00106< 

Boron 0.22 + 0.00035« 

Carbon (under 250°) 0.1567 +0.00036/ 

Carbon (250°-1000°) . 2142 + . 000166/ 

Carbon (above 1,000°) 0.5 - (120 -^ 

Nickel (up to 230°) . 10836 + . 00002233< 

Potassium . 1858 + . OOOOSi 

Silicon 0.17 + . 00009« 

Sodium 0.2932 +0.00019/ 

Titanium 0.978 +0.000147/ 

Zinc 0.0906 +0.000044/ 

Bismuth 0.0285 +0.00002/ 

Bromine 0.105 +0.0011/ 

Copper 0.0917 +0.000048/ 

Cadmium 0.0546 +0.000012/ 

Iridium 0.0317 +0.000006/ 

Lead 0.02925 +0.000019/ 

Palladium 0.0582 +0.00001/ 

Platinum . 0317 + . 000006/ 

Silver (to 400°) 0.555 +0.00000943/ 

Silver (over 400°) 0.5758 + 0.0000044/ 

+ 0.000000006/2 

Tin 0.0560 +0.000044/ 

Specific Heats of Chlorides 



Chlorides 



Formula 



Range 



Specific heat 



Ammonium chloride 
Arsenious chloride. . 

Barium chloride. . . . 
Calcium chloride. . . 
Chromium chloride. 
Cuprous chloride. . . 
Lead chloride 

Lithium chloride.. . . 
Magnesium chloride 
Manganese chloride. 
Mercurous chloride. 
Mercuric chloride... 
Potassium chloride.. 

Silver chloride 

Sodium chloride. . . . 
Strontium chloride.. 
Titanium chloride. . 

Tin (ous) 

(ic) 

Zinc chloride 



NHiCl 

AsCh (solids 

AsClaCgas) 

BaCh 

CaCh 

CrCh 

CusCh 

PbCh 

LiCl 

MgCh 

MnCh 

HgCl 

HgCU 

KCl 



23°-100'=' 
14°-98.3° 
159°-268° 
14°-98° 
23°-99° 



17°-98° . 
20°- 100° 
160°-380° 
13°-97° 
24°-100° 



AgCl 
NaCl 



SrCh 
TiCU (solid) 
TiCl4 (gas) 
SnCh 

SnCh (solid) 
SnCU (gas) 
ZnCh. 



7°-99° 
13°-98° 
14°-99° 

160°- 380° 
15°- 9 8° 
13°-98° 
13°-99° 

163°-271° 
20°-99° 
14°-98° 

149°-273° 
21°-99° 



0.3908 

. 0896 

0.1122 

0.0896 

0.1730 

0.1430 

0.1383 

0.06511 

0.707 / 

0.2821 

0.1946 

0.1425 

0.0521 

0.0689 

0.1730 

0.0978 

0.2140 

0.1199 

0.1881 

0.1290 

0.1016 

0.1476 

0.0939 

0.1362 



'J. W. Richards, "Metallurgical Calculations." 
' From Hofman's, "General Metallurgy." 



204 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Specific Heats of the Oxides' 



Oxide 



Beryllium oxide. . 

Boron oxide 

Antiiiionious oxide 
Alumina 



Alumina 

Arsenious oxide. 
Calcium oxide.. . 



Chromium oxide. 
Ferric oxide 



Ferroso-ferric oxide. 



Magnesium oxide 

Magnesium hydrate 

Manganese oxide 

Manganese sesquioxide.. 
Manganese sesquioxide, 

hydrated 

Manganese peroxide. . . . 

Nickel oxide 

Silica 



Mercuric oxide. . 
Molybdic oxide.. 

Lead oxide 

Bismuth oxide... 
Thoric oxide. . . . 

Tin oxide 

Titanic oxide.. . . 
Tungstic oxide. . 
Zirconium oxide. 
Zinc oxide 



Formula 



Cuprous oxide CujO 

Cupric oxide CuO 

Columbic oxide CbsOt 



BejOi 
BjO. 
SbjOj 
AUOs 

Al.Oi 
AssO. 
CaO 

CnO. 
FeiOi 

Fei04 

MgO 
MgCOmi 
MnO 
MnaO' 

MnjO'.HjO 
MnOi 
NiO 
SiOj 

HgO 

MoOi 

PbO 

Bi20i 

ThjOi 

SnOj 

TiOi 

WOi 

ZrOi 

ZnO 



Ferrous oxide. . . 
Potassium oxide. 
Sodium oxide. . . 
Lithium oxide.. . 



FeO 
KjO 
XasO 
LijO 



Range 


Specific heat 


0°-100° 


0.2471 


IG^-aS" 


. 2374 


18°- 100° 


0.0927 


0°-1200o 


0.2081 + 




0.0000876t 


above 2200° 


0.5935 


13°-97° 


0.1276 


0°-t° 


0.1715 + 




0.00007t 


lO'-OO" 


0.1796 


0°-t° 


0.1456 + 




0.000188* 


0°-t° 


0.1447 + 




0. 0001884 


24°-100<' 


0.2440 


19°- 50° 


0.312 


13°-98° 


0.157 


15°-99° 


0.162 


21°-52° 


0.1760 


17°-48° 


0.1590 


13°- 98° 


0.1588 


0°-1200° 


0.1833 + 




0. 000077* 


5°-98° 


0.0518 


21°-o2° 


0.1540 


22°-98° 


0.0512 


20°-98° 


0.0605 


0°-100 


0.0548 


16°-98° 


0.0936 


0°-200° 


0.1790 


8°-98° 


0.0798 


0°-100'' 


0.1076 


0°-1000° 


0.1212 + 




0. 00003 15« 


19°-51° 


0.1110 


12°-98° 


0.1420 


0°-l° 


0.1037 + 




. 00007( 




1460(a) 




0.1390(a) 




0.2250(n1 




0.4430(a) 



('j) Theoretical results, according to V'ogt. 

Specific Heats of Sulphates 



Sulphates 



Formula 



Range 



Specific 
heat 



Barium sulphate 

Calcium sulphate 

Copper sulphate 

Lead sulphate 

Magnesium sulphate. . . . 
Manganese sulphate. . . . 

Nickel sulphate 

Potassium acid sulphate. 

Potassium sulphate 

Sodium sulphate 

Strontium sulphate 

Zinc sulphate 



BaSOi 

CaSOi 

CuS04 

PbS04 

MgSOi 

MnS04 

NiS04 

HKSO4 



10°-98° 
13°-98° 
23°- 100° 
20°-99° 
25°- 100° 
21°-100° 
15°- 100° 
19°-51° 
15°-98° 
17°-98° 
22°-99° 
22°- 100° 



0.1128 
0.1965 
0.1840 
0.0827 
0.2250 
0.1820 
0.2160 
0.2440 
0.1901 
0.2312 
0.1428 
0.1740 



' J. W. Richards, "Metallurgical Calculations," Vol. II. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 
Specific Heats of Nitrates 



205 



Nitrates 



Formula 



Range 



Specific 
heat 



Ammonium nitrate XHiNOa 

Barium nitrate BafNOjIz 

Lead nitrate Pb(X03)2 

Potassium nitrate KN'Oj 

Silver nitrate ! AgNOs 

Sodium nitrate j XaNOj 

Strontium nitrate Sr(NOi)i 

Sodium-potassium nitrate | KNa(N03)j 

Sodium nitrate (fused) 1 N'aNOj (liquid) 

Potassium nitrate (fused) [ KXOj (liquid)- 



14°-31° 
13°-98° 
•ly-lOO" 
13°-98° 
16°-99° 
14°-98° 
17°-47° 
15°- 100° 
320°-430° 
350°-435° 



0.4550 
0.1523 
0.1173 
. 2387 
0.1435 
0.2782 
0.1810 
0.2350 
0.4130 
0.3319 



Specific Heats of Carbonates 



Carbonates 



Formula 



Range 



Specific 
beat 



Barium carbonate ; BaCOi 

Calcium carb. (calcite) ^ CaCO» 

Calcium carb. (aragonite) ; CaCOi 

Calcium carb. (marble) CaCOi 

Calcium-magnesium (dolomite). . I 

Iron (siderite) ! FeCOj 

Iron-magnesium 1 Mg7Fe2(COj)» 

Lead (cerussite) ' PbCOi 

Potassium carbonate I KjCOj 

Sodium carbonate ' XasCOj 

Strontium carbonate SrCOa 



11° 
20° 
18° 
23° 
20° 
. 9° 
20° 
16° 
23° 
16° 



'-99° 


0.1104 


-100° 


0.2086 


'-99° 


0.2085 


>-98° 


0.2099 


'-100° 


0.2179 


'-98° ■ 


0.1935 


'-100° 


0.2270 


'-47° 


0.0791 


'-99° 


0.2162 


'-98° 


0.2728 


'-98° 


0.1475 



Specific Heats of Chromates 



Chromates 



Formula 



Range 



Specific 
heat 



Lead chromate PbCrOi 

Iron chromate FeCrOi 

Potassium bichromate K2Cr!07 

Potassium chromate KjCrOi 



19°-50° 
19°-50° 
16°-98° 
19°-98° 



. 0900 
0.1590 
0.1894 
0.1851 



Specific Heats of Borates 



Borates 



Formula 



Range 



Specific 
heat 



Lead biborate 


PbBjOi 


15°-98° 
18°-99° 
16°-98° 
18°-99° 


0.905 


Lead tetraborate 

Potassium biborate 

Potassium tetraborate 


.... PbB.O: 

K5B2O4 

.... EjBjOt 


0.2198 
0.2048 
0.2198 



206 ME TALLURGISTS AND CHEMLSTS' HANDBOOK 
Specific Heats of Bromidf.s, Iodides and Fluoridks 



Bromides 



Lead bromide. 



Potassium bromide KBr 

Silver bromide AgBr 

Sodium bromide NaBr 

Cuprous iodide Cul 

Lead iodide. Pbli 

Mercurous iodide Hgl 

Mercuric iodide Hgli 

Potassium iodide KI 

Silver iodide Agl 

Sodium iodide Nal 

Clarium fluoride CaFj 

Sodiurii-aluniinum fluoride Naj.^lFj 



Formula Uange ^?,eat^'' 



PbBri 



16°-98'> 


0.0532 


190°-430'' 


0.0532 


16° -98° 


0.1132 


15°-98° 


0.0739 




0.1384 


20°- 99° 


0.0819 


14°-98° 


0.0427 


17°-99° 


0.0,395 


18°-99° 


0.0420 


20°-99° 


0.0819 


15°-264° 


. 577 


16°-99° 


0.0868 


1.5°- 99° 


0.2154 


16°-99° 


0.2522 



Specific Heats of Phosph.^tes 



Phosphates 



Formula 



Range 



Specific 
heat 



Calcium acid phosphate CaPiOe 

Calcium phospo-fluoride (apatite) SCasPiOsCaFi 

Lead, tribasic diphosphate PbjPiOs 

Lead pyrophosphate PbiPjO? 

Potassium pyrophosphate KiPjO? 

Silver phosphate AgaPOi 

Sodium pyrophosphate I NaiPiO? 



IS'-QS" 
1 5°-99» 
ll°-98° 
ll°-98° 
17°-98° 
19°-50° 
17°-98° 



0.1992 

0.1903 

0.0798 

0.821 

0.1901 

0.0898 

0.2283 



Specific He.vfs of Aluminates, Titanates, Etc. 



.•Muminates 



I'cirttiula 



Spinel 

ChrysoberyJ 

Ilmenite 

Wulfenite 

Scheelite 

Wolframite 

Potassium permanganate. 

Potassiun chlorate 

Glass 

Glass, flint 

Glass, crown 



MgAhOi 

BeAUOi 

FeTiOj 

PbMoOi 

CaWO« 

Fe(Mn)WO« 

KMn04 

KCiOs 

Ca.K.SiOj 



15°-47° 
0°-100° 
15°-50° 
15°-50° 
15°-50° 
15°-50° 
15°- 15° 
10°-100° 
14°-99° 
10°-50° 
10°-50° 



. 1940 

. 2004 

0.177 

0.083 

0.097 

0.098 

0.179 

0.210 

0.1977 

0.177 

O.lGl 



Compound Sulphides 



Sulpliidc- 



CuaFeSj 
PbCuSbSj 
CoAsS 
CuFeSi 
FeAsS.... 
AgsAsSi 
AgsSbSi 
Tetrahedrite CuiSbjS; 



Bornite 

Bournonite. . 
Cobaltite. . . . 
Chalcopyrite. 
.Mispickel. . . . 
Proustite, . . . 
Pyrargyrite. 



Formula 



10°- 100° 
10°- 100° 
15°-99° 
14°-98° 
10»-100» 
100-100° 
lOO-lOO" 
10°- 100° 



0.1177 
0.0730 
0.0991 
0.1310 
0.1030 
0.0807 
0.0757 
. 0987 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 

Specific Heats of Sulphides 



207 



Sulphides 



Formula 



I Range 



Specific 
heat 



Antimony sulphide. 
Arsenic sulphide. . . . 
Arsenic sulphide. . . . 
Bismuth sulphide. . 
Cobalt sulphide. . . . 
Copper sulphide. . . . 



Ferrous sulphide 

Iron sulphide 

Iron pyrites 

Lead sulphide 

Manganese sulphide. . . 

Mercury sulphide 

Molybdenum sulphide. 

Nickel sulphide 

Silver sulphide 



Zinc suluhide ZnS 

Stannous sulphide SnS 

Stannic sulphide j SnSj 




15°-98° 
13°-98° 
12°-95° 



. 0840 

0.1111 

0.1132 

. 0600 

0.1251 

0.1212 

0.1126 + 

0.000094 

0.1357 

0.1602 

0.1301 

0.0509 

0.1392 

0.0512 

0.1233 

0.1 2S1 

0.0746 

0.0685 + 

. 00005« 

0.1230 

0.0837 

0.1193 



Specific He.\ts of Arsenides and Antimonides 



Antimonides 



Formula 



Range 



Specific 
heat 



Domeykite CusAs 

Dyscrasite AgaSb 

Lollingite FeAsj 

Smaltite ; CoAss 



100-100° 
10°- 100° 

10°-100° 
10^-100= 



. 0949 
0.0558 
0.0864 
. 08.30 



Specific Heats of Silicates 



Silicates 



Formula 



Range 



Specific 
heat 



Aluminum silicate ftopaz) 

Al-calcium silicate (anorthite).. . 

Al-beryllium silicate (beryl) 

Al-potassium silicate (microcline) 
Al-potassium silicate (orthoclase) 
Calcium silicate (wollastonite).... 

Ca-magnesium silicate (diopside) 

Ca-magnesium silicate (mala- 
colite) 

Iron silicate (fayalite) 

Iron-aluminum (garnet) 

Magnesium silicate (enstatite).. 



Magnesium silicate (olivine) . 
Zirconium silicate (zircon) . . . 

Basalt 

Bessemer slag 

Granite 



AhSKFIOs 

CaAhSiaOa 

CaAl!Si208 

BeAhSi208 

KAlSisOs 

KAlSisOs 

CaSiOs 

CaSiOs 

CaMgSiiOt 

CaMgSiiOs 

CasMgSiiOij 

Ca3MgSi40i2 

Fe2Si04 

FesAhSisOi; 

MgSiOj 

MgSi03 

Mg2Si04 

ZrSi04 



12° 

0°- 

0° 

j 12°- 

20°- 

20°- 

0°- 

0°- 

I 0°- 

I 0° 

I 0°- 

I o°- 

! 16°- 

0° 

0°- 

0° 

15° 

20° 

14° 

20° 



-100° 

■100° 

-1200° 

-100° 

-100° 

-100° 

-100° 

-1200° 

-100° 

-1200° 

-100° 

-1200° 

-100° 

-100° 

-100° 

-1200° 

-100° 

-100° 

-470° 

-99° 

-524° 



0.1997 

0.189 

0.294 

0.2066 

0.197 

0.1877 

0.179 

0.288 

0.194 

0.281 

0.186 

0.264 

0.170 

0.1758 

0.206 

0.301 

0.2200 

0.1456 

0.1990 

0.1691 

0.2290 



208 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Specific Hkat of Wateu^ 

(Defining specific heat at 0° to 1°C. as unity) 



TemrKjra- 

ture, 

deg. F. 


Specific 
neat 


Tempera- 
ture, 
deg. F. 


Specific 
heat 


Tempera- 
ture, 
deg. F. 


Specific 
heat 


32 


1.0000 


176 


1.0089 


320 


1.0294 


50 


1.0005 


194 


1.0109 


338 


1.0328 


68 


1.0012 


212 


1.0130 


356 


1.0364 


86 


1.0020 


230 


1.0153 


374 


1.0407 


104 


1.0030 


248 


1.0177 


392 


1.0440 


122 


1.0042 


266 


1.0204 


410 


1.0481 


140 


1.0056 


284 


1.0232 


428 


1.0524 


158 


1.0072 


302 


1.0262 


446 


1.0568 



Specific Heat of Water 

(Defining specific heat at 16° to 17° as unity^i 



Tempera- 
ture, 
deg. C. 


Specific 
heat 


Thermal 
capacity, 
0° - t° 


Tem- 
perature, 
deg. C. 


Specific 
neat 


Tlicrmal 

capacity, 

0°-.° 





1.00940 


0.00000 


25 


0.99806 


25.05131 


1 


1.00855 


1.00898 


26 


0.99795 


26.04932 


2 


1.00770 


2.01710 


27 


0.99784 


27.04720 


3 


1.00690 


3.02440 


28 


0.99774 


28.04499 


4 


1.00610 


4.03090 


29 


0.99766 


29.04269 


5 


1.00530 


5.03660 


30 


0.99759 


30.04031 


6 


1.00450 


6.04150 


31 


0.99752 


31.03786 


7 


1 . 00390 


7.04570 


32 


0.99747 


32.03536 


8 


1.00330 


8.04930 


33 


0.99742 


33.03280 


9 


1.00276 


9.05233 


34 


0.99738 


34.03020 


10 


1.00230 


10.05486 


35 


0.99735 


35.02757 


11 


1.00185 


11.0.5694 


36 


0.99733 


36.02491 


12 


1.00143 


12.05858 


37 


0.99732 


37.02224 


13 


1.00100 


13.05980 


38 


. 99732 


38.01956 


14 


1.00064 


14.06062 


39 


0.99733 


39.01689 


15 


1.00030 


15.06109 


40 


0.99735 


40.01422 


16 


1.00000 


16.06124 


41 


0.99738 


41.01159 


17 


0.99970 


17.06109 


42 


0.99743 


42.00899 


18 


0.99941 


18.06064 


43 


0.99748 


43.00644 


19 


0.99918 


19.05994 


44 


0.99753 


44.00395 


20 


0.99895 


20.05900 


45 


0.99760 


45.00152 


21 


0.99872 


21.05783 


46 


0.99767 


45.99916 


22 


0.99853 


22.05645 


47 


0.99774 


46.99686 


23 


0.99836 


23.05490 


48 


0.99781 


47.99464 


24 


0.99820 


24.05318 


49 


0.99790 


48.99250 


25 


0.99806 


25.05131 


50 


. 99800 


49.99045 



» From "The Petroleum Year Book, 1914. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 

Mean Specific Heats of Gases 



209 




Air. 20°C 

Ammonia 

Bromine, 19°-388° 

Carbon dioxide, 0° 

Carbon disulphide, 86°-190 

Carbon monoxide, 23°-99° 

Chlorine 

Hydrogen 

Methane 

Nitrogen, 0°C 

Nitrous oxide 

Oxygen 

Sulphur dioxide 

Water 

Hydrochloric acid 

Acetylene 

Argon, 20°-90°C 
Iodine, 206°-377°C 
Nitric oxide, 13°-172' 
Nitrogen peroxide, 27°-6 
Sulphuretted hydrogen, 20° -206' 

Ethane 

Ethylene 

Benzene, 34°-115°. . . 
Turpentine, 179°-249 



MoLECrLAR Specific Heats (Le-n-is & Randall) 

These are the ordinary specific heats multiplied by the molecular weight of 

the gas 
N2, O2, HCl. HBr, HI, Cp = 6.5 + O.OOlOf 
Hj Cp = 6.5 + 0.0009(. 

CU. Brj, I2, Cp = 6.65 + 0.004r 
HjO, HjS Cp = 8.81 + 0.0019/ + 0.0000222^ 
CO2, SO2 Cp = 7.0 + O.OOnt + 0. 0000018/2 

Specific Heat of Gases^ 

(Calories per gram of gas at /°C. (absolute temperature = t + 273)) 



According to 
Richards 



According to 
Damour 



Nitrogen (to 2000X.) . 2-105 + . 0000214* 

Nitrogen (2000°-4000°C.) ... . 2044 + . 000057/ 

Oxygen (to 2000°C.) | 0.2104 + 0.0000187/ 

Oxygen (2000°-4000°C.) j . 1788 + . 00005/ 

Water vapor I 0.42 + 0.000185/ 

Carbon dioxide '0.19 + 0.00011/ 

Sulphur dioxide 0.125 + 0.0001/ 

Carbon monoxide 0.2405 + 0.0000214/ 

Hydrogen I 3 . 37 + . 0003/ 

Methane i 

Hydrogen (2000°-4000°C.) . . 2.75 +0.0008/ 



0.2438 + 0. 00002 14t 



0.2135 + 0.0000187« 



0.447 +0.000162/ 
0.194 +0.000084/ 



0.2438 + 0.0000214/ 
3.412 +0.000300/ 
0.381 +0.0000234/ 



> Somebm£ier's "Coal." 
14 



210 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Table op Mean Specific Heats 

Calories per gram of gas 





Rid 


ards 


Damour 


Lewis & Randell 




©"-SOO" 


0°-1000° 


O'-SOO" 


0°-1000° 


O'-SOO" 


O'-IOOO" 


Nitrogen 


0.247 


0.262 


0.250 


0.265 


0.247 


. 259 


Oxygen 


0.216 


0.229 


0.219 


0.232 


0.216 


0.227 


Carbon di- 














oxide 


0.223 


0.300 


0.219 


0.27S 


0.219 


0.248 


Water vapor. 


0.476 


0.605 


0.497 


0.610 


0.469 


0.512 


Carbon mon- 














oxide 


0.247 


0.262 


0.250 


0.265 


0.247 


0.260 


Air 


0.240 


0.257 


0.247 


0.258 


0.240 


0.252 


Sulphur di- 
















0.155 
3.460 


0.225 
3.670 






0.150 
3.41 


170 


Hydrogen.. . . 


3.502 


3.712 


3.57 








. 723 


0.986 












1 



Specific Heat of G.^sk.s, By Volume* 



Cal. per eu. m. of 
gas, per deg. C. 



Lb.-cal. per cu. ft. 
of gas, per deg. C. 



Nitrogen 

Water vapor 

Carbon dioxide. . . 
Carbon monoxide. 
Sulphur dioxide. . . 

Hydrogen 

Hydrogen (2000''-4000'') . 



. 303 -f . 000027« 
. 34 + . 00030/ 
0.37 + . 00044< 
0.2575 + 0.000072/ 
0.444 -1- . 00054/ 
. 303 + . 000027/ 
0.2575 + 0.000072/ 



0.0189 -I- 0.0000017/ 



Oxygen ' 0.303 + 0.000027/ 



0.0189 + 0.0000017/ 
0.0161 + 0.000004 5/ 
0.0189 + 0.0000017/ 



Total Heat Contained at Melting Point of Metals' 

The heat is expressed in calories necessary to heat 1 gram 
of the metal to its melting point from 0°C. The latent heat 
of fusion is then the difference between the heat in the solid and 
that in the liquid phases. 



Flon.onf Melting Heat in Heat in Latent heat 
i^iemeni ^^.^^^^ ^^U^ ,j^^jj ^^ ^^^j^^ 


Aluminum 

Alumina 

Antimony 

Bismuth 

Cadmium 

Gofr.: :::::: 


625.0 
2200 . 
632.0 
267.0 
321.7 
1085.0 


158.3 

882.0 
34.1 
9.0 
18.81 

117.0 
34 . 03 

.300.0 
11.6 
64.8 
75.2 
14.34 
45.2 


258.3 

933.0 
74.3 
21.0 
31.83 

162.0 
50.93 

369.0 
15.6 
89.15 

102.4 
28.16 
67 8 


100.0 
51.0 
40.2 
12.0 
13.02 
45.0 
16.3 


Iron 


1450.0 
326.0 
962.0 

1775.0° 


69.0 


]>ead 


4.0 


Palladium 

Platinum 

Tin 


24.35 

27.2 

13.82 


Zinc 


420.0 


22.6 









' J. \V. RicH.\RD3, " .Metallurgical Calculations." 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



211 



Total Heat Contained in Certain Silicates when 
Melted^ 



W.S 



Magnesium silicate (olivine) 

Magnesium silicate (enstatitel 

Potass. -alum, silicate (microcline).. 
Potass. -alum, silicate (orthoclase'> . . 
Calc.-alum. silicate (anorthite). . . . 
Calcium silicate (wollastonitel . . . . 
Calc.-magnes. silicate (malacolite) . 
Calc.-magnes. silicate (diopside) . . . 

Iron silicate (fayalite) 

Iron-alum, silicate (garnet) 



MgzSiOi 

MgSi03 

KAlSiaOs • 

KAlSisOe 

CaAl2Si208 

CaSiOs 

Ca3lMgSi40i 

CaMgSi206 

Fe2Si04 

Fe3Al2Si30i2 



1400° 


520 


650 


1300° 


403 


528 


1170° 
1200° 
1220° 










358 


458 


1250° 


360 


460 


1200° 


319 


413 


1225° 


344 


444 


1040° 


310 


395 


1145° 













130 
125 

83 
100 
100 
100 

94 
100 

85 



In general, the specific heat of a slag (silicate) maj' be cal- 
culated as the mean of the specific heat of the constituents, 
but a quick approximation is to take it at any temperature as 
being 

So(l + 0.000780 
and over any range of temperature as being 
Si(l + 0.00039[/i - ti]) 
where So is specific heat at 0° and Si is specific heat at ii. 

Solubility of Salts at 10°C. and Boiling^ 



One part requires for solution 



Cold water Hot water 



Aluminum sulphate ( + I8H2O) . 
Ammonium alum (-I-I2H2O) . . . 

Ammonium carbonate 

Ammonium chloride 

Ammonium chlorplatinate 

Ammonium nitrate 

Ammonium oxalate 

Ammonium sulphate 

Barium chloride ( +2H2O) 

Barium hydrate ( -|-8Aq) 

Barium nitrate 

Boric acid 

Bromine 

Cadmium chloride 

Calcium carbonate 

Calcium chloride (fused) 

Calcium hydroxide 

Calcium nitrate 

Calcium oxide 

Calcium sulphate (-I-2H2O) 

Chromic acid (CrOa) 

Chromic sulphate ( + I8H2O). . . 
Cobaltous sulphate ( + 5H20). . 
Copper sulphate ( + 5H2O) 



1.052 
10.92 
4.0 
3.04 
150.0 
0.54 
22.22 
1.358 
3.00 
21.32 
12.50 
51.3(0°) 
30.0 
1.08 
Insoluble 

1.667 
600.0 
1.07(0°) 
750.0 
3.86(18°) 
0.607 
0.833(20°) 
2.9(20°) 
2.7 



0.088 
0.24 
1.5 
1.37 
80.0 
0.19 
2.45 
1.026 
1.66 
0.02 
3.11 
2 94 
31.9(30°) 
0.75 



0.649 



0.28(152°) 
1500.0 
451.0 



0.49 



' The table is compiled from Richard's "Metallurgical Calculations." 
2 Cremer and Bicknell's "Chemical and Metallurgical Handbook." 

For other tables of solubility see the table of "Properties of Compounds," 

p. 210, and "Properties of Precipitates," p. 344. 



212 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Solubility of Salts at 10°C. and Boiling. Continued 



< 'no part requires for solution 



Cold water Hot water 



Copper acetate 

Copper nitrate 

Ferrous chloride (H-4H20) 

Ferric chloride 

Ferrous sulphate ( + 7HiO) 

Lead acetate ( + 3HiO). . . • 

Lead chloride 

Lead nitrate 

Lead sulphate 

Lithium chloride 

Magnesium carbonate ( + 3HsO) 

Magnesium chloride ( + 6H20) 

Magnesium oxide 

Magnesium sulphate crystals 

Manganous chloride. 

Manganous sulphate (-|-4HiO) 

Mercuric chloride . . 

Oxalic acid 

Potassium bitartrate 

Potassium alum ( + 12HiO) 

Potassium bicarbonate 

Potassium bichromate 

Potassium bromide 

Potassium carbonate 

Potassium chlorplatinate 

Potassium chlorate 

Potassium chloride 

Potassium chromate 

Potassium cyanide 

Potassium ferricyanide 

Potassium ferrocyanide 

Potassium hydrate 

Potassium iodide 

Potassium nitrate 

Potassium oxalate (acid) 

Potassium permanganate 

Potassium sulphate 

Potassium sulphite ; 

Potassium bitartrate 

Silver nitrate 

Sodium acetate (+3HjO) 

Sodium bicarbonate 

Sodium bisulphate 

Sodium borate 

Sodium bromide 

Sodium carbonate ( + 10HjO) 

Sodium chlorate 

Sodium chloride 

Sodium hydrate 

Sodium hj'posulphite ( + 5HiO) 

Sodium nitrate 

Sodium acid phosphate (N'ajHPOi 12HiO) 

Sodium sulphate ( + IOH2O) 

Sodium sulphite 

Strontium chloride 

Strontium hydrate (+8H1O) 

Strontium nitrate 

Stannous chloride 

Tartaric acid 

Zinc chloride ( + 2HiO) 

Zinc sulphate (+7HiO) 



14.28 


5.05 


0.78 




0.68 




0.63 


0.18 


1.64 


0.27 


1.00(40°) 


0.5 


105.0 


20.0 


2.07 


0.72 


12,500 




1.24 


0.7 


552(16°) 




0.6 


0.27 


50,000 




3.17 


1.25 


1.61 


0.81 


0.79 


1.07 


15.22 


1.85 


8.69 


1.00 


244.0 


16.4 


10.50 


0.28 


3.0 




10.0 


1.06 


1.76 


0.98 


0.91 


0.64 


89.3(20°) 


19.3 


16.58 


1.66 


3.13 


1.77 


1.64 


1.22 


0.82 




2.73 


1.29 


3.4(15°) 


1.1 


0.50 




0.7(20°) 


0.5 


4.74 


0.4 


40.0 


10.0 


16.0(16°) 




10.31 


3.82 


1.00 




250.0 


9.52 


0.4(19°) 


0.09 


4.0(6°) 


1.7(48°) 


10.0 




3.5 




21.5 


1.82 


1.13 


0.87 


1.61 


0.4(30°) 


1.0(20°) 


0.49 


2.78 


2.53 


1.64 




0.6 




1 . 14(20°) 


0.56 


6.7(15°) 


0.4 


4.34 


0.32(33)° 


4.00 


1.00 


2.07 


0.98, 


55.5(20°) 


2.1 


1.82 


0.99 


0.37 




1.31 


0.50 


0.25(15°) 
0.72 




0.15 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



213 



Solubilities of Solids in Water 

S = number of grams of anhydrous substance which when 
dis.solved in 100 grams of water make a saturated solu- 
tion at the temperature stated. 

p = number of grams of anhydrous substance per 100 gram^ 
of saturated solution. 



Substance 



0°C. i 10 



15 



80 



100 



Am. chlor., NH4CI, S.. . 
Barium chlor., 

BaClr2H20,S 

Barium hydrate, 

Ba(OH)2-SH20. S.... 
Bromine (Hquid),' Br., S 
Cadmium sulphate, 

CdS04-?sH20, S 

Calcium hydrate, 

Cai.OH)j,S 

Copper sulphate, 

CuS04oH:0,S 

Lithium carbonate, 

Li2COs, 5 

Mercuric chloride, 

HgCh, p 

Potass, chloride, KCl, S 
Potass, bromide, KBr, S 
Potass, iodide, KI, S. . . 
Potass, hvdrate, 

KOH-2H20, S 

Potass, nitrate, KNO3.S 
Silver nitrate, AgXOa, S 
Sodium carbonate, 

NaaCOslOHjO, S.... 
Sodium chloride, 

NaCl, S 

Sodium sulphate 

KajSOi-lGHiO, S 

Strontium chloride, 

SrCl2-6H20, S 



29.4 

31.6 

1.67 
4.17 

76.5 

0.185 

14.3 

1.54 

! 

3.50 ' 
27.6 
53.5 , 
127.5 



33.3 

33.3 

2.48 
3.74 

76.0 

0.176 

17.4 

1.43 ! 

4.50 
31.0 

59.5 ; 

136.0 



35.2 

34.5 

3.23 
3.65 

76.3 

0.170 

18.8 

1.38 

5.00 ' 

32.4 I 

62.5 ; 
140.0 



37.2 

35.7 

3.89 
3.58 

76.6 

0.165 

20.7 

1.33 ! 

5.40 
34.0 , 
65.2 
144.0 



97.0 
13.3 
122.0 


103.0 

20.9 

170.0 


107.0 

25.8 

196.0 


112.0 

32.0 

222.0 


7.0 


12.5 


16.4 


21.5 


35.7 


35.8 


35.9 


36.0 


5.0 


9.0 


13.4 


19.4 


43.0 


48.0 


50.0 


53.0 



45.8 

40.7 

8.22 
3.45 

78.5 

0.141 

28.5 

1.17 

9.30 
40.0 
75.5 
160.0 
I 
138.0S 
64.0 i 
376.0 



55.2 65.6 



46.4 
20.94 



83.7 



52.4 
101.4 



77.3 
58.8 



70.2J 160.77' 



0.116 0.094 0.077 



40.0 

1.01 

14.0 
45. 5 
85.5 
176.0 



75.0 



0.850 0.720 

23.1 38.0 
51.1 56.7 
95.0 104.0 
192.0 208.0 



...il78.0» 
110.0 169.0 246.0 
525.0 669.0 952.0 

I I 

46.0<,45.8< 45. 5« 



46.1* 

I 
36.6 I37.O 38.0 

49.0* 

65.0 



45.05 
82.0 



44.05 
91. 0« 



39.0 
42. OS 
101. 0« 



The above formulas are those of the solid phases that are in 
equilibrium with the solution. The figures are from Seidell's 
"Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Substances." D. Van 
Nostrand Co., New York. 



• Very soluble in ammonium-acetate solution. 

' SoUd phase becomes CdSOi-HiO at 74°. 

» Becomes KOH-32H20 at 32.5° and K0H-H20 at 50^ 

« Becomes Xa2C03-H20 at 35°. 

» Becomes Xa2S04 at 32.38°. 

« Becomes SrClr2H20 at 70°. 



214 METALLURGISTS AND ClIEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Solvents for Metals 

Gold Aqua regia. 

Platinum Aqua regia. 

Silver HXO3. boiling H2SO4. 

Lead HN'Oa, boiling concen. HjSO* slightly. 

Mercurv HNO3, boiling H2SO4. 

Bismuth HXO3. 

Copper HNO3. 

Cadmium HXO3. 

Arsenic Aqua regia, HNO3 to oxide. 

Antimony Aqua regia, HXO3 to oxide. 

Tin HCl, HXO3 to oxide. 

Iron HCl, dilute H2SO4, not bv cone 

Aluminum HCl, HNO3, HjSO*, alkalis. 

Nickel HXO3 

Cobalt HXO, 

Manganese HCl. 

Zinc HCl, HXO,, H2SO4, alkalis. 

Tungsten HXO, containing HF; fused KXO2 

In Dilute Solution (Fifth Normal or More Dilute)' 

1. Copper is acted upon by cold dilute hydrochloric acid to a 
much greater extent than by sulphuric or nitric acids. Each of 
the last-named acids attacks the metal to about the same extent. 

2. Aluminium is slowly attacked by dilute nitric acid and 
sulphuric acid. 

3. Lead is more rapidly attacked by hydrochloric acid than 
bj' sulphuric acid, the action of the latter acid being negligible. 

4. Tin is soluble in caustic soda and in sodium carbonate 
solution, but not in ammonia. 

Action of Acetylene upon Metals {Chem. Zeii., 1915, 89, 42). 
— In acetylene installations explosions have sometimes occurred 
which have been attributed to the formation of explosive com- 
pounds of acetylene with the metal of the fittings. In a series 
of experiments it was found that pure dry acetylene in contact 
for 20 months with the following metals had no action upon 
them: zinc, tin, lead, iron, copper, nickel, brass, German silver, 
phosphor bronze, aluminum bronze, tj'pe metal, solder. With 
pure moist acetj'lene nickel and copper were both attacked. 
Unpurified moist gas, as obtained in the ordinary way from com- 
mercial carbide, had no appreciable action on tin, German silver, 
aluminum bronze, type metal or solder, but hadadi-stinctaction 
on zinc, lead, brass, much more on iron and bronze, and still 
more on phosphor bronze, while the action on copper was very 
rapid; but it is stated that in no case were explosive substances 
produced. It is recommended that metal fittings used in con- 
nection with acetylene should be coated with nickel or tin. 

' A. J. Hale and H. S- Foster, Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind., May 15, 1915. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 
Solubility of Air in Water • 



215 



1000 cc. of water saturated with air at 760 mm. pressure 
contain the following volumes of dissolved gas (calculated to 
volume at 0°C. and 760 mm.). 



Temperature of water 



10° 15° I 20° j 25° , 30° 



Oxygen, cc 10.19 

Nitrogen, argon, etc 19.0 

Sum of above, cc 29 . 2 

Per cent, oxygen in dissolved air (by ; 
volume) '34 . 9 



8.9| 7.9 7.0 6.4 5.81 5.3 
16.8 15.0 13.5 12.3'll.3ll0.4 
25. 7 22. 8 20. 5' 18. 7 17.1 15. 7 

I I I I 

34.7 34.534.2 34.0 33.8 33.6 



Solubility of Sulphur Dioxide ix Water 

(760 mm. pressure') 



Temperature of water, deg. C. ■ 
SO-2, per cent, dissolved 



20 I 30 j 40 I 50 I 60 70 j 80 90 100 
5.6 17.4 6.1 [4.9 3.7 |2.6 jl.7 |o.9 0.0 



Solubility of Gases in W.\ter 

(760 mm. pressure') 



Volumes, Volumes, , Volumes, , Volumes, 
0°C. : 15°C. j 30°C. 60°C. 



Oxygen 

Nitrogen 

Carbon monoxide. 
Carbon dioxide. . . 



. 0489 
0.02388 
0.03537 
1.713 



Ammonia 11300.0 



Argon. . . 
Chlorine. 
Helium. . 



0.058 



Hydrogen 

Hydrochloric acid 

Nitrous oxide 

Nitric oxide 

Sulphuretted hydrogen. 

Sulphur dioxide 

Acetylene 

Hydrobromic acid 

Air 

Bromine 



0.0150 
0.0215 
506.0 




0.03415 
0.01686 
I 0.02543 
1.019 

802.0 

0.041 
i 2.63 
j 0.0139 

I 0.0188 

458.0 
0.74 
0.0515 
3.05 

47.3 

1.15 
581.0 
. 02045 
28.4 



0.019 
0.0100 
0.015 
0.36 




In the majority of the above cases the gases are in equilibrium with the 
water at 760° mm. pressure. 

' K.^YE and L.*.by's "Chemical and Physical Constants." 
- Hofman's "General Metallurgy." 
* Compiled from various authorities. 



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PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



229 






a C.C,-, o, 

O O O O « OQ O 

o o o c o 

a c u o "^ 

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= o - • • £- • 

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rt .. (Ort Ti.O_00 OO OOOmgOto 

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ppp 



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t^ in t>i >~ d 



woo>c 

MO?! 



tcooocorocoot- loot^-T-H rocowooooo — c^it-h-xootj-o 

t^t^ffiOOXOOOiN .-i.-io:0 Oi-HO-HOTj'Tt-— oocr. OOOOCIO 

i-< t^ 00 — (^ in ceo 0!>jC!-si ooM-!»<oooooojooo— iinoNacooe^i 

CC ^ rt — . -* o(N t^ coooo ~ ' ' ' ' '' ' ' 



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IS 



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230 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



O 



a -:^S 



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■: 




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r 




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c. 






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PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



231 





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•0 E KM 








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232 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



i> 
d 
jt 

B 

C 

o 

3! 

n, 
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r. 


00 

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Mole- 
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weight 
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-Ph^~^^'-'-hh^-h""h'-'^55^'^ ^«w«w 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



233 



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5^^ 5 

OaShS-^ 00 01 OQ a 


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8 
8 


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234 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Magnetic Susceptibilities of the Elements' 



H 



= magnetic force. 
= intensity of magnetization. 
= magnetic moment per cm.' 
= pole strengtli per cm.* 
= magnetic induction, or flux den- 
sity = h + 4jr/. 
= permeability = B'h. 

= susceptivity = I /h = — 



1 B, h and / are in lines 
I per cm.* and are vector 
> quantities. 
I Unit :4Tlinesstart from 
J a unit magnetic pole. 



Coercivity, hB=0, is the demagnetizing force required to make 
B = after saturation. 

Coercive force is the demagnetizing force required to make 
5=0 after some particular field strength. 

Remanence, Bjj^q, is the induction remaining when the mag- 
netizing force is removed after saturation. 

The work done, i.e., hysteresis loss, Qe, in taking a cm.' of 
magnetic material through a magnetic cycle between the limits 



+ H, and - H, = 



X+H. r+H. 

hfll = H'T I hdB. 
H, J-H, 



Steixmetz's empirical formula for the hysteresis loss is 
ijB]^ where r? is a constant and -n = 1.6 (usually). The 
magnetic properties of a material depend not only on its chem- 
ical composition, but on its previous mechanical and heat 
treatment; thus only general characteristics are indicated 
below. 

Good permanent magnet steel contains about 0.5 per cent. 
W and 0.6 per cent. C. Cast iron, chilled from 1000°C., may 
also be used, but the results will never be so good as with steel. 
The Heusler alloys (Cu, Mn, Al| are remarkable in showing 
high magnetism when the components do not. With an alloy 
of 96.69c Fo and 3.4 Si (Yensen's alloy), the permeability rises 
to over 60,000 when the alloy is annealed at 1100°C. 

PkILMEABILITV yu 



Material 


h = 0.5 

i 


h = 1 


h = b 


h = 20 


^1 = 60 


h = 150 

1 


Swedish wrought iron... . 

.\nnealed cast steel 

L'nannealed cast steel... . 


2500 

1450 

490 


3710 

3500 

970 


2060 

2100 

1700 

81 

68' 

80> 


736 
747 
680 
182 
78 
119 


274 
280 
270 
117 
193 
204 


120 

123 

122 

65 






1 100 


Magnet steel ^['^;;^n^^«:- •;•:;; 




I 100 











The figures given are only roughly comparative and can only be used as a 
general working guide. I f exact results on particular speciinens are wanted, 
laboratory determinations are necessary. 



' K.\YE and Labv, 
' .\t A = 15. 
» At A = 10. 



Physical and Chemical Constanta." 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



235 



Material 


Coerc- 
ivity 


Rema- 
nence 


H, 


Hysteresis 
loss Qe, 
ergs/cm.' 




0.8 

0.97 

2.08 

11.9 

52.6 

27.5 


4,000 
7,100 
9,000 
4,230 
11,700 
9,880 


200 
151 
156 


6,700 




11,700 




20.400 




155 1 .^4.300 


Magnetsteel{hard-«d....... 


234 
505 


211,000 
116.000 



The figures given are only roughly comparative and can only be used as a 
general working guide. If exact results on particular specimens are wanted, 
laboratory determinations are necessarj'. 







Induction, B, 
for 


limaz 


For hmc 


X 


Material hmaz 


hmaz JQO 

1 


Coer. 


Reman. 


Hyst. 

loss, 
ergs/ 

cm.' 


Mild steel 


i i 
129 1 18.190 17.7001 8.350 


0.6 
56.0 

72.0 

85.0 
85.0 

2.21 

1.6> 

1.2' 

18.0 
2.5 

'8!6' 
12.0 


10,300 
6,400= 

7,000= 

4,7002 
6,700 

53% 

Bn,az 

43% 

Bmaz 

39% 

10,000 
12,500 


4,900 


Steel, 2.8 % Cr, 0.8 % C. 










Steel, 5.5% W,0.6% C; 
hardened at 770°. . . . 


.... 








280,000 


Steel, 7.7% W, 1.9% C; 
hardened at 800° . . . 












Steel, 4% Mo, 1.2% C; 












hardened at 800° 
Iron 


'so" 

55 
56 
210 


17,100 
16,000 
15,100 
21 2.=;o 




1.750 
1,900 
2,500 




Silicon iron, 0.6% Si, 
Silicon iron, 4.5% Si, 







Electrolytic iron heated 




16,666 




to 1200° C. 






1.3-1.5 
296 

174 
177 


Small 
3,570 
3.400 




Nickel, annealed 

Cobalt 

Cobalt, 96 % ... 


100 ; 5,i37i 

140 '10,000 9.500 
114 i 8,237 7,800 


i9,6ob 


Heusler alloy* 


92 2.7.'^.T 115 





















The figures given are only roughly comparative and can only be used as a 
general working guide. If exact results on particular specimens are wanted, 
laboratory determinations are necessary. 



U = I/h = 



1 



H = for a vacuum. 



The susceptibility depends very much upon the purity of the 
material, especially upon the absence of iron. It appears to be 
a periodic property of the atomic weight. 

' H = 10. 

* Bar magnet. 

' 12 per cent. Mn, 1 per cent. C. 
« Mn 24, Al 16, Cu 60. 

An alloy of iron and boron FeiB is highly magnetic, as is also MnB (16.66 
per cent. B). "Trans. VIII Int. Cong. App. Chem." 



23r) METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Elcm. 
solids 


// X 10 -• 


Elem. 
solids 


H X 10-« 


Elcni. 
solids 


// X 10 • 


Al« 


+ 0.65 


P 


- 0.9 


U 


+ 0.9> 


Sb 


- 0.95 

- 0.31 

- 1.4 

- 0.71 


Pt 

K 

Rh 

Ru 


+ 1.32 
+ 0.4 
+ 1.1 
+ 0.56 


V 


+ 1.5 


As 


Zn 


- 0.15 


Bi 


Zr 


- 0.45 


B 


Liquids: 




Cd 


- 0.17 

+ 3.7 
+ 1.3(?) 


Se 

Si 

Ag 


- 0.32 

- 0.12 

- 0.2 


Br 


- 0.41 


Cr 


Hg 


- 0.19 


Cb 


N (liq.) 


+ 0.28 


Cu 


- 0.087 


Na 


+ 0.51 


O (liq.) 


+ 0.324 


Au 


- 0.15 


S 


- 0.5 


HiO (15°)... 


- 0.80 


I 


- 0.36 


Ta 


+ 0.93 


Gases: 




Ir 


4- 0.15 


Te 


- 0.32 


Air (16').... 


+ 0.032 


Fe 


see p. 229 


Tl 


- 0.31 


A 


- 0.010 


Pb 


- 0.12 


Th 


+ 1.8 


He 


- 0.002 


Mg 


+ 0.55 


Sn 


+ 0.025 


H 


- 0.008 


Mn 


+ 10. 6(?) 


Ti 


+ 2.0' 


N 


+ 0.024 


Mo 


+ 0.04(?) 


W 


+ 0.33 


O 


+ 0.123 



The figures given are only roughly comparative and can only be used as a 
general working guide. If exact results on particular specimens are wanted, 
laboratory determinations are necessary. 

There is a critical temperature above which magnetic per- 
meability is very small; in the case of iron it is one of the recal- 
escence temperatures. The critical temperature is not perfectly 
definite, but depends upon whether the material is being heated 
or cooled. 

Fe, 690-895°C.; Ni, 95 per cent., 300-377°C.; magnetite, 
5S2''C.; magnetite, 582°C.; Heusler allovs, about 300°C. ; Co, 
1102°C.; Cu, 72°C.; Zn, 300-350°C., possibly also at 170°C.; 
Sn, 18° and 161°C.; Cd, 64.9°C. 

Electromagnetic Separation 

M.\GNETIC PERME.\niLITY 



Iron 

Magnetite 

Spathic iron ore. . . 
Hematite 


100,000 
40,000 
767 
714 
593 
296 


Oxide of manganese,. . 
Black oxide of nickel. . . 
Manganese sulphate.... 

Ferrous sulphate 

Nickelous oxide 


167 
106 
100 

78 


Oolitic iron ore. . . . 
Limonite 


35 



The figures given are only roughly comparative and can only be used as a 
general working guide. I f exact results on particular specimena are wanted, 
laboratory determinations are necessary. 

Magnetic Permeability (in descending scale). 

Faraday's arrangement. 

Paramagnetic : Fe, Xi, Co, Mn, Cr, Ti, Pd, Pt, Os. 

Diamagnetic: Bi, Sb, Zn, Sn, Cd, Hg, Pb, Ag, Cu, As, U, Ir, W. 

Iron = 2000; air = 1; Bi = 0.998. 

' .\pproximate only. 

' Probably this paramagnetism is due to contained iron, for the more 
nearly chemically pure Al becomes the less its magnetism. This value is 
given by Honda, Annalen der Phyaik, 1910, p. 1045. 



PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 



237 



Action of the Wetherill Magnet on Minerals Found 

IN Placer Sands, Together with Their Specific 

Gravity^ 



Non-magnetic 


Sp. gr. 


Separated by 
current of Vi 
amp. or less 


Separated by 

current of 2 

amp. 


Separated by 

current of 3J.4 

amp. 


Mineral: 


22.0 

19.0 

15.6-19.3 

14-19 

14.0 

13.5 

11.0 

8.1 

7.5 

7.2- 7.5 
7.0 
6.0 
6.0 

5.3- 7.3 
5.0 
4.8 
4.7 

4.3- 4.6 

4.0 
3.6 
3.5 
3.5 

3.25 

3.2 

3.1 

2.7 















Gold 








Platinum 


Platinum' 


Platinum' 


Platinum' 


Mercury 
































Cast iron 7.5 
Josephinite 7 














Hematite 5 


















Pyrite 

Molybdenite. . . 


Magnetite 5.2 


Ilmenite 5 


Monazite 5 








Barite 




Chromite 4.3- 
4.6 
Rutile 4.2 
Limonite 4 

Garnet 3-4 

Pyroxene 3.2- 

3.6 

Epidote 3.5 

Titanite 3.5 










Cyanite 




Brookite 4 














Spinel 3 . 5-4 


Apatite 








Beryl 




Chrysolite 3.3 
Tourmaline 3 

Siderite 3 
Serpentine 2. 5 



















Oxides and carbonates 

reducing roast with 

carbon 



Minerals Which Become Quite Magnetic on Roasting* 

Sulphides 

oxidizing roast without 

carbon 

Pyrite, FeS2 

Marcasite, reS2 

Chalcopyrite, FeCuS2 

Bornite, FeCusSs 

Arsenopyrite, FeAsS 



Hematite, 
Siderite, 
Wolframite, 
Chromite, 



FejOa 
FeCOs 
FeMnW04 
FeCrsO* 



Zinc-Iron Separation by Magnetic Separators Tomboy 
Gold Mines, Telluride, Colo.^ 



Au, 
oz. 



As, 
oz. 



Pb, Zn, 

per per 

cent. cent. 



Fe, 
per 

cent. 



Cu, SiOi, 

per per 

cent. cent. 



Zinc concentrates. 
Iron concentrates. 



0.80 
0.75 



4.0C 
6.74 



4.10 
5.14 



45.70 
12.00 



6.20 
40.00 



1.90 
7.00 



13.40 
.12.30 



1 R. H. RiCHAHDS, "Ore Dressing," Vol. IV. 
' Probably due to iron. 
' R. H. Richards, "Ore Dressing," Vol. II. 
• R. H. Richards, "Ore Dressing," Vol. IV. 



238 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Shrixk.\ge of Metals* 



Metal tcn?perl"ure. Freezing point. 

1 1 


Shrinkage Total 
during freezing, shrinkage, 
per cent. per cent. 


Pb 

Pb 

Zn 

Zn 

Zn 

Sn (Banca) 

Sn 

Al 


500 
600 
650 
700 
750 
550 
500 
800 
850 

1250 
500 
710 
750 
800 

1050 


326 
326 
416 
416 
416 
225 
225 
683 
683 
1060 
261 
621 
621 
621 


065 

0.065 

0.08 

0.08 
. 0.08 
0.1-0.15 
0.1-0.15 


0.82 
0.83 
1.40 
1.40 
1.40 
0.44 
0.55 
1 78 


Al 




1.78 


Cu 

Hi 


Expansion 


1.42 
29 


Sb 




0.29 


Sb. . . 




63 


Sb 




0.29 


Sb 




0.66 

2.57 


Na' 






1 





The expansion of copper is to be attributed to the setting free of dis- 
solved gas. The lead, zinc, copper and antimony that Wust worked with were 
not even commercially pure. This may account for the inconsistency of his 
results with those of other authorities, given below. 

Shrinkage of Metals^ 

.., . I Percentage increase of 

*'*'"'^ volume on melting 

Sodium 2.5 (a) 

2.5 (b) 
Potassium 2.5 (a) 

2.6 (6) 
Tin 2.8 (a) 

2.8 (c) 
Cadmium 5.2 (a) 

4.72(c) 
Lead 3.7 (a) 

3.39(c) 

Thallium 3.1 (a) 

Zinc. 0.9 (a) 

Aluminum 4.8 (a) 

Tellurium 7.3 (a) 

Antimony 1.4 (a) 

Bismuth -3.27(a) 

-3.31(c) 
-3.0 id) 

(a) M. ToEPLER, Annalen der Physik, 1888, Vol. 34, p. 21. 
(6) H. Block, Zeii. fur Phys. Chew.., 1912, Vol. 78, p. 385. 

(c) G. ViNCENTiMl and D. Omodei, Atli R. Accademia delle Scieme di 
Torino, 1889, Vol. 31, p. 25. 

(d) C. LuDEKiNG, Annalen der Physik, 1888, Vol. .34, p. 21. 

1 From Hofman's "General Metallurgy," originally from WtJST, Metal- 
lurgie. Vol. 6, 1909, p. 769. 

» Chem. Trade Journ., June 26, 1915. 

* Compilation in Engineering, Apr. 3, 1914, p. 473. 



SECTION IV 
CHEMICAL DATA 



FUNDAMENTAL CHEMICAL LAWS 

Avogadro's. — Equal volumes of all gases and vapors contain 
the same number of ultimate particles or molecules at the same 
temperature and pressure. 

Conservation of Energy. — Whenever a change in mode of 
manifestation of energy takes place, the total amount of energy 
remains a constant. 

Dalton's. — See multiple proportions. 

Definite Proportions. — -A chemical compound always con- 
tains the same constituents in the same proportion by weight. 

Diffusion of Gases. — The rate of diffusion of gases is approxi- 
mately inversely proportional to the square roots of their 
specific gravities. 

Dulong and Petit. — The product of the atomic weight and 
the specific heat of the same element is a constant. 

Gay-Lussac's. — "\Mien gases or vapors react on each other 
the volumes both of the factors and the products of the reaction 
always bear to each other some simple numerical ratio. 

Indestructibility of Matter (Lavoisier). — Whenever a change 
in the composition of substances takes place, the amount of 
matter after the change is the same as before the change. 

Mariotte's. — The volume of a gas is directly proportional 
to the absolute temperature and inversely proportional to the 
absolute pressure upon it. 

Multiple Proportions (Dalton). — If two elements A and B 
form several compounds with each other, and we consider 
any fixed mass of A, then the different masses of B which 
combine with the fixed mass A bear a simple ratio to one 
another. 

Periodic. — The properties of an element are periodic functions 
of the atomic weight.- 

The Structure of the Atom^ 

The great difference between the present theory in regard to 
the constitution of matter and that held when most of us were 
students seems to make no apology necessary for introducing a 
short discussion of this subject here. 

The nineteenth century theory of the constitution of matter 
postulated indivisible bodies called atoms, with properties that 

• This short discussion is largely founded on the papers by Dr. Saul 
DusHMAN in the General Electric Review. 

2.39 



240 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

were repeating functions of their weights, which weights 
represented the proportions in multiples of which they combined 
with each other. The atom of hydrogen was supposed to be the 
smallest mass capable of existing. However, Crookes even- 
tually showed that the cathode rays consist of negatively charged 
corpuscles the mass of which is less than one-thousandth that 
of a hydrogen atom. Later the Ccrtes, Becquerel, Ruther- 
FORD and SoDDT showed that the atoms of some elements were 
certainly unstable, and that they disintegrate spontaneously 
giving out negatively charged corpuscles or electrons such as con- 
stitute Crookes' cathode rays iff particles), positively charged 
particles (a particles) of the same mass as helium atoms, and a 
radiation (known as 7-rays) that has since been shown to con- 
sist of X-rays of short wave-longth. 

It may here be noted that although the a and /9 rays travel 
with speeds comparable with that of the X-rays that the last 
have the power of ejecting electrons from atoms, whereas the 
first two never do so. 

The basis of late nineteenth centur\' chemistry was the "so- 
called" periodic law of Mendeleef, that the atomic weight of 
any element determines its properties, or, that the properties 
of the elements are periodic functions of the atomic weight. 
Roughly, if the elements are arranged in recurring "octaves" 
according to increasing atomic weights, elements of similar prop- 
erties fall in columns. ^\Tiile this is so generally true that 
Mexdeleef was enabled to prophesy the discovery of certain 
elements with certain properties, it is not without its exceptions. 
For instance, according to atomic weight, iodine should come 
before tellurium, while according to its properties it comes after 
it. Argon and pota-s-sium form another such exceptional case. 
On the other hand we have elements of different atomic weights, 
yet inseparable chemically. These exceptions the newer theory 
of "atomic numbers" attempts to explain. 

Reverting to Mentjelejeff's work, and considering aL^o the 
elements discovered since his time, if they are arranged in order 
of increasing atomic weight it is observed that the first twenty 
elements have similar properties at ever>^ eighth element. Thus 
sodium resembles lithium, phosphorus is like nitrogen and chlo- 
rine like fluorine. But beginning ■with argon, we must pass over 
18 elements before we come to one similar to it (kn.'pton),and 
then we have another group of 18 before we come to another 
like it, xenon. In the next series, however, comes a separate 
system, the rare earths, most of them .so nearly alike chemically 
and physically that their separation is a matter of extreme 
difficulty. Then after another short group of normal elements 
come the radioactive elements, whose atoms disintegrate 
spontaneously in appreciable amounts in appreciable times. 
As said above, there are discrepancies in any arrangement by 
atomic weight and the view is now held that it is a so-called 
atomic number that is the true factor in determining the prop- 
erties of the elements. In the table on p. 242, taken from the 
General Electric Review, are shown the elements, their atomic 



CHEMICAL DATA 



241 



weights and the atomic numbers (in brackets). What these 
last are will be explained later (p. 244). 

In general the members of the group are inert (valency 0) ; 
those of group 1 monovalent, E2O, EH; of group 2, divalent; 
etc. The members of the fifth, sixth and seventh groups pos- 
sess two sorts of valences: with H they form compounds of the 
type EH3, EH2 and EH respectively, while with O, they form 
compounds of the type E2O5, EO3 and E2O7 respectively. 

The most electropositive elements are in group 1, the most 
electronegative in group 7, and in any given group, those of low 
atomic number are more electropositive than those of high. 
This property is connected with the tendency to give out 
electrons. A heated carbon filament gives off negative elec- 
tricity, which J. J. Thomson showed was in the form of free 
electrons similar to those making up cathode raj's. 

Richardson showed that platinum and other metals give off 
electrons when heated and that the number of electrons emitted 
increases rapidly as the temperature rises. For every metal 
there exists a " heat of vaporization " (w) which represents the 
amount of work required to separate an electron from the main 
body. The more electropositive the metal the smaller is w. 

When metals are illuminated by radiation of frequency u 
electrons are emitted with a velocity v (photoelectric effect) 
expressed by the equation }'2'>^iv^ = Ve= hv—p where m = 
mass of electron, e= charge on electron, h = 6.56 . 10~^^ erg. 
sec, p=work necessarv' to get the electron out of the metal 
and V = retarding potential necessary to prevent emission. 

Two types of inelastic collision between electrons and mole- 
cules of metallic vapor exist. One type results in a displacement 
of an electron in the atom and the other type in the removal 
of an electron from the atom. The potential differences 
in volts through which an electron must fall to acquire 
the proper velocity to suffer these two types of collision are 
known as the resonance and ionization potentials of the metallic 
vapor. In many cases these potentials can be computed 
from a knowledge of v, some characteristic frequency in the 
spectrum of the metal. The following direct determinations 
by an electrical method are summarized by Foote and Mohler. 





Resonance 


(Volts) 


Ionization 


(Volts) 




Theoretical 


Observed 


Theoretical 


Observed 


Li 


1 84 




5 36 




Na 


2.09 


2.12 


5.11 


5.13 


K 


1.61 


1.55 


4.32 


4.1 


Rb 


1.58 


1.6 


4.16 


4.1 


Cs 


1.45 


1.48 


3.87 


3.9 


Mg 


2 70 


2 65 


7 61 


7 75 


Ca 


/1.84 
\2.92 


f 1.93 
13.0 


6.08 


6.04 






Zn 


4.01 
3.78 


4.1 

3.88 


9.34 
8.95 


9.5 


Cd 


8.92 


Hg 


4.86 


4.9 


10.38 


10.35 


Tl 


1.07 


1.07 




7.3 


Pb 




1.26 




8.0 


As 




4.7 




11.5 


16 











242 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



H .2 



u 

CO 



3 .2 

H 5 



u -- 









OD 


t- 










-4 ^ 






OC 






"2. 


sll 




ti^ 






cS; 


e> 




o 
















r-<or^ 




h^r- 


"«c:- 


r^ 




v^^(- 




eo.;g 


*!? 






n 


m 


?^ 




o 






^SS 










Xt-o 




a>e«^> 


CiiOc^ 






o^ 




M ■::* 


t_ .0( 


tc 








0>"5 


^ (»'-■> 


a^ " 


o 


«^ 




t-^ 


« " 


-^®'-^ 


m 






<H 


3 W NM 


C ■ ^ 
















^s5 


O-^ 




o 














Ch'*"^ 




(S«^ 


,o w- 


la 




° ^ 




<*.?? 


«5o5 




W 


»<^^ 




■*^ 


«'^ 


s-.*- 


« 




t- 


»H 


£aw 






o^ 


^_IO^ 




o 






>-S5 












— CO ^7- 










lO-i 


Uo» — 




■* 




OB ~- 






-:■? 


C- JI 


e 


M^ 




s— 






O •"■= 








le 


£Ka 
o 


«^ 




r-'OB -), 


«-il 








"■ w ^^ 




iSW- 


coo<r- 






< .9: 




^oi^ 


— .05 






'"2. 




•*"f 






«^ 




<e^ 


»-t " 




e 








»H 


3° 


ff«C? 
















£« 













a 






u-< — 


o^ 










->:^':r; 


.*^o»'% 


^0> fT 

=5 « '5 1 








*^ 


^flOO 








MMS- 




!:^•i^ 


-ric 






S".^ 




««§. 


or 4 


M 




^^ 




«o~-' 


e«^ 






n 




(O 




=9 


0- . -^ 








•^ 


oW 


tto>^ 








t- 


hi 






(- 


M 


« 


o 






o^ 


»^ 










a^5 


OJooS 


pa2S 










3e-<r- 


MOOj- 


w 








0»^ 


<«'4 




2 "*^ 

•w ID 








»< 


o 


o 


IS 


r^ 00 


a 


M 

K 


f-- W v^ 


Jig^ 


SsS 
















o 




S" 












*^ 












































c 


















~ 00 


M 


CO 


U 




■5; o ;: « 






'> W <o 




^« w 


/^e>i'<« 


<« — 


►soo — 


l<»-l ^ 



CHEMICAL DATA 



243 



est 

oil 






; i 


00 




w 

184.0 

(74) 


feeo^eo<;eOj^eo,j;eOj^eo<eo 

^o owiiid.seo£«o d^,2oo 

eo^eo eo^eo eo^^eq eo 


CO eo 

t^eotieo 


00 


Ta 
181.5 

(73) 


f Bi 
208 

RaE 
210.2 

AcC 
211.2 
ThC, 
212.2 

RaC 
214.2 


eo 


9? 

2 


HMO 

■e e 

« « s 


g ^^eo eo eoHS eo«eo 




oeo^eo eo eo eo 

2«Qieo oMrw^qn 

Keo^eoMeoE-ieOH-Jeo 


Jo 


TI 
204.0 

AcD 
207.2 

ThD 
208.2 

RaCj 
210 2 


Ac 
227.2 1 

MesTh2 (89) 
228.2 


00 


eo 


oo 

00 


AcX 

223.2 

ThX 

224.2 

Ra 

226.2 

MesThi 

228.2 






;oo 






50 

2 

geo ceo ceo 

w -; w _ w ■ 

JJTH^eo^eo 
•«!eoHeo«eo 



244 METALLURGISTS AND CHEiMISTS' HANDBOOK 



From the facts above noted we may deduce that the electron 
is a constituent of all atoms, and that some atoms have a greater 
affinity for electrons than do others. The atoms with the low- 
est electron affinity are the most electropositive. There are also 
further considerations upon which are based calculations as to 
the number of electrons in the atom, some of which are dis- 
cussed below. 

High-frequency Spectra of the Elements 

When cathode rays of low velocity strike the surface of any 
metal, the latter emits a continuous spectrum of X-rays with 
wave lengths of about 1 X 10~* cm. The spectrum is cut off at 
an upper limit of frequency (V'm) which is connected with the 
maximum voltage of the X-raj' tube by the relation. 
eV = hV„ 

As the voltage of the tube is raised above a definite value, the 
anti-cathode material emits a characteri.stic X-radiation clas- 
sified according into three groups K, L and M. In 1913, 
N. G. J. MosELY measured the wave lengths of the K and L 
series for most elements and found that if to each element he 
assigned a number agreeing with its place in the periodic table 
(as far as Au = 79), then 

iVV = a[N - Xo] 
where V is the frequencj% a and N'o are constants and .V is the 
atomic number. According to Rutherford N is the magnitude 
of the positive charge on the nucleus of the atom and hence 
must also correspond to the number of electrons in the atom, 
since each electron carries a negative charge and on a neutral 
atom the number of negative charges must equal the number of 
positive charges. 

Various Elements, Their Atomic Weights, and Wave- 
LE.VGTiis OF Their Characteristic X-rays 




CHEMICAL DATA 245 

The various constants of the electron as determined by R. A. 
MiLLiKAN are as follows {Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. 3, p. 314). 

The electron e = 4.774 ± 0.005 XlQ-'o 

The Avogadro constant : i\r = 6.062 ±0.006X10=3 

Number of gas mols. per cc. at 0°, 76 cm... n = 2.705 ± 0.003 X lO" 

Kinetic energy of translation of a mol. at 0°. Eo = 5.621 ± 0.006 X 10-'< 

Chanse of translational mol. energy per °C.. = 2.058 ± 0.002 X lO"'" 

Mass of an atom of H to = 1 . 662 ±0.002X10-2' 

Planck's element of action A = 6.547 ±0.013X10-" 

Wien const, of spectral radiation Cs = 1 .4312 + 0.0030 

Stefan-Boltzmann const, of total radiation.. =5.72 ± 0.034. X lO''^ 

Grating spacing in calcite d = 3. 030 ± 0.001 A 

Diameter of atom, average, about =2.0 X IQ-^ 

Mass of an electron =9.01 X lO"" 

Radioactive Phenomena 

The periodic table indicates that as the atom becomes more 
and more massive, there is a periodic recurrence of the same 
arrangement of the outermost electrons in the atom. The 
observations on high frequency spectra and scattering of alpha 
particles lead to the conclusion that the atom consists of a 
positively charged nucleus of extremely small dimensions com- 
pared with those of the atom itself, and furthermore, that the 
chemical properties of the elements depend only upon, the mag- 
nitude of the positive charge on the nucleus.^ 

We now pass to the discussion of observations which show us 
that not only is the atomic weight of but secondary significance 
in determining the position of an element in the periodic table 
and that we may have several atomic weights for the same 
element, but that the structure of the nucleus itself is quite 
complicated. 

It has already been mentioned that in the radioactive ele- 
ments discovered by Becquerel and Mme. Curie, we have un- 
stable atoms which disintegrate spontaneously, as has been 
shown conclusively by Rutherford and Soddy. After a certain 
average period of existence, w'hich may range from over a 
thousand years, as in the case of uranium (Ui), to a millionth 
of a second, as in the case of RaCi, the atom undergoes a 
sudden explosion and yields an atom which possesses totally 
distinct properties. The disintegration is detected by the ex- 
pulsion either of alpha or of beta particles. ^ Accompanying 
the expulsion of beta, particles there is also observed in a number 
of cases, an emission of gamma rays. These are electromagnetic 
pulses of extremely short wave-length (about 10~^ cm.) and 
are probably due to the bombardment of the atoms of the radio- 
active substance itself by the beta particles. 

Further investigation has shown that the rate at which 
these atoms disintegrate is absolutely uninfluenced by any 

I The diameter of the nucleus is probably less than Hoo.ooo the diameter 
of theatom, yet the nucleus contains practically the entire mass of the atom. 

2. The alpha particle has the same mass as an atom of helium; but differs 
from the latter in possessing two unit positive charges, 2jB = 9.54 X 10 E.S.U. 
The beta particles correspond in mass and electric charge to the electrons 
units of negative electricity, E = 4.7V X 10 E.S.U. 



24C METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

of the factors, such as temperature, pressure, illumination 
with ultra-violet or X-rays, etc., which are used in controlling 
the rate of ordinary chemical and physical reactions. 

Since the disintegration of any atom always yields an atom 
occupying a different place in the periodic table we must con- 
clude that the change actually occurs in the nucleus itself. 
Furthermore, as electrons and alpha particles are emitted dur- 
ing the disintegration, it follows that the nucleus, small as it 
is, consists of negatively changed corpuscles and helium nuclei, 
packed close together. How is it possible for positive and 
negative charges to remain in equilibrium vmder such condi- 
tions? Probably Cottlomb's law fails completely for distances 
as small as those which exist inside the nucleus. It may indeed 
become reversed; that is, positive and negative charges repel 
each other at distances which are less than lO"'' cm. 

It has been found that each of the radioactive products be- 
longs to one of three well-defined disintegration series whose 
starting points are uranium, thorium, and actinium respectively. 
Fig. 1 illustrates diagrammatically the manner in which the 
members of these series appear to be related. 

When mesothorium II disintegrates, it yields radiothorium 
and as a beta particle is expelled during the transformation 
there is no change in atomic weight. Radiothorium is chem- 
icalh- allied to thorium and non-separable from it. These 
facts lead to the conclusion that radiothorium belongs to Group 
IV and mesothorium II must therefore belong to Group III. 

Passing to thorium A", we here again come to an element 
which is chemically similar to radium, thus placing it in Group 
II. The atom of thorium A' expels an alpha particle and yields 
thorium emanation, a gas which is iiwrt chemically, and con- 
denses at low pressures between — r20°C. and — 150°C. The 
emanation resembles, therefore, the rare gases of the argon 
group. 

Thorium emanation is the first member of the group of 
transformation products that constitute the thorium "active 
deposit." They are indicated in Fig. 1 as thorium A, B, Ci, Cn 
and D. 

The most noteworthy feature about these products is the 
fact that individual members of each series appear to be chem- 
ically indistinguishable from certain members of the other 
series. Owing, however, to the difference in previous history 
of these atoms, they possess different atomic weights and also 
differ in period of existence. In other words, we have here 
cases of elements that are absolutely inseparable by all chemical 
methods so far devised, and yet differ in that respect which 
has hitherto been taken to be the most important characteristic 
of an element — its atomic weight. Soddy, who has drawn 
attention to these cases, has named these products isotopes, 
since they occupy the same place in the periodic table. As 
shown in the table in Fig. 1, there are three other isotopes of 
thallium, and no less than six isotopes of lead. These results 
are thus in accord with the conclusion already advanced above, 



ufANWM sfffi£S momuM 6£Ri£S 

Umnium / ^^ ^^ Thorium 

\ y^^ Mexthoriumt 

/2342\ Uranium X, \i)/3 ' ^-r-^ 

' 1 ysa^i MesoUwium a 

1 ^Affi; <^) 

JpSt\ Uranium J, yi~. 



/Z34Z\ Urtti" 



_ /^^ VKriumX 

Uromum O yXseeU in) 



/Z50i\ Ionium 



/ziSs TTwium [manotian 
/\^ 1.0) 

\ 



I' ^-^ /2I6Z\ ThoriumA 

I ^ /Ai«i/ C') 

/m^\ Radium /^jjjv ;;!<y.,i,;„ 5 

' I - 1 

fladium £manoticn a'\Siy\S'^^ 

Thorium Ci f2lZe\ /a;8-Z\ Thorium 

2oei\ z«w fT"/* Of) 



y2l8i\ f?tidiumA \^l) C^J 



ACTINIUM sfmss 



/2l4^ fhd/um B 



liZ7T\ Acti/n'vm 
SMBiJ (a) 

I Y 



,/MSA^(J) 



??37\ Adlnium X 

W^/«W/i//7?<7, (Z\^fSx/iumC, " "Y 

^^ UZ7) /^Vfil/ '"" 



19 ?\ Actintum Emonatiofl 
imj (O) 



fia?\ ffodiumO jtr^ ... . ^ 



I t 

Jl^ /fl^ AUInium 8 

(2nT\ Radium e „/\^V W) 

fiT^j Adinium C 

/^io&\ /bdiu/n f \ 

^/\s^ m jd^ActmiumD 

/^oi^ Lead [IfodiumG) ^xiSLeod 

Fig. I. — Method of disintegration of radioactive elements. (247) 



248 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

that the most characteristic property of any element is its atomic 
number, and not the atomic weight. The different isotopes of 
any element may therefore be regarded as consisting of atoms 
which are all alike as far as the number of electrons, their 
arrangement, and the charge on the nucleus; but the arrange- 
ment of electrons and alpha particles in the nucleus of each of 
these atoms is evidently not the same. Hence arise the differ- 
ences in mass and average life. 

Soddy's Law of Sequence of Changes. — A comprehensive 
survey of the chemical properties of the different radioactive 
elements has led Soddy and Faj.\ns independently to an inter- 
esting and extremely important generalization which enables 
them to assign these isotopes to their places in the Periodic 
Table. 

It will be remembered that an alpha particle is a helium atom 
with two positive charges. By its expulsion, therefore, the 
atom must lose two positive charges, and the atomic weight 
must decrease by four units. Similarly, the expulsion of a 
beta particle means the loss of a negative charge or, what is 
equivalent, the gain of one positive charge; and since the mass 
of the beta particle is extremeh' small compared with that of 
the atom, there is practicallj' no decrease in atomic weight. 
Now in the Periodic Table the valency for oxygen, an electro- 
negative element, increases regularly as we pass from Group 
to Group VllI, while that for hydrogen, an electropositive 
element, decreases, i.e., the electropositive characteristic 
increases by one unit for each change in the group number as we 
pass in any series from left to right. Furthermore, in each 
group the electropositive character increases regularly with in- 
creasing atomic weight. 

These considerations led Soddy and Fajans to this conclusion : 

The expulsion of an alpha particle from any radioactive 
element leads to an element which is two placef. lower in the Periodic 
Table (and has an atomic weight which is four units less) while 
the emission of a beta particle leads to art element which is one place 
higher up, but has the same atomic weight. 

It is possible, therefore, to have elements of the same atomic 
weight but possessing distinctly different chemical properties, 
and, on the other hand, since the effect of the emission of one 
alpha particle may be neutralized by the subsequent emission of 
two beta particles, it is possible to have two elements which 
differ in atomic weight by four units (or some multiple of four) 
and yet exhiVjit chemicallj' similar properties. 

As an illustration, let us consider the Uranium Series. 
Uranium 1 belongs to Group VI. By the expulsion of an alpha 
particle we obtain uranium Xi, an element of Group IV. This 
atom in turn disintegrates with the expulsion of a beta particle. 
Consequently uranium A' 2 must belong to Group V. In this 
manner we can follow the individual changes that lead to the 
different members of the series, and by means of the generaliza- 
tion of Soddy and Fajans we cannot only assign to each element 



CHEMICWL DATA 249 

its place in the Periodic Table but also its atomic weight, as has 
been done in Fig. 1. 

This generalization has been of material assistance in elucidat- 
ing some of the difficult problems in the study of the disintegra- 
tion series. More than this, it has led to the intensely inter- 
esting conclusion that the end product of each of the three 
radioactive series in an isotope of lead. The results of the 
most recent work on the atomic weight of lead are in splendid 
accord with this deduction, as it has been found that lead which 
is of radioactive origin, has a slightly lower atomic weight than 
ordinary lead.i 

In a couple of cases the isotope has not been definitely 
isolated, but there can hardly be any doubt of its existence. 
Thus, the disintegration product of radium C2 must be an ele- 
ment of Group IV, but the evidence for its existence is very 
meager. 

General Conclusions Regarding the Structure of Atoms 

It is obvious that any theory of the structure of the atom 
which we can form at present must be regarded as only a first 
approximation. But there are some conclusions which can be 
drawn with a certain degree of assurance from the above 
observations. 

Firstly, the atom must be constituted of a positive nucleus 
of extremely small dimensions (but approximately equal in 
mass to the atom itself), and a number of electrons distributed 
presumably in one or more rings or spherical shells outside the 
nucleus, the total number of electrons being equal to the positive 
charge on the latter. Secondly, all the physical and chemical 
properties of the atom (excepting radioactive and gravitational) . 
are governed solely by the magnitude of this charge on the 
nucleus (or atomic number). 

Thirdly, in order to explain chemical combination and peri- 
odic properties, we must assume that there are two classes of 
electrons, an inner and outer set. The outer ones are the elec- 
trons which are active in chemical combination and conduction 
of electricity through metals. They are the so-called valency 
electrons. The number of electrons in this outer set undergoes 
periodic changes in value as the atomic charge increases, and 
the maximum number of electrons which are stable on the outer 
surface of the atom is eight, thus accounting for the periodicity 
of eight in Mendeljeff's table'. 

The outer electrons are also those which are active in the 
production of ordinary emission spectra. If Lorentz's explana- 
tion of the Zeeman effect is right, and it is the only one that 
explains the phenomenon quantitatively, then we must con- 
clude that the lines visible in ordinary emission spectra are due 
to the vibration of electrons with frequencies ranging around 
10'* per second. The fact that these emission spectra are 
modified by method of excitation and also differ with different 
compounds, shows that the electrons producing these phenom- 

1/. Am. Chem. Soc, 36, 1329, 1914. 



250 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

cna are near the surface of the atom and therefore probably 
the same as the valency electrons. 

On the other hand, the inner electrons are unaffected by 
ordinary methods, but hijj;h velocity electrons may stimulate 
them and thus produce the high-frequency spectra observed 
by MosELEY and others. As pointed out by Kossel the con- 
tinuity of the A'-line spectra for the different elements from the 
lowest atomic number to the hip;hest, shows that the periodicity 
observed in the outer electrons does not extend to the innermost. 

C. A. Kraus has stated the reasons for drawing tlie same 
conclusions from a chemical standpoint. "The outer elec- 
trons," he writes, are held loo.sely and are able to move from 
atom to atom. These electrons are very sensitive to changes 
in condition, such as temperature, pressure, the presence of 
other atoms, etc. So weak is the bond emitting the electron 
to an atom, that more electro-negative atoms may remove it 
from the original atom in question. The electrons to which 
conduction is due in metals are the same electrons which are in- 
volved in the common chemical combi7iations of metals with other 
elements. 

"The less tendency the metal has to retain its electron, the more 
electro-positive it becomes and the more readily does it in general 
react. Ordinarily, the positive and negative constituents of a 
compound are held together through the medium of the electron. 
Under certain conditions, however (for example in solution in 
a dielectric medium) the electrostatic force acting between the 
metallic atom and its electron becomes weakened to such an 
extent that the negative constituent escapes, carrying the elec- 
tron with it. The same result may be obtained at high tem- 
peratures with the fused salt or even with the solid compound." 

That is, when sodium and chlorine combine, the sodium 
atom gives up an electron to the atom of chlorine (which is 
the electro-negative element), and the atoms are thus held 
together by the electrostatic forces between the positively 
charged residue of the sodium atom and the negatively charged 
atom of chlorine. In a solution of high dielectric constant such 
as water, these electrostatic forces are weakened to such an 
extent that we have the phenomenon known as "dissociation" 
and the formation of Na (sodium ion) and CI (chlorine ion). 
Naturally the properties of those ions are radically different 
from those of metallic Na and gaseous CI2 as we know them. 

Sodium sulphite (NaiSOs) 20 g. 

Sodium carbonate (NaiCOrlOHiO) 20 g. 

Sodium bisulphite (HXaSOs) 20 g. 

Cupric acetate (Cu-2C2H302-HiO) 20 g. 

Potassium cyanide (100 per cent. KCN) 20 g. 

The electrolytic conductivity of metallic lithium dissolved in 
liquid ammonia is explained in a similar manner. Here we 
actually have a separation of the lithium atom into Li and an 
electron, and in the electrolysis, the lithium is deposited at the 
cathode while electrons are carried to the anode. 



CHEMICAL DATA 251 

Similar ideas have been expressed by Sir Wm. Ramsay; G. N. 
Lewis; W. Kossel and others. All are agreed upon this conclu- 
sion that chemical combination between different atoms con- 
sists in the transference of one of the outer electrons from one 
atom to the other. But as to the actual distribution of the 
electrons in the different atoms and the nature of the forces 
between the electrons and the positive nucleus — regarding these 
and allied questions there is quite a variation of opinion. 



252 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 





The Periodic Tab 


LE OF THE 


Elements 




Series 


Zero group 


Group I 
R,0 


Group II 
RO 


Group III 
R.Oj 


Group IV 
RH. 
ROi 


I 


V 
He= 4.0 
Ne= 20.0 
Ar = 39.88 

kr -"82.92 

Xe=i30.'2" 


H = 1 COS 
Li = 6.94 
Na = 23.0 
K = 39.1 
(Cu)= 63.57 
Rb = 85.45 
(Ag) =107.9 
Cs =132.8 
(-) 








2 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
g 


Be = 9.1 |B = 11 
Mg= 24.32 Al = 27.1 
Ca = 40.07 Sp = 44,1 
Zn = 65.37 Ga = 69.9 
Sr = 87.63 Yt = 88.7 
Cd =112.4 lln =114.8 
Ba =137.37 La =139.0 


C =12 
Si =28.3 
Ti =48.1 
Ge =72.5 
Zr =90.0 
Sn =119 
Ce =140.25 


10 






Yb =173.2 
Tl =204.0 




11 

12 




(Au') = 197.2 


Hg =200.6 
Ra =226.2 


Pb-207.1 
Th = 232.4 



Series 



Group V 
RHi 

Rj06 



Group VI 
RHt 
ROj 



Group VII 
RH. 
RjOi 



Group VIII 
RO4 



N = 14.01 
P = 31.04 



O = 

S = 

Or = 



16.0 F - 19.0 
32.07 CI = 35.46 



V = 51.0 

A8= 74.96 ]Se = 
Cb= 93.5 |mo = 



52.0 
79.2 
96.0 



Sb =120.2 Te =127.5 



Ta = 181.5 
'bI =208.0 



W =184.0 



I' = 238 . 5 



Mn= 54.93 
Br = 79.92 

= 100.0 
I =126.92 



Fe 
Co 



55.84. Ni ■■ 
58.97, Cu. 



58.68 
63.57 



( Rh = 
\Pd = 



102.9, Ru = 101.7 
106.7, Ag = 107.88 



Ir 
Os 



■ 193.1. Pt =195.2 
= 190.9. Au = 196.7 



Examples of the manner in wliich the properties of the ele- 
ments are progressive functions of the atomic weight are shown 
in the tables of the Ca-Sr-Ba, and Fl-Cl-Br-I families which 
follow : 



Element 


Calcium 


Strontium 


Barium 


Atomic mass 


40 


88 


137 




Specific gravity. . . 


1.0 


2.5 


3.6 




Carbonate disso- 










ciates; tempera- 










ture 


OOOC. 


llOO^C. 


1400°C. 




Grams of hydrox- 










ide soluble in a 










liter of water at 










15''C 


1.32 


18 


50 




Heat of formation 










of chloride; units. 


170 


185 


105 





CHEMICAL DATA 



253 



Element Fluorine 1 Chlorine 


Bromine 


Iodine 


Atomic mass 


19 


35.5 


80 


127 


Boiling tempera- 










ture 


- 187°C 


-33° 


59° 


184° 


Specific gravity 
Union with hydro- 


1.15 (liquid) 


1.5 (liquid) 


3.2 (liquid) 


5 (solid) 


In the dark 


In sunlight. 


At red heat. 


At red heat 


gen takes place. 


at ordinary 
tempera- 
tures. 






but incom- 
pletely. 


Heat of formation 


37.6 heat 22 


8 


-6.1 


of hydrogen com- 
pound. 
Stability of hydro- 


units. 






Most stable. Decomposed 


Decomposed 


Decomposed 


gen compound 


at 1500°C. 


at 800°C. 


at 180°C. 



Electrochemical Equivalents^ 



Element 



Valence 



Atomic weight 



Electrochemical 

equivalent (1 amp. 

1 sec.) 



Al + 
Ag-f 
Br - 
Cd + 
Ca -f 
Cl - 
Co + 
Cu -f 
Cu + 
Sn + 
Sn + 
Fe -f- 
Fe + 
F - 
H + 
I - 
Hg-f 
Hg + 
Ni + 
Au -f- 
O - 
Pt + 
Pt + 
Pb + 
K + 
Na -f 
Zn -f 
Sb + 
Li -f 
Mg-f 
Mn-f 
Si - 
S - 



27.1 

107.88 
79.92 

112.40 
40.0 
35.46 
58.97 
63.57 
63.57 

119.0 

119.0 
55.84 
55.84 
19.0 
1.008 

126.92 

200.6 

200.6 
58.68 

197.2 
16.00 

195.2 

195.2 

207.1 
39.10 
23.00 
65.37 

120.2 
6.94 

.24.32 
54.93 
28.3 
32.07 



0.00009363 

0.0011183 

0.00082845 

0.00058257 

0.00020732 

0.00036758 

0.00030564 

0.00032948 

0.00065897 

0.00061678 

0.00030839 

0.00028947 

0.00019267 

0.00019695 

0.000010449 

0.00131566 

0.00103661 

0.00207322 

0.00030414 

0.00068139 

0.000082928 

0.00050584 

0.00101168 

0.00107340 

0.00040531 

0.00023842 

0.00033881 

0.00041532 

0.00007245 

0.00011567 

0.0001891 

0.0001449 

0.0001656 



iGoRE, "The Art of Electrolytic Separation of the Metals." 



254 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
International Atomic Weights, 1916. 



Element 


1 
Symbol 


Weight 


Val- 
ence* 


Electro- 
chem. equi- 
valents, g. 
per amp.- 
hr. 


Melting 
points 


Boiling 
points 


Aluminum. . 
Antimony... 
Argon 


Al 
Sb 
A 
As 
Ba 

Bi 
B 
Br 
Cd 
Cs 

Ca 
C 
Ce 
CI 
Cr 

Co 
Cb 
Cu 

Er 

Eu 

F 

Gd 
Ga 
Ge 

Gl 
Au 
He 
Ho 
H 

In 
I 

Ir 
Fe 
Kr 

La . 

Pb 

Li 

Lu 

Mg 

Mn 
Hg 

Mo 
Xd 
Ne 


27.1 

120.2 

39.88 

74.96 

137.37 

208.0 

11.0 

79.92 

112.40 

132.81 

40.07 
12.05 
140.25 
35.46 
52.0 

58.97 

93.1 

63.57 

162.5 

167.7 

152.0 

19.0 
157.3 

69.9 

72.5 

9.1 
197.2 

4.002 
163.5 

1.008 

114.8 
120.92 
193.1 
55.84 
82.92 

1.39.0 
207.20 
6.94 
175.0 
24.32 

54.93 
200.6 

96.0 

144.3 

20.0 


3 
3 

3 
2 

3 
3 
I 
2 

1 

2 

4 
4 
1 
3 

2 
5 
2 


0.3368 
1 . 4966 


658.7 
630.0 
-188.0 
850.0 
850.0 

271.0 

2350.0 

-7.3 

320.9 

26.0 

810.0 
>3600.0 

623.0 
-101.5 
1520 toFe 

16101 

1950-2200 

1083.0 


1800.0 

1460.0 

— 186.0 


.Arsenic 

Barium 


0.9324 
2.5619 

2.5854 


450. 0^ 


Bismuth. . . . 
Boron 


1440.0 


Bromine 

Cadmium. . . 


2.98i4 
2.0955 


58.75 
778.0 




0.7477 
0.1118 




Carbon 








Chlorine. . . . 
Chromium. . 

Cobalt 


1.3220 
0.6476 

1.1000 


- 37.6 
2200.0 






Copper. . . . . 


1 . 1858 


2100.0 






















Fluorine. . . . 


...1.. 


0.7085 


-223.0 


-187.0 








30.1 
958.0 

1800.0 

1063.0 

-271.9 




















Gold . 


3 



2.4513 




Helium 


-268.8 


Holmium. . . 






Hydrogen. . . 


1 


0.03759 


-259.0 

154.5 

114.0 

2300.0 

1530 ± 5 

-169.0 

810.0 
327.4 
186.0 


-252.8 


Iodine 


1 
4 
2 


4.7303 


184.35 


Iron 

Krypton. . . . 


1.0404 


2450.0 
-151.7 








Lead 


2 

1 


3.8613 
0.2622 


1625.0 






Magnesium . 

Manganese. 
Mercury.. . . 
Molybde- 


2 

2 
2 

2 


0.4531 

1.0255 
7.4803 

1.7900 


651.0 

1260 ± 20 
-38.7 

2500.0 

840.0 

-253.0 


1120.0 

1900.0 
357.0 


Neodymium 




.0 













' In those cases in which a metal has two valences, the valence given corre- 
sponds to the electrochemical equivalent, and may not necessarily be the 
commoner one. 

'Sublimes. J Commercial metal, about 1480° C. 



CHEMICAL DATA 255 

International Atomic Weights, 1916, Continued 



Element 


Symbol 


Weight 


Val- 
ence! 


Electro- 
chem. equi- 
valents, g. 

per amp.- 
hr. 


Melting 
points 


Boiling 
points 


Nickel 


Ni 

Nt 
N 

Oa 
O 

Pd 
P 

Pt 
K 

Pr 

Ra 
Rh 
Rb 
Ru 
Sa 

Sc 
Se 
Si 
Ag 
Na 

Sr 

S 

Ta 
Te 
Tb 

Tl 
Th 
Tm 
Sn 
Ti 

W 
U 
V 

Xe 
Yb 

Yt 
Zn 
Zr 


58.68 
222.4 

14.01 
190.9 

16.00 

106.7 
31.04 

195.2 
39.10 

140.9 

226.0 
102.9 
85.45 
101.7 
150.4 

44.1 
79.2 
28.3 
107.88 
23.00 

87.63 
32.06 
181.5 
127.5 
159.2 

204.0 
232.4 
168.5 
118.7 
48.1 

184.0 
238.2 
51.0 
130.2 
173.5 

88.7 

65.37 

90.6 


2 

3 


1.0945 


1452 ± 3 





Nitrogen 


0.1745 


-210.5 
2700.0 
-218.0 

1550.0 
44.1 

1755.0 
62.3 

940.0 

900.0 

1940.0 

38.0 

> 1950.0 

1350.0 

1200, 0(?) 
218.5 

1420.0 

961.0 

97.5 

>S05, 850< 

>Ca<Ba 

116.5 

2850.0 

451.0 


-195.7 


Oxygen 

Palladium . . 
Phosphorus . 
Platinum. . . 
Potassium .. 
Praseody- 


2 
2 


0.2983 
1.9951 


-183.0 
287!6 


4 
1 


1.8206 
1.4584 


' 667 .0" 




2 












































Selenium . . . 

Silicon 

Silver 

Sodium 

Strontium.. . 
Sulphur 


2 
4 

1 
1 

2 
2 


1.477 
0.2638 
4.0248 
0.8596 

1.6333 
. 5980 


690.0 

1955. 6' 
742.0 

444.5 


Tellurium.. . 
Terbium. . . . 


2 


2.379 


1390.0 


Thallium... . 






302.0 
>1700.0<Pt 


1700.0 










Thulium 




1 




Tin 

Titanium. . . 

Tungsten. . . 
Uranium 


2 
4 

6 


2.2188 
0.4490 

1 . 1437 


231.9 
1795.0+15.0 

3267 

Near Mo. 

1720.0 + 20.0 

-140.0 

1800. 0(?) 

1200. 0(?) 

419.3 

2350. 0(?) 


2270.0 










Xenon 







-109.0' 








Yttrium. . . . 








Zinc... 


2 


1.2194 


918.0" 











Note. — ^In addition to the above elements, there is some reason to believe 
in the existence of a gas " coronium " (so called from its existence in the solar 
corona) which would form 0.00058 per cent, of the earth's atmosphere ac- 
cording to Dr. a. Wegener's calculations {Science, Oct. 31, 1913}. 

1 In those cases in which a metalhas two valences, the valence given corre- 
sponds to the electrochemical equivalent, and may not necessarily be the 
commoner one. 



256 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

A SHORT ACCOUNT OF THE COMMON ELEMENTS.* 

Aluminum. — Atomic weight, 27.1; trivalent; sp. gr., cast, 
2.56; rolled, 2.66. A silver-white metal; breaks with crystalline 
fracture. Melts at 657°C.; volatilizes at a very high tempera- 
ture; specific heat from 0° to 100°C., 0.2270 (mean); latent heat 
of fusion, 100 cal.; coefficient of linear expansion, 0.0000231; 
heat conductivity, 31.33 (Ag = 100). Is friable at 530°C. 
The tensile strength of cast aluminum is about 15,000 lb. per 
sq. in.>J)ut this may be increased by drawing to 35,000 lb. per 
sq. in. Its conductivity is about 58 (Ag = 100). 

The metal cannot be reduced with carbon ; but forms a carbide 
AliCj; and a nitride AIX. It is reduced by sodium from its 
compounds. Said to be paramagnetic, susceptibility 0.6 X 10~«. 
Is very malleable between 100° and 150°C. Is notable for 
the lightness of its alloys, and for its energetic reduction of 
oxides of other metals (thermit process). It cannot be pro- 
duced by direct electroh'sis in aqueous solution but is deposited 
electrolytically from a solution of its oxide in cryolite. The 
oxide forms the base of most artificial gems. 

Antimony. — Atomic weight, 120.2; trivalent usually; sp. gr. 
6.71; melts at 632°F., and volatilizes at about 1,500°C. Is 
in no degree malleable or ductile; its electric conductivity is 
4.2 (.A.g = 100). Has extremely crj-stalline structure; coeffi- 
cient of linear expansion, along axis 0.0000168; normal to axis 
0.0000089. It may readily be crushed to powder. Hydro- 
chloric acid has a slight solvent action on it; nitric acid converts 
it to the pentoxide; sulphuric acid first oxidizes it and then 
converts it to sulphate. Chlorine reacts directly with the 
metal, forming anhydrous chloride. The classic process for 
the recovery of antimony is its liquation as sulphide, Sb2Sj, 
from rich ores and the subsequent throwing down of the an- 
timony by melting with scrap iron. It is also recovered by 
subjecting the ore to an oxidizing roast, driving off the anti- 
mony in fume, which is caught and reduced to metal. Anti- 
mony can also be recovered by lixiviation of the ores with 
sodium sulphide, obtaining either NaaSbSs or Na3SbS4. From 
these solutions it can be regained either chemically or by 
electrolysis. Another important source of antimony is in 
refining argentiferous lead. Before mixing in zinc for the 
Pattinson process the lead is oxidized slowly for some time to 
purify it (softening process). The slag thus formed runs high 
in antimony from which it is recovered as antimonial lead. 

In refining crude antimonj' (not hard lead) the crude metal 
is fused with 8 to 12 per cent, of Sb^Ss and 4 to 5 per cent, of 
NaCl to bring it up to 98 to 99 per cent., and then itis given a 
final purifying by "starring," in which it is melted in the 
presence of SbjSs and soda ash. No iron must be allowed to 
get into it during this process; so the iron ladles, etc., are 
kept well covered with whitewash. 

Argon. — Occurs in the air to the extent of 0.935 per cent. 

' For the ordinary properties, see the preceding table. 



CHEMICAL DATA 257 

It can be prepared by passing atmospheric nitrogen, free from 
oxygen and moisture, over red-hot magnesium ribbon; magne- 
sium nitride is thus formed while the argon does not combine. 

Arsenic. — Atomic weight 74.96; trivalent usually; sp. gr., 
cr\-stalline 5.73, amorphous 4.71; a brittle steel-colored metal, 
volatilizes at 450°C., without melting. The metal and the 
pentavalent compounds are not poisonous, but the metal easily 
oxidizes and the pentavalent form easily reduces to the ex- 
tremely poisonous trivalent form. Forms a very volatile 
hydride AsHs, which serves as the basis for the famous Marsh 
test. Most of the arsenic on the market is recovered from flue 
dust, in which the arsenic concentrates. This is roasted in 
reverberatories and the roasted arsenious oxide condensed in 
large chambers. 

Barium. — The properties of this metal are still in doubt, 
as it is probable that it has not yet been prepared in a high 
degree of purity. The impure form is prepared by reducing 
the oxide with magnesium. The peroxide, Ba02, formed by 
heating BaO to 500°C. in the presence of air, serves as the basis 
of hj'drogen peroxide manufacture. At a still higher tempera- 
ture it again gives off oxygen. 

Beryllium. — Atomic weight, 9.1; bivalent; sp. gr. 1.842. A 
hard, lustrous, white, malleable metal. Melts at 1278°C. Does 
not volatilize at 1900°C. Hardness, over 6. Burns like mag- 
nesium when in powder or ribbon. Withstands water better 
than magnesium, but this apparent inertness may be due to a 
film of oxide. Prepared by electrolyzing a mixture of sodium 
and beryllium fluorides, or by decomposition of the fluoride by 
sodium, potassium or magnesium. Has highest heat of fusion 
of any metal, 277 cal. Derives its former name, glucinum, from 
the sweetish taste of its compounds. 

Bismuth. — Atomic weight, 208; trivalent; sp. gr., 9.80; 
the metal is neither malleable nor ductile; it melts at 266°C. 
and volatilizes between 1100 and 1450°. Electric conductivity, 
1.3 (Ag = 100). This metal is remarkable in that it expands 
on solidifying; its sp. gr. is about 10.055 just above the melting 
point. It is the most diamagnetic material known. Is 
obtained: (1) by liquation in crucibles or retorts of ores carrying 
native bismuth; (2) by reduction processes, using Na2C03 as a 
flux, beside CaO and FeO, since the fusion temperature of the 
slag must be low; (3) as a by-product of electrolytic lead re- 
fining; (4) as a by-product of steam Pattinsonizing (Htjlst 
process) ; (5) as a result of the wet treatment of the last oxide 
coming from the cupellation of lead-silver bullion. Some of its 
alloys melt at remarkably low temperatures (see fusible metals 
under "alloys"). 

Boron. — The element is found in nature as boric acid and 
borax. It is obtained by reduction as a brown amorphous 
powder, which, on dissolving in molten aluminum, separates 
on cooUng in crystalline form, said to rival the diamond in hard- 
ness. The suboxide is an energetic deoxidizer, recommended 
by Weintkaub for insuring high-conductivity copper castings. 



258 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Bromine. — Occurs in the mother Hquors of certain salt-wells 
in the United States and at Stassfurt, CJermany. It is liberated 
from these liquors by the action of chlorine, or by direct elec- 
trolysis. It is, at ordinary temperatures, a fuming red liquid 
of unbearable odor, from which it takes its name. It is more 
active than iodine and less than clilorine. 

Cadmium. — Atomic weij!;ht, 112. -1; always bivalent; sp. gr., 
cast, S.OO; white metal of bhiish tinge, intermediate in hardness 
between tin and zinc. Melts at ;-{'20°C.; boils at 778°C., so can 
be separated from zinc by volatilization. Is precipitated from 
solution by zinc. Is remarkable for its fusible alloys: thus, 
2 parts Bi, 1 part Sn, 1 part Pb melt at 93.75°C.; but with 
10 per cent. Cd added melt at 75°C., while Cd 14.3, Sn 19.0, 
Pb 33.1 and Bi 33.0 melt at 6G°C. Its metallurgy is simply 
that of a by-product of zinc. It is greatly concentrated in the 
first zinc dust formed in roasting the ores. The cadmium may 
then be freed from the zinc in a wet way owing to the fact that 
if a mixture of cadmium and zinc oxides be treated with in- 
sufficient sulphuric acid to dissolve both, the cadmium will be 
dissolved before the zinc will. Moreover, if a mixture of 
cadmium and zinc sulphates be agitated with a mixture of 
cadmium and zinc oxides, the cadmium will be dissolved and 
zinc o.xidc will be precipitated. It is eventually freed from the 
last zinc by electrolysis, if a very pure metal be desired. If 
this is not necessary, advantage is simply taken of the fact 
mentioned above, that CdO is more volatile than ZnO, and also 
that CdO reduces at a lower temperature than does ZnO, and 
that CdO precipitates Zn from ZnSO* as ZnO. 

Caesium. — Of no commercial value. Atomic weight, 132.8. 
Discovered by Kihcuoff in the Diirkheim mineral water. Its 
spectrum contains two characteristic blue lines, whence its 
name. 

Calcium. — Atomic weight, 40.07; bivalent; sp. gr., 1.85. A 
lustrous, silvery-white brittle metal. It is less malleable than 
the alkali metals; shows a crystalline fracture. It melts in 
vacuo at 7(J0°C. It forms a hydride. Calls; a nitride, CasNj 
and a carbide, CaCz. It is a powerful deoxidizer. Cannot be 
reduced by carbon. The metal can be cut with a knife and 
wUl scratch lead but not calc spar. 

Cerium. — Atomic weight, 140.25; sp. gr., 6.73. It has an 
iron-gray color, is soft, being somewhat harder than lead, is 
malleable and easily rolled. Fuses at about 800°C. Its most 
remarkable property is that of combining with heavy metals, 
such as iron or copper, to form dense but easily oxidizable 
alloys (the pyropiioric alloys). Fine wire made from the 
metal burns with a brilliancy even exceeding that of mag- 
nesium. It dissolves easily in dilute acids, but only to a limited 
extent in cold concentrated sulphuric or nitric acid. It will 
reduce the oxides of most metals or metalloids. On filing or 
scraping cerium wdth a knife, the filings or scrapings will take 
fire. It can be prepared by fusion of the anhydrous chloride, but 
not by direct reduction of its oxide by carbon, as a carbide is 



CHEMICAL DATA 259 

formed. Lanthanum, praeseodj'mium and ncodymium greath' 
resemble it. Cerium fluoride is used in the "flaming-arc" lamj). 

Chlorine. — Atomic weight, 35.46. Gas at ordinary tempera- 
tures. It derives its name from its greenish-yellow color. 
Strongly corrosive to organic tissues as well as to most metals. 
A violent poison. Liquefies readih'. It is nuich used in com- 
merce as a bleaching material, for which it is derived by the 
Weldon process iq-i'-), or by electrolysis of sodium chloride 
solutions (Castner-Kellk:er, Gibbs process, etc.). The hypo- 
chlorites form the basis for many disinfectants; the chlorates 
form the basis of many modern explosives. 

Chromium. — A bright gray, very lustrous, very hard crystal- 
line metal. Atomic weight, 52.0; sp. gr., 6-7. It oxidizes 
slowly in cold air, readily on heating. Does not burn so readily 
as iron on heating in oxygen. Combines readih' with the 
halogens, sulphur, silicon and carbon. 

Chrome-iron ore can be directly smelted with carbon to 
give ferrochrome. To obtain pure chromium the chrome- 
iron ore is roasted with sodium carbonate or sodium carbonate 
and lime. The mass should not be fused. From this sintered 
mass sodium chromate can be leached out. If H2SO4 is added 
to sodium-chromate solutions the bichromate is produced. 
Sodium bichromate can be reduced with sulphur to give 
chromous anhydride, which can then be reduced with carbon 
or with aluminum. In the carbon reduction the metal is not 
fused, but remains as a powder. Chromium alloys readily with 
iron, manganese, cobalt and tungsten ; with other metals only 
with difficulty. It can also be prepared bv aluminum reduction. 

Cobalt.— Atomic weight, 58.97; trivalent; sp. gr. 8.66-8.92. 
A silver-white metal, melts at 1610°C. if pure. Yield point, 
31,200-65,600 lb. per sq. in. Specific heat, 0.1056 (15°-100°). 
This is the most magnetic element except iron. Exceeds iron 
both in hardness and tenacity. May be turned with ordinary 
lathe tools. Brinnell hardness, chilled from melting point, 
90.8; annealed from 250°C., 77. .3. Cobalt may be separated 
from nickel when both are in solution b^' precipitation with 
milk of lime or with calcium hypochlorite; the cobalt comes 
down first. 

Copper. — Atomic weight, 63.57. The only red metal. 
Bivalent. Tough; ductile. The best conductor of electricity 
(except perhaps silver); the third best conductor of heat. 
Recoverj' of copper is chiefly by smelting sulphide ores to give 
a copper-iron sulphide, the earthy materials forming a fusible 
slag, then blowing air through the sulphide (known as matte) 
getting metallic copper, sulphur dioxide, and ferrous oxide, 
which is slagged by addition of silica. This smelting may be 
done in either blast or reverberator^' furnaces. The metal 
from the desulphurizing operation (converting) is then furnace 
refined if non-argentiferous, or by electrolysis if silver-bearing. 
Copper is also produced by direct reduction of oxide and car- 
bonate or roasted sulphides to metal (black copper) and by 
wet processes, as at Rio Tinto, Wallaroo, Chuquicamata, etc. 



260 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

A preliminar>' concentration of the copper minerals in an ore 

hy gravity or flotation is also niurh practised. 

Fluorine. — A slifj;htly greenish-yellow gas, occurring in nature 
chiefly in fluorspar. One of the most active of the elements. 
Combines with hydrogien even in the dark. It is the only 
element e.xcept those of the argon group which will not combine 
with oxygen. It attacks all metals except platinum and gold, 
and decomposes most organic compounds. It is used to etch 
on glass (as HF), as an electrolyte in lead refining (as HjSiFg), 
as a valuable flux (as CaFjj, and in the manufacture of alu- 
minum (as NajAlFe). 

Gallium. — A rare metal which, although tough, may be cut 
with a knife. With aluminum it forms a liquid alloy which 
will decompose water. 

Gold. — Atomic weight, 197.2 (O = 16); trivalent; sp. gr., 
19.29-19.37; the only yellow metal; most malleable and ductile 
of all metals; softer than silver, harder than tin; tenacity, 
about 14,000 lb. per sq. in. with 30.8 elongation. Melts at 
1063°C., begins to volatilize at 1100"C. and volatilizes four 
times as fast at 1250°C. Electric conductivity 76.7 (Ag = 100). 
One oz. of gold leaf covers about 160 sq. ft. U. S. gold coin is 
900 parts gold, 10 parts copper. Gold is recovered either by 
purely mechanical concentration (panning, etc.), by amalgama- 
tion, by dissolving it in chemical reagents (chlorination, cyanida- 
tion) or by recovering it in a fusion process with copper or lead. 
Has very small tendency to absorb gases when molten, but 
absorbs about 0.7 per cent. H, CO, and other electropositive 
gases when cold, if it is finely divided. It is dissolved by no 
one acid except nitrous, but is dissolved by any mixture (such 
as aqua regia) generating chlorine and bromine. Except in 
the thiosulphate, it does not play the part of base to oxy-acids. 

Gold possesses the lowest solution tension of any metal. 
It may be precipitated from its solution by even the weakest 
reducing agents, such as H, P, As, Sb, C, by nearh' all metals 
(except from cyanide solution, from which it can be separated 
only by zinc and metals more electropositive than zinc), 
by metallic sulphides, by protosalts of iron, tin, etc., by hypo- 
phosphites, sulphites, SO2, the lower oxides of nitrogen, arsenic, 
oxaUc acid, etc. 

Helium. — First discovered by spectroscopic observation of 
the sun. One of the rarest of the elements on the earth's surface. 
Found in some uranium minerals, is given off by the gases of 
certain .spring.s, and is found in the air in the proportion of 
0.0005 per cent. It is absolutely inactive. Atomic weight, 3.96. 

Iodine. — Atomic weight, 126.92. Occurs at ordinary tem- 
peratures as beautiful violet to black crystals. It is largely 
used in the aniline color industry, in making iodoform and in 
potassium iodides in photography and medicine. The chief 
sources of iodine are the mother liquors of the Chilean nitrate 
industry and the ashes of sea weeds. It is readily precipitated 
from iodates thus: 

2Nal03 -t- SXajSOj + 2XaHS03 = SXazSO^ + H2O + I2 



CHEMICAL DATA 261 

Iridium is insoluble in every acid, differs from platinum in 
not being soluble in aqua regia, although when the iridium is 
very finely divided it is attacked by this reagent. Fusion with 
acid potassium sulphate oxidizes it but does not dissolve it 
(distinction from ruthenium). It also oxidizes to the trioxide, 
lr203 when heated with fused sodium nitrate and hydroxide, 
or with hydroxide alone in the presence of air, but the residue 
is but slightly soluble in water. Iridium may be distinguished 
from platinum by suspending the precipitate produced with 
caustic alkalis in a solution of potassium nitrite and the 
solution saturated with SO2 and boiled, renewing the water so 
long as SO2 is given off, all of the iridium is converted to an 
insoluble brownish-green basic iridic sulphite. Iridic salts are 
reduced by alcohol in alkaline solutions to iridous compounds 
soluble in hydrochloric acid. For a method of decomposing 
osmiridium, see "osmium," p. 264. 

Iron. — A white metal of atomic weight, 55.84. Forms two 
series of compounds, ferric (trivalent) and ferrous (bivalent) 
which pass from one form to the other by very gentle reduction 
or oxidation. 

Iron is the most magnetic of the metals. It alloys readily 
with most of the earth metals, onh' slightly with Pb and Cu. 
In the presence of Si, iron will dissolve more Cu than otherwise, 
that is cuprosilicon is dissolved more readily than is pure Cu. Fe 
alloys readily with C, Si, P, S and O. 

Iron Metallurgy. — Iron is produced by a reducing smelting 
after concentration or roasting or both. The slag, usually 
known as cinder, differs from that of the lead and copper 
metallurgists in being a calcium-aluminum silicate. The use 
of preheated blast, often previously dried, is also at variance 
with non-ferrous practice. The iron produced always contains 
Si, C, P, S, etc. Indeed most of the usefulness of iron de- 
pends on its carbon content; so a list is herewith appended of 
the carbides of iron and their modifications, with the names 
applied to them by the iron metallurgists. 

Ferrite. — Chemically pure iron: a-iron, magnetic and free 
from C, passes at 780°C. into /3-iron, which is non-magnetic 
and practically incapable of dissolving C. Above 880°C. 
/3-iron passes into 7-iron which is non-magnetic and capable 
of dissolving C or FesC. 

Cementite. — Iron carbide, FesC. 

Austenite and Martensite. — Solid solutions of FcaC in 
7-iron. 

Troosite. — Colloidal solution of FcsC in Fe. 

Sorbite. — Mixtures of Fe, Fe^C and solid solutions of FesC 
in Fe. 

Penrlile. — The eutectic between ferrite (Fe) and cementite 
(FeaC). It corresponds to 0.9 per cent. C, or (FejC + 20Fe). 

Temper Carbon. — Non-graphitic carbon which separates 
from white iron by keeping it for a long time at a temperature 
near 1000°C., during which time the finely divided cementite 
changes into a mixture of ferrite, pearlite and temper carbon. 



262 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Temper carbon is more readily oxidizable than graphite or 
carbide carbon. 

Forgeablc Iron. — The saturation point of FcsC in Fe is 
reached at 2 per cent. C (2 FcsC + 15Fe). Anything up to 
this point may be regarded as forgeable iron. 

Steel Hardening. — This is explained by assuming a trans- 
formation of pcarlite to martensite, and the maintenance of this 
s&lid solution by quenching. 

Malleablizing. — By exposing white iron for a long time to 
about 1000°C., the dissolved FcsC is converted into Fe and C, 
but the carbon is not present as graphite, but in an easily 
oxidized state. It is then oxidized by FC2O3 or FeCOa. 

White iron is a supercooled solution and may be regarded 
as a metastable system between FcsC and Fe, in which the 
reaction FcaC = 3Fe + C has not been allowed to take place. 

Gray iron is a stable system Fe — FcsC — C. It has had time, 
at the different temperatures and concentrations to reach a 
more or less complete state of equilibrium. During the cooling 
some of the FcaC has decomposed into Fe and C, the latter 
being found as graphite. See also Bessemer (p. 493), Thomas 
GiLCHHisT (p. 496) and Siemens-Martin (p. 496). 

Krypton. — Present in tlie proportion of 1 : 1,000,000 in air. 
Inert. Has a characteristic spectrum, noticed especially in 
the Aurora Borealis. Atomic weight, 45. Discovered by 
Kamsay in the last liquid from the evaporation of liquid air. 

Lanthanum. — Greatly resembles cerium, which see. It occurs 
chiefly in monazite sand. 

Lead. — Atomic weight, 207.1; tetravalent; sp. gr., 11.35- 
11.37, when molten, 10.37-10.65; a dull gray metal, malleable 
but not ductile; tenacity the lowest of any common metal. 
Melts at about 326°C.; electric conductivity 10.7 with silver 
100. Heaviest of all base metals. Fuses at 325°C.; boils at 
1525''C. Has a great affinity for all the noble metals and is 
often used as a carrier in their extractions. 

Lead is obtained by its ores by roast-reaction process 
(2PbO -I- PbS = 3Pb + S02or PbSO* + 2PbS = 3Pb -I-3SO2); 
by the so-called precipitation process (PbS + Fe = Pb ^- FeS); 
or by reduction with carbon of oxide and carbonate ores or 
previously roasted sulphides. The argentiferous lead is re- 
fined by either the Parkes, Pattinson or Betts processes 
iq.v., pp. 493, 494, 495). 

Lithium. — Atomic weight, 6.94; monovalent; sp. gr., 0.5936. 
A soft silver-white metal. Alelts at 186°C.; vaporizes at about 
lOOO'C. Below 200°G. may be melted in the air; above that, 
bursts into flame. Decomposes water at ordinary temperatures. 
It is the lightest known metal. 

Magnesium. — Atomic weight, 24.32; bivalent; sp. gr., 1.75. 
A white lustrous metal of fibrous crystalline structure. Mal- 
leable and ductile, not tough. Melts at 651°C.; boils at about 
1 120°C. Large pieces oxidize superficially. In powder it 
burns readily. Comljines readily with nitrogen at elevated 
temperatures. Is a good deoxidizer. Lightest of metals in 



CHEMICAL DATA 263 

common use. When powdered, it is highly combustible, 
burning with a vivid light. 

Manganese. — Atomic weight, 54.93; usually bivalent, may 
be heptavalent; sp. gr. given by various authorities at from 
7.39 to 8.30. Silvery, lustrous, hard, brittle, smooth fracture. 
Melting point, 1260°C. Volatilizes considerably even at the 
melting point. Boils about 1900°C. Cannot be reduced by 
carbon to pure metal, as some MusC is always formed, but can 
be produced in comparative purity by reduction of Mn203 by 
aluminum. Is used commerciallj' mainly as ferromanganese, 
which is formed b}^ direct reduction of manganese and iron ores. 

Mercury. — Atomic weight, 200.6; bivalent; sp. gr.,when fluid 
at 0°C. ,13.59, solid at - 40°C., 14.19. Silver white with bluish 
tinge. Melts at — 39.38°C. Contracts on solidification, 
forming a white, very ductile, very malleable mass, which 
can be cut with a knife. Specific heat from — 78° to — 40°C. 
is 0.0247; of the fluid metal, to 100°C., 0.0333. Electric con- 
ductivity at 22.8°C. is 1.63. Heat conductivity, 67.7 (Ag 
= 100). Boils at 360°C (Dtjlong and Petit). Amalgamates 
readily with gold, silver, zinc, tin, cadmium, lead and bismuth; 
with copper when finely divided; with arsenic, antimony and 
platinum with difficulty ; with iron, nickel and cobalt not at all 
directly. Is obtained by smelting the ores and catching the 
flue dust, in which the mercury condenses. 

Molybdenum. — Atomic weight, 95.3; quadrivalent; sp. gr., 
8.62-9.01. A white, extremely lustrous, very hard metal. 
Acids scarcely affect it, except nitric, which converts it to 
molybdic oxide or acid. The sulphides readilj^ form thio-salts 
with alkaline sulphides. Remains unchanged in air at ordinary 
temperatures, but oxidizes slowly when heated to redness. Used 
in high-speed steels, where it exercises about twice the influence 
that tungsten does. It cannot be produced pure by direct 
reduction of the oxide by carbon. 

The reduction test for molybdenum is as follows : A small 
quantity of molybdate or wulfenite, in a powdered state, 
together wath a scrap of paper, should be placed in a test-tube 
with a few drops of water and an equal quantity of concentrated 
sulphuric acid. The tube and its contents should then be 
heated until the acid fumes begin to come over. After allowing 
the tube to cool, watej should be added, a drop at a time. The 
addition of the first drops gives rise to a deep blue color, which 
disappears as more water is added. 

Neodymium. — Greatly resembles cerium, which see. 

Nickel. — Atomic weight, 58.58; sp. gr., cast, 8.35, rolled or 
hammered, 8.6 to 8.9; is very hard; can be rolled to sheets not 
over 0.0008 in. thick and drawn into a wire 0.0004 in diameter. 
According to Shakell the tenacity is 42.4 tons per sq. in. for 
annealed wrought nickel. It melts at 1452°C. when pure; the 
melting point is considerably lowered by carbon. Nickel 
is attracted by a magnet (Ni : Fe:: 1 : 1.54), but it loses this power 
at 340°C. Its electric conductivity is 12.9 (Ag = 100). The 
metallurgy of nickel somewhat resembles the fire metallurgy 



264 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

of copper, in that the ores are smelted, following either wet 
concentration or roasting, or both, and tiie nickel-copper 
matte is bessemcrized, but the converting process is not 
carried so far as in copper. In constitution nickel matte seems 
to vary, as the nickel content increases, from (NijS and FeS) 
to (XiaSjand FeS) to pure Ni3S2 or even a solution of Ni in NiaSj. 
Nickel speiss consists of NisAso, NiAs and probably NijAsz. 
The partly bessemcrized mattes and speisses are then given the 
so-called "top and bottom smelting" — a reducing fusion with 
sodium sulphate. The product of this fusion consists of a 
layer of slag, a Cu-Fe-Na matte, and a Ni-Fe matte at 
the bottom. By repeated top and bottom smeltings a copper 
matte practically free from nickel and a nickel matte practically 
free from copper are obtained. 

The nickel matte is then worked up by one of numerous wet 
processes. A part of the present Ni-Cu matte from the 
Canadian Copper Co.'s works is worked down into metal (the 
so-called monel metal) without separation of the nickel, copper 
and iron. The electrolytic baths are probably neutral sulphate 
containing considerable amounts of borate. An interesting 
method of nickel recovery from products in which the nickel 
occurs as oxide, oxide ores or wasted sulpliides is the Mond 
process. A reducing roast is given the ores in retorts heated 
to 300°C. with gases containing H, wherebj' the nickel oxide 
is reduced to sponge Ni. The reduced nickel is then exposed 
to gas containing CO at 100°C. and 15 atmospheres pressure. 
Volatile nickel carbonyl is formed. This is stable at 50°C. at 
2 atmospheres pressure; at 100° at 15 atmospheres; at 180° 
at 30 atmospheres; and at 250° at 100 atmospheres. The 
vapors of Ni(C0)4 escaping from the vessels under pressure 
can be dissociated by simply lowering the pressure. The 
electrolyte formerly used by the Balbach works was said by 
Ulke to be a hot nickel sulphite, the current density to be 15 
amp. per sq. ft. and a tank voltage of 1.7-1.8 volts. 

Osmium, — The heaviest of all metals; sp. gr., 22.48; atomic 
weight, 190.9. Osmium is volatilized in, but not melted by 
the oxyhydrogen blowpipe. When strongly heated in contact 
with air the finely divided metal burns to osmic anhydride, 
OsO^ (usually known as osmic acid). This oxide is remarkable 
for its peculiar, exceedingly irritating and offensive odor. It 
is injurious to the eyes and is extremely poisonous. This 
oxide is soluble in water, giving a neutral solution, from which 
it is precipitated by nearly all metals, even silver, as a black 
precipitate. Fuming nitric acid or aqua regia also oxidizes 
osmium to Os04. When intensely ignited, osmium is rendered 
insoluble in acid, and must be fused with niter and distilled 
with HNO3, when OSO4 will distil over. All compounds of 
osmium yield the metal when ignited in hydrogen. Osmiridium 
may be attacked by mixing it with common salt or potassium 
chloride and exposing it in a glass or porcelain tube to a current 
of moi.st chlorine gas. Osmic acid is formed, which volatilizes 
below 212°C. and can be condensed and fixed by passing the 



CHEMICAL DATA 265 

fume into an alkaline solution. Iridium remains behind in the 
tube as a double chloride, 2KCMrCl4. 

Palladium is the most fusible of the so-called platinum metals. 
The metal oxidizes when heated in air. It absorbs hydrogen to 
a large extent. A solution of iodine produces a black stain on 
palladium, but has no effect on platinum. The best solvent 
for palladium is aqua regia. It is sparingly soluble in pure 
nitric acid, but dissolves more readily in fuming nitric acid, 
forming palladious nitrate, Pd(X03)2. All palladium com- 
pounds decompose on ignition. 

Phosphorus. — Found in nature chiefly as the tri-basic 
calcium phosphate. To produce phosphorus the calcium 
phosphate is treated with sulphuric acid in lead-lined tanks. 
This converts the tricalcium into monocalcium phosphate. 
The clear solution is then drawn off and the precipitate thor- 
oughly washed. The solution and washings are evaporated 
to 45°Be. and about 25 per cent, of coke or charcoal added and 
the pastj^ ma.ss dried in iron pans. The dry mixture is then 
distilled in cast-iron retorts and the fumes passed into a con- 
denser containing w'ater, under which the phosphorus collects. 
Phosphorus melts at 44°C. and distills at 269°C. It must be 
kept under water. 

Platinum. — Atomic weight, 195.2; tetravalent; sp. gr., cast, 
21.5; a white metal of a grayish tinge; is very malleable and 
ductile; harder than copper, silver and gold; tenacity about 
23,000 lb. per sq. in. (Deville and Debray); electric con- 
ductivity 13.4 at 0°C. (Ag = 100); melts at 1755°C., but is 
sensiblj'^ volatile at 1300°C. Is mainly recovered from alluvial 
deposits, but is also got in Wohlwill's process of electro- 
Ij'tic gold refining, where it remains in the solution. It is 
affected by fused alkaline hj-droxides, phosphorus, cyanides, 
sulphides and halogens. Platinum is not acted upon either by 
pure hydrochloric, nitric or sulphuric acid. It dissolves in 
aqua regia and other mixtures, evolving chlorine, but less 
readily than gold, so that gold which has been fused to platinum 
can be dissolved by dilute aqua regia at moderate temperatures 
without injuring the platinum. When alloyed with silver, 
lead and some other metals it is dissolved (see tables on 
pp 328, 329). 

Potassium. — Atomic weight, 39.1; monovalent; sp. gr., 0.865. 
A bluish-white metal, softer than sodium; fuses at 62.3°C., 
vaporizes about 700°C. The vapor is greenish. Like sodium 
in its reactions (q.v.). However, there is an explosive material 
left in the retorts when potassium carbonate is reduced by 
carbon, and the process is dangerous. It is found in greatest 
abundance in the salt deposits of Stassfurt, Germany. 

Praeseodymium. — Greath^ resembles neodj^mium, which see. 
Occurs chiefly in monazite sands. 

Rhodium is found in the insoluble residue resulting from the 
treatment of crude platinum with aqua regia. It is, when pure 
and in a compact state, not acted upon bj- even aqua regia, 
but when alloyed with lead, copper or bismuth in certain pro- 



26G METALLURGISTS AND CHEMLSTS' HAXDIJOOK 

portions it dissolves in it. When alloyed with gold or silver 
it does not dissolve. It is oxidized by air at a red heat, or by 
fusion with potassium hydroxide and niter. It is converted by 
fusion with acid potassium sulphate into the soluble potassium 
rliodic sulphate K6Rh2(S04)6. Mixed with sodium chloride 
and ignited in chlorine it forms the easily soluble 3XaCl- 
RhCUHiO. Rhodium is distinguished from the other platinum 
metals by its insolubility in aqua regia, its solubility in fused 
IIKSOi, and the formation of a brown precipitate on adding 
KG 1 1 and alcoliol to rhodium-chloride solution. 

Ruthenium is found in the insoluble residue resulting from 
the treatment of platinum ore witli aqua regia. It is a grayish- 
white metal, closely resembling iridium and very difficultly 
soluble. When heated in air it becomes covered with bluish- 
black ruthenic oxide, RujOs. When pure it is unacted on by 
acid, and is scarcely acted on by acid potassium sulphate. It 
is attacked by fusion with potassium hydrate and niter, or 
potassium chlorate and is converted into K2RUO4, a dark- 
green mass, soluble in water to an orange-colored fluid which 
stains the skin black. Ruthenium is rendered soluble by 
ignition with potassium chloride in a current of chlorine, being 
converted to 2KCIRUCI4. 

Selenium. — An element originally recovered from the dust 
chambers and mud of the lead chambers of sulphuric-acid 
plants. The classic process is to leach the mud with concen- 
trated potassium cyanide, forming KCXSe, and then precipi- 
tating the Se by adding hydrochloric acid. My own process, 
by which much of the commercial selenium is now obtained, 
is to oxidize seleniferous flue dusts with HCl and XaClOj, then 
after all the free chlorine is gone, precipitate the metal with 
sulphur dioxide. The precipitate is then washed and dried. 
Selenium occurs in several amorphous modifications, some 
soluble in CS2, some insoluble; in certain crystalline forms 
when precipitated from solution; in a vitreous form when 
melted and cooled quickly; and a so-called metallic form when 
melted and cooled slowly. This metallic modification has the 
remarkable property of altering its electric conductivity when 
illuminated. The vitreous modification passes over into the 
metallic when heated for some time above 180°F. There is a 
considerable evolution of heat during the change. 

Silver. — Atomic weight, 107.88; monovalent; sp. gr., cast 
10.50. minted 10.57. Melts at 962°C., boils at 1850°C. 
Moissan). It is the whitest of metals, harder than gold, softer 
than copper, more malleable and ductile than any metal except 
gold, the best conductor of heat and electricity of known 
substances. (Some authorities state that gold is the best 
conductor of heat and copper of electricity. In any case the dif- 
ference is slight.) It volatilizes at high temperatures, yielding 
a green vapor. In the molten state it has the property of absorb- 
ing twentj'-t wo times its volume of oxygen, which is given outon 
cooling, causing the so-called spitting of silver. This occurs 
only with the pure metal. Small quantities of copper, bismuth 



CHEMICAL DATA 2G7 

and zinc entirely prevent it, as does also an inert cover. Arsenic 
antimony, bismuth and lead render silver brittle. It is re- 
covered by amalgamation, by chemical processes (Augustin, 
ZiERVOGEL, Kiss, Russell, Patera, Patio, Cyanide, etc.) and 
from the impure bullion from lead or copper smelting. From 
lead it is recovered by the Pattinson, Parks and Betts 
processes (q.v.) and from copper by electrolytic parting. 
In both these cases it contains gold, which is then recovered 
either by dissolving the silver by sulphuric or nitric acid, or 
by electrolj-tically refining the silver by the Moebius or 
Thtjm process. The auriferous silver bullion is known as dor6. 
Silver does not oxidize in air, even if heated, but is easily at- 
tacked by sulphur and its compounds. It is attacked by nitric 
acid, and by hot sulphuric, scarcely at all by hydrochloric nor 
by the halogens and not at all by fused alkaline hydroxides. 

Sodium. — Atomic weight, 23.00; monovalent, sp. gr., 0.974. 
A soft silvery-white metal, which may be kneaded at ordinary 
temperatures. Melts at 95.6°C.; vaporizes at about 900°C. 
Dissolves in anhydrous ammonia. Decomposes water at 
ordinary temperatures, and must be kept under oil. Burns in 
dry air to the peroxide, Nao02. Practically all sodium com- 
pounds are soluble. Can be reduced from the carbonate by 
carbon. 

Strontium. — A soft white metal. Found chiefly in nature 
as carbonate and sulphate. Is used in the manufacture of 
fireworks for red fire, and in the refining of sugar. 

Tantalum. — Atomic weight, 181.5. A rare element usually 
occurring with columbium. Below 200°C. the metal is not at- 
tacked by air, oxygen or any acid except concentrated hydro- 
fluoric. Not attacked by aqua regia, or by alkaline solutions, 
but is by fused alkalies. Can be used for electrolj^tic cathodes, 
but not as anodes, as it oxidizes under anodic action. 

Tellurium. — A metal much like selenium. Occurs usually 
as gold or silver telluride. About the only method of separating 
from selenium, if the two are mixed, is to make a fractional 
separation with SO2, for selenium precipitates from concen- 
trated hydrochloric-acid solutions with SO2, while tellurium 
does not, or by taking a mixture of finely divided precipitates, 
leaching with concentrated cyanide solutions at ordinary tem- 
peratures, heating the solution, and filtering hot. The selenium 
is dissolved. 

Tin. — Atomic weight, 119.0; quadrivalent; sp. gr., cast 
7.287, rolled 7.30, tetragonal form (electrolytically deposited) 
7.25, rhombic 6.55, ordinary commercial about 7.5, friable 
modification (due to tin pest) 5.8; melts at 232°C.; boils at 
2100°C. ; specific heat, 0.0562; coefficient of linear expansion, 
0.00223; heat conductivitv, 15.2 (Ag = 100). Most malleable 
at about 100°C., most brittle at about 200°C. Rolls to sheets 
not over 3^ooo inch thick. Tensile strength of very pure bars 
2420 lb. per sq. in. (H. Louis), of hammered 2540 lb. per sq. in., 
commercial about 4600 lb. per sq. in., tin foil about 5980 lb. 
per sq. in. Breaks down at low temperatures to a gray granular 



268 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

powder (tin pest); the change commences at 18°C., and is most 
rapid at -48''C. Boils at IoOO°to 1000°C\ if heated out of access 
of air. It is but little afifected by air and moisture at ordinary 
temperatures. Electric conductivity, 14.4 (.\g = 100). De- 
creases in volume by 6.75 per cent, on solidification. Acted 
on by CI, HCl, II2SO4 and IINOj, but is only oxidized by latter 
and docs not form nitrates. Ores are usually concentrated, 
roasted if required and smelted in shaft or reverberatory 
furnaces, and refined bv fire processes. Analyses of English 
tin show (H. Louis, "iMetallurgv of Tin"): Sn, 98.64-99.76: 
Fe, tr-0.13; Pb, 0-0.20; Cu, tr-1.16. Tin from Pulo Brani 
showed, Sn, 99.76; Sb, 0.07; Pb, 0.02; Fe, 0.14; Cu, As, none. 
Is perceptibly volatile at 1200°C. Because of the high specific 
gravity of tin oxide it is ordinarily concentrated by me- 
chanical means before smelting. The smelting of tin is diffi- 
cult because it tends, when there is an excess of base in the 
slag, to enter it as an acid, forming stannites and stannates, while 
if there is an exce.s3 of silica tin enters the slag as a base. 

Tungsten. — An almost white, very lustrous hard metal. 
Atomic weight, 184.0; sp. gr., 19.3-20.2. It begins to oxidize 
only at elevated temperatures in air. It can be reduced by 
carbon from the oxide. Ductile tungsten is practically insolu- 
ble in the common acids, it has the highest melting point of 
any metal (3267°C.); it is paramagnetic, and its wire can be 
drawn to smaller sizes than can the wire of any other metal. 
The chief commerciallj' important forms are sodium tungstate, 
largely used for fireproofing and as a mordant, and tungsten 
as a constituent of high-speed steels. The recovery is entirely 
by chemical methods: (1) fusion with sodium carbonate; 
leaching out sodium tungstate with water; precipitation of 
WO3 bj' acidifj'ing with hydrochloric acid, followed by reduc- 
tion with carbon. A little W2C and WC is formed in this re- 
duction and dissolved by the metal. Ferrotungsten can also 
be formed by direct reduction of wolframite or scheelite with 
iron compounds and powdered quartz or glass. The carbon- 
free metal can also be produced by the aluminum-reduction 
process. 

A general test for all tungsten ores is carried out as follows: 

Strong hydrochloric acid is added to the ore, which is first 
pulverized to as fine a powder as possible, and part of the 
tungsten will pa.ss into the solution. Metallic zinc should then 
be added and the mixture boiled. A fine azure blue denotes the 
presence of tung.sten. 

When any ore containing tungsten is fused with sodic 
carbonate, leached out with hot water and filtered, the tungsten 
pa.sses into the filtrate. If hydrochloric acid is added the 
tungsten is precipitated. This precipitate is insoluble in all 
acids, dissolves readily in ammonia, and is of a fine j-ellow 
color. A little of this j'ellow powder, if added to a bead of 
salt of phosphorus and treated in a reducing flame, using a blow 
lamp, gives the fine blue bead characteristic of tungsten. 

Uranium. — A white lustrous, very hard metal, oxidizing in , 



CHEMICAL DATA 269 

air only at high temperatures, but igniting in pure oxygen at 
170°. Fluorine attacks it at ordinary temperatures, chlorine 
at 180°, bromine at 210° and iodine at 260°C. It combines 
with sulphur at about 1000°C. to form a black sulphide and with 
nitrogen at about 1000°C. to produce a yellow nitride. 

Vanadium. — Atomic weight, 51.0; sp. gr., 5.50; melts at 1720°. 
According to Borchers the purest metal yet obtained was a 
gray lustrous powder which ignites readily in the Bunsen flame. 
It dissolves with great difficulty in hydrochloric or dilute 
sulphuric acid, but more readily in strong sulphuric acid, in 
hydrofluoric acid or in nitric. With fused alkali-metal hydrox- 
ides it forms vanadates. At elevated temperatures it combines 
readily with the halogens, sulphur, or even with nitrogen. 

Xenon. — Occurs in the atmosphere in the proportion of 
1 : 20,000. Heaviest of the rare gases. 

Zinc. — Atomic weight, 65.37; always bivalent; sp. gr., cast, 
from 6.861 to 7.149; when rolled, 7.2 to 7.3; when fluid, 6.48 to 
6.55. Boils at about 920°C. Melts at 415°C. Specific heat 
at 0° to 100°C., 0.09555 (Regnault); probably 0.1015 from 
100° to 300°C. It burns in air at about 505°C. Zinc is brittle 
at ordinary temperatures, especially if impure, but between 
100°C. and 150°C. it becomes malleable and ductile, and may 
be rolled into sheets and drawn into wire, and retains these 
properties after cooling. At 205°C. it again becomes so brittle 
that it may be powdered in a mortar. When cast at a tempera- 
ture near its melting point it is more malleable than when cast 
at a higher temperature. In malleability zinc ranks between 
lead and iron ;in ductility between copper and tin. In hardness 
it stands between copper and tin; more exactly between silver 
and platinum, being 2.5 on Moh's scale, 6 on Turner's sclerome- 
ter, and 1077 on Bottone's scale, on which the diamond is 
3010. The thermal conductivity is given from 19 (Wiedemann) 
to 64.1 (Calvert and Johnson), silver being 100. Its electrical 
conductivity is 16.92, mercury at 0°C. being unity. On the 
basis of silver = 100, Becquerel gives its conductivity at 
24.06, and Weiller at 29.90. According to Roberts-Austen 
the coefficient of linear expansion is 0.0000291; Calvert and 
Johnson give it at 0.00002193 for hammered zinc. The tensile 
strength of zinc varies from 2700 lb. per sq. in. for cast metal to 
17,700 for an annealed rod. Zinc dissolves readily in both acid 
and alkaline solutions with evolution of hydrogen. A moderate 
tenor in lead makes zinc malleable and ductile; over 1.5 per 
cent. Pb is certainly detrimental. Iron up to 0.2 per cent, 
does not greatly affect the properties of zinc, above that it 
makes it less fluid, less malleable, less strong, harder and more 
brittle. Cadmium seems to have no injurious influence except 
when the spelter or ore is to be used for making zinc oxide. 
Copper makes zinc harder and more brittle, even if only 0.5 
per cent, be present. Tin also makes it harder and more 
brittle. Other impurities are of minor importance, but silver, 
thallium, indium, magnesium, aluminum, antimony, arsenic, 
sulphur, carbon, chlorine and oxygen occur. The metal 



270 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

is produced by smelting the ores in retorts with carbon as 
a reducing agent, and extraneous fuel to heat them. A fusible 
slag is not wanted. Sulphide ores must be roasted clean before 
distillation. The loss of zinc in the smelting process, due to 
retort ab.^orption, escape through the pores of the retorts, 
escape of uncondensed zinc through the adapters, through zinc 
left in the retorts, etc., is very seldom below 10 per cent, and 
may amount to 25 per cent. 

Zirconium. — Atomic weight, 90.6; ."^p. gr., 6.4; melts about 
2350°C., occurs as the natural oxide and as the silicate (zircon). 
It was used as the incandescing material in the first gas mantles. 



DETECTION OF THE METALS 

Aluminum. — Is precipitated as white gelatinous hydroxide by 
ammonia. When the oxide is strongl}' heated on charcoal with 
cobalt nitrate, a bright-blue mass is obtained. With soda 
before the blowpipe it swells and forms an infusible compound. 

Antimony. — When a small quantity of an antimony com- 
pound is heated in the upper reduction zone of a Bunsen 
burner on a thread of asbestos, the flame is given a bluish tinge 
and when a small porcelain basin filled with cold water is held 
above it, a brownish-black deposit of metallic antimony is 
deposited upon the basin, and this is but slightly attacked by 
cold nitric acid and is insoluble in sodium hypochlorite. Arsenic 
gives a similar reaction, but arsenic gives a garlic-like odor 
during the reduction, and the metallic film is readily soluble in 
the hypochlorite. Antimony compounds may be obtained in 
solution by treating with HCl or by fusing first with potassium 
carbonate and potassium nitrate. Hydrogen sulphide produces 
in acid solution a ver\' characteristic orange-red- colored pre- 
cipitate of antimony trisulphide. Blo^-pipe tests — on coal, 
reducing flame, volatile white coat, bluish in thin layers, con- 
tinues to form after ces.sation of blast. With bismuth flux on 
plaster, orange-red coat, made orange by (\H4)jS; on coal, 
faint yellow or red coat. In open tube, dense, white, non- 
volatile amorphous sublimate. The sulphide, too rapidly 
heated, will yield spots of red. In closed tube the oxide will 
yield a white fusible sublimate of needle crystals; the sulphide, 
a black sublimate, red when cold. 

Arsenic. — Mix with sodium carbonate and heat on charcoal 
with the blowpipe. All arsenic compounds give a garlic odor. 
Add to concentrated hydrochloric acid a iFew drops of an 
arsenite solution and half a cubic centimeter of saturated 
solution of stannous chloride in hydrochloric acid, warm, and 
the solution turns brown, then black. Blowpipe — on smoked 
plaster gives a white coat of octahedral crystals. The action 
on coal has already been spoken of. With bismuth flux on 
plaster Sb gives a reddish-orange coat, made yellow by (NH4J2S; 
on coal a faint yellow coat. In open tube it gives a white 
sublimate of octahedral crystals. Too high heat may form 



CHEMICAL DATA 271 

brown suboxide or red or yellow sulphide. In closed tube 
may give white oxide, yellow or red sulphide, or black mirror 
of metal. Flame — azure blue. 

Barivun. — The Bunsen flame is colored a yellowish-green tint 
when any volatile barium compound is brought into it. Soluble 
barium salts are distinguished from those of strontium and 
calcium inasmuch as they are immediately^ precipitated by a 
solution of calcium sulphate. Blowpipe — on coal, with soda, 
fuses and sinks into the coal. The yellow-green flame can be 
improved by moistening with HCl. 

Bismuth. — On charcoal with soda, bismuth gives a very 
characteristic orange-yellow sublimate. Brittle globules of the 
metal are also reduced on the charcoal when treated with soda. 
Hydrogen sulphide precipitates from solutions of bismuth salts 
a blackish-brown sulphide (Bi2S3) insoluble in ammonium 
sulphide and easily soluble in nitric acid. Ammonia throws 
down a white basic salt insoluble in excess. Blowpipe — with 
bismuth flux (sulphur, 2 parts; potass, iodide, 1 part; potass, 
bisulphate, 1 part) on plaster, bright scarlet coat surrounded by 
chocolate brown with sometimes a reddish border. The 
brown may be made red with ammonia. With bismuth flux, 
on coal, gives a bright-red coat with sometimes an inner fringe 
of yellow. 

Cadmium. — Cadmium is precipitated as a yellow sulphide 
by hydrogen sulphide. The sulphide is insoluble in ammonium 
sulphide and in the caustic alkalies. On charcoal with soda, 
compounds of cadmium give a characteristic sublimate of the 
reddish-brown oxide. 

To test for cadmium in a sulphide, roast it to oxide, and 
reduce some of the oxide in the upper reducing flame of the 
Bunsen burner, at the same time holding a glazed porcelain 
dish which contains water just above the flame to receive 
a brown coating. To the brown coating add a drop of AgNOs 
solution; if Cd is present, black metallic silver will be de- 
posited. Blowpipe — on coal, reducing flame, greenish yellow 
in thin layers. Beyond the coat, at first part of operation, 
the coat shows a variegated tarnish. On smoked plaster 
with bismuth flux Cd gives a white coat made orange by 
(NH4)2S. With borax or sodium phosphate, oxidizing flame, 
clear yellow hot, colorless cold, can be flamed milk white. The 
yellow bead touched to Na2S203 becomes yellow. 

Caesium. — H2PtCl6 produces a bright-yellow crystalline 
precipitate, a brighter color than the potassium salt thus pro- 
duced, and is much more soluble than the potassium salt. 
The flame test is reddish violet, similar to potassium. 

Calcium. — Calcium compounds moistened with hydrochloric 
acid and placed on a platinum wire in the hottest part of a 
Bunsen flame impart a red color to the flame. 

Calcium may be precipitated from solution as oxalate by 
first making the solution ammoniacal and then adding am- 
monium oxalate or oxalic acid. Blo^T^ipe — on coal with soda, 
insoluble and not absorbed by the coal. Flame — yellow red, 



272 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

improved by moistening with HCl. With borax or sodium 
phosphate, clear and colorless; can be flamed opaque. 

Cerium. — Fuse with sodium carbonate. Treat with dilute 
hydrochloric acid, evaporate to dr>-ness and bake. Take up 
with dilute hydrochloric acid, filter. Add ammonia to the 
filtrate, filter. Dissolve the precipitate in hydrochloric acid, 
add ammonia and oxalic acid, filter. Dissolve the precipitate 
in concentrated hydrochloric acid, nearly neutralize with am- 
monia; add 1 cc. of hydrogen peroxide and then ammonia, 
drop by drop, until just alkaline. When just neutral, white 
thorium peroxide is precipitated; when ammoniacal, the orange 
cerium peroxide is precipitated. 

Chromium. — Chromium oxide is detected in its insoluble 
compounds by its characteristic green color. It forms an 
emerald-green head with borax or microcosmic salt. Caustic 
potash or soda gives a green precipitate in solutions of chromic 
salts. This dissolves in an excess of alkali in the cold, but is 
precipitated on boiling the solution. The detection of chromic 
acid is rendered easj' by the bright-yellow color of its salts. 
The yellow color of the normal chromates becomes red on the 
addition of an acid, and again yellow when made alkaline. 
Blowpipe — with borax or sodium phosphate, oxidizing flame, 
reddish when hot, fine yellow when cold. Reducing flame, in 
borax, green hot and cold. In sodium phosphate, red when hot, 
green when cold. With soda — oxidizing flame, dark j'ellow when 
hot, opaque and light yellow cold. Reducing flame, opaque 
and yellowish green cold. Manganese interferes, giving a 
bright yellowish green with soda bead in the oxidizing flame. 

CobaJt. — Ammonium sulphide produces a black precipitate 
(CoS) insoluble in acetic acid and in dilute hydrochloric acid. 
Ammonium sulphocyanate produces a beautiful blue color, 
Co(CNS)2. With a borax bead cobalt gives the characteristic 
cobalt-blue color. Blowpipe — on coal, reducing flame, the 
oxide becomes magnetic metal. The solution in HCl will be 
rose-red, but on evaporation will be blue. With borax or 
sodium phosphate, pure blue in either flame. 

Columbium. — Fuse with potassium bisulphate. Pulverize 
the fusion and treat it with hot water; then treat it with dilute 
hydrochloric acid. Digest the residue with ammonium 
sulphide to remove W, Sn, etc. Wash and treat again with 
dilute hydrochloric acid. The residue should be colorless 
and contain only silica and the oxides of columbium and 
tantalum. This residue in a bead of microcosmic salt is 
colorless if no columbium is present or if heated in the oxidizing 
flame; but if heated in the reducing flame, columbium imparts 
a violet color to the bead, or blue if saturated with oxide. Add- 
ing ferrous sulphate turns the bead blood red. 

If, when the mixed oxides are boiled in dilute sulphuric acid 
with metallic zinc, the white precipitate turns intensely blue 
and remains so on dilution, columbium is present; if it turns 
bluish gray and colorless on dilution, tantalum is predominant. 

Copper. — Copper can easily be detected by the reduction 



CHEMICAL DATA 273 

to the red metallic bead on charcoal before the blowpipe. 
Copper compounds moistened with HCl color the non-luminous 
flame green. An excess of ammonia added to a nitric acid 
solution of copper produces an azure-blue color. With borax 
or sodium phosphate, oxidizing flame, green when hot, blue or 
green blue cold. (By repeated oxidation and reduction, the 
borax bead becomes ruby red.) Reducing flame, green or 
colorless hot, opaque and brownish red cold. 

Erbium.— Erbium oxide heated on a platinum wire colors 
the flame distinctly green. 

Gallium. — If a neutral solution of gallium chloride be warmed 
with zinc, gallium oxide or basic salt separates but not the 
metal. 

Germanium. — Fuse with sulphur and sodium carbonate. 
Treat with hot water, filter, add a few drops of hydrochloric 
acid to the filtrate to precipitate white germanium sulphide. 
Filter and heat the residue in a current of hydrogen to reduce 
it to gray-black crystalline germanous sulphide. Dissolve 
the crystals in hydrochloric acid and pass hydrogen sulphide 
into the solution to precipitate reddish-brown germanous 
sulphide. 

Glucinum. — Ammonium carbonate produces a white pre- 
cipitate, GICO3, soluble in an excess of the reagent; by boiling 
the solution it is precipitated as a basic carbonate. 

Gold. — Gold may be reduced from its ores on charcoal to a 
yellow malleable bead which is soluble in aqiia regia; if the 
solution be dropped on filter paper and one drop of stannous 
chloride added, a purple-red color is produced. 

Indium. — Heated on charcoal before the blowpipe it colors 
the flame blue, and gives an incrustation of the oxide. It 
slowly dissolves in hydrochloric and dilute sulphuric acids, 
but readily in nitric acid. 

Iridium. — Ammonium chloride produces in a tolerably con- 
centrated solution of iridium a dark-red crystalline precipitate. 
Iridium is distinguished from platinum by the formation of a 
colorless solution of potassium chloriridiate when caustic potash 
is added to the chloride of the metal, and on exposure to the 
air this colorless solution first becomes red colored and after- 
ward blue. 

Hydrogen sulphide precipitates brown iridium sulphide, 
which is soluble in ammonium sulphide. 

Iron. — Ferrous salts with potassium ferricyanide produce a 
dark -blue precipitate. Ferric salts with ammonia or the fixed 
alkalies produce a brown precipitate. Ferric salts with potas- 
sium or ammonium sulphocyanate produce a blood-red -colored 
precipitate. Ferrous salts with a bead of microcosmic salt or 
borax are colored dark green. This color readily changes to 
yellow or reddish brown by oxidation. Blowpipe — on coal, 
with reducing flame, many compounds become magnetic. 
Soda assists this reaction. With borax, oxidizing flame, 
yellow to red hot, colorless to yellow cold. With reducing 
flame, bottle green. With tin on coal, violet-green. With 

18 



274 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

sodium phosphate, oxidizing flame, yellow to red hot, greenish 
when cooling, colorless to yellow cold. Reducing flame, red 
botli hot and cold, greenish when cooling. 

Lead. — Black precipitatate formed with hydrogen sulphide, 
chrome yellow with chromates. In nitric acid .solution dilute sul- 
phuric acid gives a wliite precipitate of lead sulphate. Blowpipe 
— on coal, lead is reduced in either flame to malleable metal, 
and yields near the assay a dark lemon-yellow coat, sulphur 
yellow cold, and bluish white at border. The phosphate yields 
no coat without the aid of a flux. With bismuth flux on plaster 
chrome-yellow coat, blackened by (NH4)2S. On coal, volatile 
yellow coat, darker hot. Flame, azure blue. With borax or 
sodium phosphate, oxidizing flame, yellow hot, colorless cold. 
Flames opaque yellow. In reducing flame, borax bead becomes 
clear; S. Ph. bead, cloudy. 

Lithium. — In the Bunsen flame a fine carmine-red color is 
produced, visible if sodium is present by viewing the flame 
through cobalt glass. If silicon is present, make into a paste 
with lioracic-acid flux and water and fuse in the blue flame. 
Ju.st after the flux fuses the red flame will appear. 

Magnesium. — To a solution of magnesium add ammonium 
chloride, ammonia and sodium phosphate; a white precipitate 
(MgNH4P04) forms. The action is hastened by rubbing the 
sides of the beaker with a glass rod. Blowpipe — on coal, 
with soda, Mg is insoluble and not absorbed by the coal. 
With borax or sodium phosphate, clear and colorless; can be 
flamed opaque white. With cobalt solution, strongly heated, 
becomes a pale flesh color. (With silicates this action is of 
use only in absence of coloring oxides. The phosphate, arsenate 
and borate become violet colored.) 

Manganese. — .\mmonium sulphide produces a flesh-colored 
precipitate. A solution containing traces of manganese boiled 
in concentrated nitric acid with lead peroxide or sodium 
bismuthate and allowed to settle gives a violet-red-colored 
solution (HMn04). The borax bead with manganese in the 
oxidizing flames gives an amethyst-colored bead (with much, 
black or opaque) and this in the reducing flame becomes 
colorless or with black spots. With soda, oxidizing flame, 
bluish green and opaque when cold. Nitrate assists the reac- 
tion. If silicon is present, dissolve in borax, then make soda 
fusion. 

Mercury. — Stannous chloride heated with a solution of 
mercury precipitates graj' metallic Hg. Mercury compounds 
mixed with sodium carbonate and heated in a closed tube 
produce a gray mirror of metallic Hg. With bismuth flux, on 
plaster, Hg gives a volatile yellow and scarlet coat. If too 
strongly heated the coat is black and yellow. On coal Hg gives 
a coat faint yellow at a distance. In matrass gives mirror-like 
sublimate, which may be collected in globules. (Gold leaf is 
whitened by the least trace of mercury vapor.) 

Molybdenum. — To a strong nitric acid solution of molybde- 
num add nearly enough ammonia to neutralize the acid and 



CHEMICAL DATA 275 

then add a few drops of sodium phosphate sokition, A bright- 
yellow, crystalline precipitate forms when the solution is 
warmed. A hydrochloric or sulphuric acid solution of molybde- 
num, to which zinc or stannous chloride is added, turns first 
blue, then green, and finally brown. On coal, with oxidizing 
flame Mo gives a coat, yellowish when hot, white when cold, 
crystalline near assay; in reducing flame the coat is turned in 
part deep blue, in part copper red. Its Bunsen-burner flame 
is yellowish green. With borax, oxidizing flame, yellow when 
hot, colorless when cold. Reducing flame, emerald green. 

Neodymium. — The didymium salts are violet and are identi- 
fied by a characteristic absorption spectrum. 

Nickel. — Potassium cyanide produces a bright-green pre- 
cipitate, Ni(CN)2. When nickel compounds are heated with 
reducing agents before the blowpipe, an infusible magnetic 
powder is produced. If this powder is dissolved in a drop or two 
of dilute nitric acid and evaporated to complete dryness, a 
characteristic green stain is obtained which becomes yellow on 
further heating. Nickel compounds color the borax bead 
brownish yellow in the oxidizing flame, the bead becoming 
gray and opaque in the reducing flame, owing to the separation 
of metallic nickel. Nickel is precipitated in alkaline solution 
by ammonium sulphide, which dissolves in an excess of ammo- 
nium sulphide forming a dark -colored solution. 

Osmium. — It is dissolved in fuming nitric acid, or by fusing 
with sodium hydroxide and potassium nitrate and then treat- 
ing with nitric acid and distilling. Osmic oxide (OSO4), which 
sublimes at a moderately low temperature, passes over and 
condenses as a colorless crystalline mass. The osmic oxide has 
an odor similar to chlorine and is poisonous. 

Palladium. — Dissolves in nitric acid or aqua regia. Potas- 
sium iodide added produces a black precipitate, palladous 
iodide (Pdl2), soluble in an excess of the reagent but not 
soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. Mercuric cyanide, Hg(CN)2, 
produces a yellowish-white gelatinous precipitate, Pd(CN)2, 
which, on ignition, leaves the spongy metal. See also special 
articles on palladium determination on p. 264. 

Platinum. — When heated with sodium carbonate on charcoal, 
gray spongy metal is reduced. This, rubbed on a mortar with a 
pestle, gives a metallic luster and is insoluble in any single acid. 
See also special articles on platinum determination on p. 264. 

Potassium. — A solution of H2PtCl6 added to concentrated 
solutions of potassium gives a yellow precipitate KaPtCle. In 
the Bunsen flame potassium gives a violet color, visible if 
sodium also is present if viewed through cobalt glass. 

Praseodymium. — See Neodymium. 

Radium. — To the Bunsen flame a radium salt imparts an 
intense carmine-red color. Radium rays discharge a charged 
electroscope and may be used for making photographs on 
ordinary X-ray plates. 

Rhodium. — Before the blowpipe on charcoal with sodium 
carbonate the salts of rhodium are reduced to the metal, which 



276 MET.\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

is insoluble in aqua regia, but may be dissolved by fusing it 
with potassium pyrosulphate and then treating the fusion with 
water. By adding to this solution potassium hydroxide and a 
little alcohol the brown rhodium hydroxide is formed. 

Rubidium. — A solution of HjPtCle produces a white cr3-stal- 
line precipitate, RboPtCe, which is less soluble than the corre- 
sponding potassium salt and more soluble than the caesium 
salt. The flame test gives a color similar to the caesium test. 

Ruthenium. — Ruthenium is practically insoluble in all acids 
and in aqua regia. Fuse it with potassium hydroxide and 
potassium nitrate. The resulting K2Ru04 heated with NaCl 
in a current of chlorine yields soluble KjRuCU. The greenish- 
black fusion treated with water yields an orange-yellow solution, 
which stains the skin black. 

Scandium. — ^A hydrochloric acid solution of scandium treated 
with sohd sodium silicofluoride and boiled 30 min. gives a 
precipitate containing scandium free from the rare earth metals. 
^ Silver. — When fused with sodium carbonate on charcoal 
before the blowpipe, a bright metallic silver bead is produced, 
which may be dissolved in nitric acid and precipitated from 
the solution by hydrochloric acid as' a curdy precipitate of 
silver chloride, or, if only a trace of silver is present, as a mere 
opalescence. 

Sodium. — To a neutral or weakly alkaline solution add 
potassium pyroantimonate, KjHsSbjOa, and a heavy white 
crystalline precipitate, Na2H2Sb203, is quickly formed by 
rubbing the sides of the beaker with a glass rod. Solutions of 
sodium on a platinum wire in a Bunsen flame give a yellow 
color. 

Strontium. — Solutions on a platinum wire color the Bunsen 
flame carmine red, improved by moistening with HCl. Stron- 
tium sulphate is less soluble than calcium sulphate, but more 
soluble than barium sulphate. If barium is present the flame 
turns brownish j'ellow. The lithium flame is unaffected by 
addition of barium chloride. 

Sulphur. — Fuse on coal with soda and a little borax in the 
reducing flame and place melt on a bright silver coin. Moisten, 
crush, and let stand. In presence of sulphur the coin will 
turn brown or black. 

Thallium. — Dissolve in dilute acid, add H2S, filter. Add to 
the filtrate ammonium sulphide and filter. If thallium is 
present in the precipitate it will color the Bunsen flame emerald 
green. 

Thorium. — Fuse in a platinum crucible with sodium carbon- 
ate. Cool, dissolve in water and hydrochloric acid. Evapo- 
rate to dryness and bake. Take up with dilute hydrochloric 
acid, filter. Add ammonia to the filtrate, filter. Dissolve the 
precipitate in hydrochloric acid; reprecipitate with oxalic acid, 
filter, ignite the residue. Dissolve in hydrochloric acid. 
Evaporate to dryness. Take up with water. Add an excess 
of sodium thiosulphate and boil to precipitate. 

Tin. — Mercuric chloride added to a solution of a stannous 



CHEMICAL DATA 277 

salt precipitates white mercurous chloride. A trace of stannous 
chloride in solution added to a solution of gold chloride pre- 
cipitates finely divided gold, brown by transmitted light and 
bluish green by reflected light. Metallic zinc precipitates tin 
from solution as a spongy mass, which adheres to the zinc. 
Heat the ore on charcoal with sodium carbonate or potassium 
cyanide; a metallic bead is produced which is coated with white 
oxide when the flame is removed. Cassiterite in lumps in a 
test-tube with metallic zinc and dilute sulphuric acid is soon 
coated with metallic tin. 

Titanium. — Titanium sulphate with hydrogen peroxide in a 
slightly acid solution produces an orange-red color, or a clear 
yellow with small amounts of titanium. Vanadic acid with 
h\'drogen peroxide produces a similar effect. Tin or zinc in 
hydrochloric acid solutions of titanium produces a violet color 
due to TioClz. 

Tungsten. — Treat with hydrochloric and nitric acids (4:1) 
and take to dryness, wash by decantation, add dilute hydro- 
chloric acid and metallic zinc, aluminum, or tin and shake; a 
fine blue coloration or precipitate is produced, W2O5; the color 
disappears when diluted with water. Fuse in platinum with 
potassium bisulphate, digest with a solution of ammonium 
carbonate, filter, add to the filtrate a few drops of SnCl2 solu- 
tion, acidify with hydrochloric acid, warm gently ; a fine blue color 
is produced. The microcosmic salt bead made in the reducing 
flame is clear blue; if iron is also present, the bead will be red 
brown. In the oxidizing flame the bead is colorless. 

Uranium. — Potassium ferrocyanide produces a brown pre- 
cipitate, in dilute solution a brownish-red coloration. The 
borax (or microcosmic salt) bead is yellow in the oxidizing 
flame and green in the reducing flame. 

Vanadium. — Vanadium compounds can be dissolved by a 
treatment with acids or alkalies. The hydrochloric acid 
solution assumes a bright blue color on addition of zinc. A 
solution of hydrovanadic sulphate cannot be distinguished in 
color from one of copper sulphate when sufficiently diluted with 
water, but, of course, does not become colorless in the presence 
of metallic iron. Solutions of certain vanadates also closely 
resemble solutions of the chromates. For instance, a solution 
of the tetravanadate of potassium, K2V4OU, does not differ in 
appearance from one of potassium dichromate. They may, 
however, be distinguished from one another, since the vanadate 
solution becomes blue and the chromate assumes a green 
color on deoxidation. When a solution of vanadic acid or an 
acid solution of an alkali vanadate is shaken up with ether 
containing hydrogen peroxide, the aqlieous solution assumes a 
red color like that of ferric acetate. This reaction serves to 
detect one part of vanadic acid in 4000 parts of the liquid. 
Chromic acid does not interfere with the reaction. 

Yttrium. — Extract the yttrium in the manner described 
under Cerium and separate it from the other rare earths in a 
solution of their sulphates by adding a saturated solution of 



278 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

potassium sulphate. Yttrium sulphate is soluble; the others 
are not. 

Zinc. — Ammonium sulphide precipitates ZnS. Potassium 
ferroryanido produces a white i)recipitate, Zn2Fo(CN6). Before 
tlic hl()\vi)ipc' on cliarroal with sodium carbonate, a coating of 
oxide is produced whicli is yellow while hot and white when 
cold. With cobalt nitrate on charcoal an infusible green mass 
is produced. 

Zirconium. — Treat with dilute sulphuric acid (2 : 1), filter, 
add ammonia to the cold filtrate, filter; wash, dissolve the pre- 
cipitate in hydrochloric acid, evaporate to dryness. Take 
up with a little water and add to the cold saturated solution 
hydrochloric acid, drop by drop; if zirconium is present, the 
oxychloride will be precipitated. Heat to dis.solve the pre- 
cipitate. Cool and after some time fine silky needles of 
ZrOCU + 8H2O will precipitate. 

DETERMINATION OF PLATINUM, PALLADIUM AND 
GOLDi 

Scorif}' the lead buttons from two or more ^-a.t. crucible 
fusions together, adding at least six times as nmch silver as the 
combined weight of the Ft, Pd and Au present, and cupel hot. 
In rich materials such as slimes or concentrates, two J^-a.t. 
fusions suffice, but low-grade ores maj'^ require 10 or more ^-a.t. 
fusions combined for each determination. 

Part the silver beads with HNO3 (1:6), followed by stronger 
parting acid (1:1) and wash with water as usual. All Pd 
goes into solution, together with considerable Pt. The residue 
consists of Au plus some Pt. Dissolve residue in strong aqua 
regia and resers^e the solution (solution A). Precipitate the 
silver in the nitric-acid .solution — containing Ag, Pd and some 
Pt — with HCl. Practically all the Pt will remain in solution; 
but the precipitated AgCl is pink in color and contains con- 
siderable Pd. Filter off the AgCl, scorify and cupel it and part 
again with HNOj (1:0); all should dissolve. Reprecipitate 
the Ag with HCl. The liquid now contains most of the re- 
maining Pd, but some is co-precipitated with AgCl. Filter off 
the AgCl and add the filtrate to the first filtrate from AgCl. 
Again scorify and cupel the silver chloride, dissolving the silver 
in nitric acid as before and reprecipitating the silver as chloride. 
In most cases the filtrate from this silver chloride contains all 
the remaining Pd. If, however, the AgCl is distinctly pink, 
another separation must be made. 

Unite all filtrates from AgCl precipitations and evaporate to 
small bulk, adding the aqua-regia solution of the Au and Pt 
(solution A). The liquid now contains all the Au, Pt and Pd 
present in the original ore, together with traces of Ag due to 
solubility in AgCl in excess of HCl, and also traces of Pb 
gathered from the lead retained in the silver buttons from the 
several recupellations. 

' From an article by A. M. Smoot, Enu. and Min. Journ., Apr. 17, 19)5. 



CHEMICAL DATA 279 

Evaporate the liquid to dryness on the steam bath; take up 
with dilute HCl (1:3) and evaporate again to dryness; take 
up with five drops of HCl and 40 cc. H2O. Pay no attention to 
any insoluble residue of AgCl or PbCL.^ Precipitate gold by 
adding, say, 3 grams of oxalic acid to the solution and boiling 
it. Let stand over night and filter off the Au. If Pt and Pd 
are high, it is necessary to redissolve the Au in aqua regia, 
evaporating with HCl to dryness and repeating the oxalic-acid 
precipitation, uniting the filtrate with that from the first gold 
precipitation. Burn the filter containing the gold and scorify 
it with six times its weight of silver and a little test lead; cupel, 
part and weigh the gold as usual. 

To the oxalic-acid filtrates from Au add 5 cc. of HCl and make 
volume up to 150 cc; heat to boiling and precipitate Pt and Pd 
with a rapid current of H2S in hot solution, passing the current 
of gas for some time and keeping the solution hot during pre- 
cipitation. Filter and wash the Pt and Pd sulphides w-ith 
HaS water containing a little HCl. Wash the precipitate from 
the filter with a fine water jet into an original beaker; spread 
the filter paper (which will contain a small amount of precipitate 
impossible to wash off) with the precipitate side down over the 
lower side of a watch-glass cover. Add aqita regia to the 
precipitate in the beaker and place the cover on the beaker; 
warm gently to dissolve the Pt and Pd sulphides. The fumes 
arising from the acid dissolve the traces of Pt and Pd adhering 
to the filter paper. When solution is complete and the filter 
paper is white, remove the watch-glass cover and wash the 
paper with hot dilute HCl thrown against it in a fine stream. 

Evaporate the aqua-regia solution to dryness, take up the 
residue with HCl and evaporate again to dryness to remove all 
HNO3. Take up the residue with two or three drops of HCl and 
about 2 cc. of H2O. The solution is usually perfectly clear, 
but it may be slightly cloudy owing to the presence of a little 
AgCl in it. No attention need be paid to this, however. Add 
5 to 10 cc. of a saturated solution of NH4CI, stir well and allow 
to stand over night. Platinum is precipitated as ammonium- 
platinum chloride — (NH4)2PtCl6. Filter and wash the pre- 
cipitate with 20 per cent. NH4CI solution. All Pd passes into 
the filtrate w^hich is reserved (solution B). Dissolve the Pt 
precipitate in boiling hot 5 per cent. H2SO4; heat the liquid to 
actual boiling and precipitate with H2S as before, filtering and 
washing with HjS water. Burn the filter and precipitate at a 
low temperature in a scorifier; add six times as much Ag as Pt, 
scorifying with lead, cupel and part the silver bead containing 
the platinum with HiS04; decant off the silver solution and 

1 In materials rich in palladium the small amount of AgCl + PbCh may 
be distinctly pink in color and retain weighable quantities of Pd. If this is 
the case, the Pd may be recovered in the solution from the nitric acid parting 
of the gold. To do this, precipitate the silver in this liquid by adding HCl, 
filter off the silver chloride and evaporate the filtrate to dryness. Take up 
with a drop of HCl and a little water, let stand over night and filter through a 
very small filter. This liquid may be added to solution B before precipitat- 
ing palladium with glyoxime. 



280 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

wash once with strong HjSO*, followed by 50 per cent. HsS04 
until practically all silver is washed away; finally wash with 
water, anneal and weigh. A minute quantity of Ag is retained 
with the platinum, but it can usually be neglected. In very 
important work where the amount of platinum i.s large dissolve 
in aqua regia, evaporate the solution to dryness, take up with 
a drop of HCl, dilute largely with water and let the AgCl 
settle over night; filter on a small paper, cupel it with a little 
sheet lead and deduct the weight from the weight of platinum. 
This refinement need not be considered in materials running 
less than 15 or 20 oz. to the ton. 

It may seem an unnecessary step to precipitate the platinum 
as sulphide, scorify it with silver and part it as described in the 
foregoing. General practice has been to ignite the ammonium- 
platinum-chloride precipitate and weigh the metallic residue. 
When this is done, however, there is danger of losing con- 
siderable platinum, which is carried awaj' mechanically during 
the decomposition of the compound; furthermore, it is extremely 
difficult (if not impossible) to collect the finely divided residue 
for weighing, and the precipitate invariably contains lead and 
silver. Precipitation as sulphide, scorification and cupellation 
with excess silver and parting with sulphuric acid overcome 
the difficulties inherent in handhng the ammonium precipitate. 

The palladium is all contained in the filtrate and washings 
from the platinum-ammonium-cliloride precipitates (solution 
B). Add to this solution at least seven times as much di- 
methylgh'oxime as there is Pd present (in any case, at least 
0.1 gram glyoxime). The precipitant should be dissolved in 
a mixture of two-thirds strong HCl and one-third water. 
Dilute the liquid to 250-300 cc, heat on a steam bath for half 
an hour and let stand over night. Pd is precipitated as a 
voluminous, vellow, easilj^ filtered glyoxime compound 
(C8Hi4N404)3Pd, containing, when dried " at 110°C., 31.686 
p>er cent, of Pd. Filter the Pd precipitate on a weighed Gooch 
crucible and wash it first with dilute HCl, half and half, then 
with warm water and finally with alcohol; dry it at 110° to 
115°C. and weigh. The disadvantage of weighing palladium 
on a Gooch crucible is overcome — at least to some extent — by 
the fact that the Pd compound contains a relatively small 
amount of Pd — less than one-third of its weight. This com- 
pound may also be weighed on carefully counterpoised papers; 
but it is better to use Gooch crucibles, if they are available, 
because of the relatively strong acid which is required for 
washing. The object in using half-and-half hydrochloric 
acid as a wash liquid is to dissolve out any excess of the glyoxime 
precipitant. This is easily soluble in moderately strong 
HCl, but is substantially insoluble in water. . 



CHEMICAL DATA 281 

DETERMINATION OF SILVER IN ORES AND CON- 
CENTRATES CONTAINING PLATINUM AND 
PALLADIUM 

Make the usual crucible fusion on one-quarter, one-half 
or full assay ton, according to the amount of silver present. 
Instead of cupeling the lead button, hammer it free from slag 
and dissolve it in dilute nitric acid. Most of the silver passes 
into solution together with palladium, and perhaps a trace of 
platinum; but gold and most of the platinum remain insoluble. 
The gold and platinum retain an appreciable proportion of 
silver which cannot be washed out. Filter out the insoluble 
residue and wash it thoroughly with hot dilute nitric acid, 
followed by hot water. Scorify the residue once more with a 
little lead and dissolve the lead button as before, filtering into 
the beaker containing the first filtrate. In this liquid pre- 
cipitate the silver as AgCl by adding standing NaCl in sufRcient 
quantity; stir well, and if the amount of silver is small, add 
about }/2 cc. of strong H2SO4 to form a precipitate of lead 
sulphate. Let the silver chloride, or the silver chloride plus 
lead sulphate, settle over night or until the supernatant liquid 
is clear; filter through double filter papers; ignite and scorify 
the residue of silver chloride with test lead. 

If the amount of palladium contained in the sample is small, 
the silver bead obtained by cupeling the lead button obtained 
by scorifjang the silver chloride may be considered as sufficiently 
pure for ordinary purposes. It contains, of course, some 
palladium, and in accurate silver determinations the lead button 
from the first silver-chloride precipitation should be redissolved 
and the silver reprecipitated, filtered and scorified as before. 
The amount of palladium retained after the second precipitation 
and scorification is so small as to be negligible. 

SCHEME FOR QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF HEAVY 
METALS AND ALKALINE EARTHS 

(The material is either in solution or is capable of being 
readily dissolved.) 

(A) Slightly acidulate solution with HCl. It is best to take 
only a small portion of the solution, and if a precipitate forms, 
see whether it redissolves in more acid. If it does, it indicates 
Sb or Bi. Permanent precipitate shows Ag, Pb, or Hg (ous). 
Filter precipitate {B) and reserve solution (C). 

{B) Wash with hot water, and add K2Cr207 solution to fil- 
trate. Heavv vellow precipitate shows lead. Wash residue 
(5) with NH46H, and acidulate filtrate with HNO3. Pre- 
cipitate shows Ag. Blackening of filter paper shows Hg (ous). 
(C) Pass in H2S until precipitate coagulates. Precipitate may 
be As (vellow), Sb (orange), Sn" (brown), Sn"" (vellow), 
Hg' or Hg" (black), Bi (brown), Cd (yellow), Pb "(black), 
Cu (black). Filter, giving precipitate (D) and solution {E). 

iP) Warm with ammonium polysulphide and filter. Fil- 



282 MET.\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

trate (G) may contain As, Sb, Sn, and traces of Cu. (Also 
Au, Ir, Se, W, Pt, Te, V, of the rare elements.) Precipitate 
(E) contains Hg, Bi, Cd, Pb, Cu. 

(G) Throw down precipitate from (NH4)2S2 solution with 
HCl. Leach precipitate with ammonium carbonate. Arsenic 
dissolves. P'iltor. Add HCl to filtrate to faint acidity. Pass 
in HoS. Yellow precipitate shows arsenic. (May be confirmed 
by M.\R.SH test.) Dissolve remaider of precipitate E in strong 
IlCl. Dilute and add metallic zinc in contact with a small 
piece of platinum. Precipitate of metallic tin and antimony 
form.s. Treat with HCl and filter. To filtrate add HgClj 
solution. White to gray precipitate of Hg^CU shows tin. 
Treat residue from extraction with aqua regia, boil off excess 
CI and HNO3, and pass in H2S. An orange precipitate of 
SbjSs confirms the presence of antimony, already indicated by 
a blackening of the platinum. 

(F) Heat residue from ammonium polysulphide leaching 
with dilute (10 per cent.) HNO3 and filter. Heat residue with 
concentrated HNO3. dilute and filter, combining the two filtrates. 
The precipitate (H) remaining consists of HgS and S. The 
filtrate (/) contains Cd, Bi, Cu, Pb.i (If the original treat- 
ment is made with concentrated HNO3 all of the PbS maybe 
oxidized to Pb.S04 and remain with the mercury. PbS is 
soluble in 10 per cent. HNO3 according to the equation PbS 
+ 2HNO3 = Pb(X03)2 + US). 

(//) Di.ssolve precipitate in aqtm regia. Boil off excess of 
CI and HNO3 and add SnCh. A white to gray precipitate 
confirms presence of mercury, probably already indicated by 
the black residue from the HNOs leaching. 

(/) Add a few drops of H2SO1 to solution. White pre- 
cipitate indicates lead. Filter, getting precipitate (J) and 
solution (K). 

(J) Treat precipitate on filter with hot ammonium acetate 
and filter, adding KjCraO, to filtrate. Chrome-yellow pre- 
cipitate confirms presence of lead. 

(K) Evaporate to small bulk, add about eight times bulk of 
alcohol, warm, and filter (to ensure removal of all lead). Evapo- 
rate off alcohol on sand bath and make strongly ammoniacal. 
White precipitate indicates Bi. Blue solution indicates Cu. 
The blue may be so intense as to mask the Bi(0H)3 precipitate. 
Filter and wash, and treat filter paper with strong HCl, catch- 
ing strong HCl solution in a beaker. Dilute largelj\ White 
precipitate shows Bi. Take blue copper solution and add 
KCN solution until blue color just disappears and pass in H2S. 
Bright-vellow precipitate indicates Cd. 

(E) Boil off all H2S from the filtrate from the H2S pre- 
cipitation, making sure finally that it is all gone by adding a 
few drops of HXO3 and boiling. If organic acids, tartaric, 
citric, or the like are present, it is best to destroy them by 
evaporating almost to dryness and adding some concentrated 

' Pd and Os belong in the HjS group of metals whose sulphides are in- 
soluble in (NHt)jSi. 



CHEMICAL DATA 283 

II2SO4 and fuming HXO3. Test a little of the solution for 
phosphoric acid bj' means of ammonium-molybdate solution 
ia nitric acid. If a yellow precipitate shows phosphates, 
evaporate to a thick soup, and add a little tin and nitric acid 
and boil until action ceases. Dilute, filter, and repeat. The 
phosphorus is removed as stannous phosphate, all but traces of 
tlie tin remain undissolved as metastannic acid. If only traces 
of the further groups of metals are being looked for, boil off 
all the nitric acid with repeated additions of HCl, throw out the 
last of the tin with HoS, filter, then boil off the H2S and remove 
the last traces of it with HXO3, as above specified. If phos- 
phorus is not present, all of this is unnecessary. Add a little 
NH4CI and make the solution ammoniacal. Fe, Al and Cr 
are precipitated^ (L). Boil off excess of ammonia, filter; 
solution (M) contains Co, Mn, Ni and Zn and the alkaline 
earths and alkalis. 

(L) Leach precipitate wnth hot KOH solution. Make 
teachings acid with HCl and add ammonia. White flocculent 
precipitate indicates alumina. Dissolve half of original pre- 
cipitate with HCl and add K4FeCy6. Precipitate of Prussian 
blue confirms presence of iron, probably already indicated by 
red color of precipitate. Take the other half of the precipitate 
and fuse with sodium carbonate and sodium nitrate. A yellow 
melt indicates sodium chromate. Dissolve melt in water, 
acidify with acetic acid and add a drop of lead-acetate solution. 
Precipitate of lead chromate confirms presence of chromium, 
probably already indicated by a greenish hydroxide precipitate 
or the yellow melt. 

(M) Pass in H2S into solution. IMn, Zn, Co, Ni precipitate. 
Filter. Filtrate (N) contains alkalies and alkaline earths. 
Treat precipitate with cold dilute HCl. Mn and Zn dissolve. 
Add KOH in excess. Filter, acidify filtrate with acetic acid 
and pass in H2S. A white or nearly white flocculent precipitate 
confirms the presence of Zn. Take the precipitate from the 
KOH precipitation and fuse with Xa2C03 and XaXOs. A 
green melt shows manganese. Take the residue insoluble in 
HCl and touch a borax bead to it and heat. A bead, violet 
when hot, blue when cold, shows cobalt. A gray bead (cold) 
shows Xi only, but this is easily masked by cobalt blue. So if 
the bead is blue, dissolve the residue in aqua regia, evaporate 
to soup, dilute, and add KCX until the precipitate first formed 
redissolves. Heat solution gently, add a little XaOH, then Br 
{under a hood). A black precipitate shows nickel. 

(.V) Boil until H2S odor becomes faint, add NH4OH and 
(NH4)2C03 and warm shghtly. Ba, Sr, and Ca precipitate. 
Filter and dissolve precipitate in HCl. Add H2S04topart of the 
solution. Precipitate indicates Ba or Sr or both. To another 
part of the solution add K2Cr04. An immediate precipitate 
of a pale yellow color shows Ba. In the filtrate Sr can be 

' The hydroxide precipitate will carry down As, Sb, Se, Te, Sn, P and Ti if 
they are present, which reaction affords an easy way to concentrate these 
elements from a large bulk of copper in exact copper analysis. 



284 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

determined by the reddish color given a Bunsen burner flame, 
while Ca can be precipitated as calcium oxalate (white) in 
ammoniacal solution. Calcium colors a Bunsen flame reddish 
yellow, and Ba a vivid green. 

(O) Add ammonium- or sodium-phosphate solution to the 
filtrate from the Ba, Ca, Sr precipitation. Stir, cool, and al- 
low to settle over night. Granular white precipitate shows Mg. 

Qualitative Tests for Acids^ 

The acid-radicals cannot be advantageou.sly precipitated in 
groups, and the members separated and identified as with the 
metals. They are usually detected in the course of analysis 
by special tests. They may, however, be arranged in groups of 
such acid-radicals as resemble one another. A consideration 
of the metals present, in case the material is in solution, will 
often rule out many acids as possibilities at once. 

The acids may be arranged as follows: 

Group I. — Acids which are precipitated by AgNOa in presence 
of nitric acid. 

Hydrosulphuric acid HjS 

Hydrochloric acid HCI 

Hydrobromic acid HBr 

Hydriodic acid HI 

Group II. — Acids whose salts deflagrate on charcoal. 
Nitric acid HNOa 

Chloric acid HCIO, 

Group III. — Acids which cannot be classified. 

Boracic acid HaBOs 

Carbonic acid HoCOs 

Chromic acid H^CrOi 

Hydrofluoric acid HF 

Phosphoric acid H3PO4 

Silicic acid H4Si04 

Sulphuric acid H2SO4 

Arsenic acid H3.\sO« 

Hydrocyanic acid, acetates HCN 

GROUP I 

H2S. — AgNOa gives a black pp. of- Ag2S insoluble in dilute 
acids. 

Lead acetate — a black pp. of PbS insoluble in dilute acids. 

Dilute HCI — many sulphides when heated with dilute HCI 
evolves H2S, which blackens paper moistened with lead 
acetate. If much H2S is present, there will be the characteristic 
odor present, but do not smell the gas coming off unless 3'ou are 
sure no cyanides are present. It is safer to have some one else 
smell it, anyway. 

'.lames Park," A Test-Book of Practical Assaying," with some original 
additions. 



CHEMICAL DATA 285 

HCl. — AgXOs — a white pp. of AgCl at first white, turns violet 
on exposure to hght. Readilj^ soluble in ammonia and KCN. 
Insoluble in dilute nitric acid. 

Lead acetate — a white pp. of PbCl2 soluble in hot water. 

Strong H2SO4 — when heated with dry chlorides causes evolu- 
tion of HCl gas, chlorides of Hg and Sn excepted. Bromides, 
iodides, fluorides, cyanides, carbonates, sulphides, sulphites, 
thiosulphates and acetates also give off characteristic gasesi 
during this test. 

MnOa + H2SO4 — when mixed with a chloride causes evolu- 
tion of chlorine, which bleaches wet litmus paper or a green 
leaf. Iodine and bromine are also evolved by this means. The 
colors are characteristic. 

HBr. — AgNOa — a yellowish-white pp. of AgBr; sparingly solu- 
ble in ammonia but readily in KCN. Insoluble in dilute nitric 
acid. Phosphates also give a yellow precipitate. Test for 
phosphoric acid with ammonium molvbdate in HXO3 solution. 

Lead acetate — a white pp. of PbBr2. 

Strong H2SO4 — with a dry bromide causes evolution of HBr 
vapors. 

Mn02 + H2SO4 — causes evolution of Br, which turns starch 
paper yellow. 

Chlorine water or HCl -f two drops of NaClO, when added, 
drop by drop, to a solution of a bromide liberates Br, which colors 
solution orange red. Avoid excess of CI, as it destroys color. 
When a portion is warmed, reddish-brown vapors are given off. 
If three drops of CS2 are added, the Br will sink to the 
bottom. 

HI. — AgNOa — a yellowish-white pp. of Agl. Sparingly 
soluble in ammonia; readily in KCN. Insoluble in dilute 
nitric acid. 

Lead acetate — bright yellow pp. of Pbl2. 

Chlorine water — reacts for iodine, giving a brown solution 
and violet vapors. To a portion add starch solution, an in- 
tense blue is produced. 



GROUP II 
Nitric Acid (Nitrates)^ 

Dry Reactions. — 1. If a nitrate is heated on charcoal it 
deflagrates, the charcoal burning at the expense of the O of 
the nitrate. Nitrites, chlorates, chromates, manganates and 
permanganates also give this reaction. 

2. If a mixture of a nitrate and KCN powder be heated on 
platinum foil, deflagration takes place. This is a delicate test. 

Wet Reactions. — 1. Strong H0SO4 heated with nitrates causes 
evolution of fumes of nitric acid. Nitrites give this reaction. 

2. Mix sol. of a nitrate with strong sol. of FeS04. Hold 
test-tube in a slanting position and pour strong H2SO4 down to 

1 Nitrites also give most of these reactions. 



280 METALLLRC'.ISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

bottom. A purple or brown color will mark the plane of contact 
of the fluids. Nitrites also give this and the following reaction. 

3. Copper filings and HjSO, heated with a nitrate lil)erate 
NO, which becomes pcroxidized to NO5 on contact with the air. 

4. A sol. of indigo boiled with HCl and a .sol. of a nitrate 
is decolorized. Not ciiaracteristic, as chlorine reacts the same. 

5. A little brucine dissolved in H2SO4 when added to a sol. 
of a nitrate gives a fine red color. This is a very delicate test. 

6. Free nitric acid may be detected by evaporating to dryness 
with quill-cuttings. These will be colored yellow. 

It gives with FeS04 a brown ring; and with copper filings or 
foil a reddish-brown gas, NO2, and a blue color. 

The most delicate test for nitrates is to take 2 or 3 c.c. of the 
solution in HCl, add 12 drops of a solution of diphenylamine in 
pulphiiric acid, then run in H'>S04 ))elow the mixture. A faint 
blue will be given by 1 part in 1,000,000 of HXO3. 

Chloric Acid (Chlorates) 

Dry Reactions. — 1. Chlorates when heated on charcoal de- 
flagrate far more violently than nitrates. So do perchlorates. 

2. Heated on charcoal with KCX, chlorates detonate vio- 
lently. Use only small quantities in this experiment. 

Wet Reactions. —I. A few drops of H2SO4 added to a small 
quantity of a chlorate liberate chlorine peroxide (C102), which 
colors the H2SO4 intensely yellow, and has a strong odor of CI 
and a greenish color. This experiment should be tried in a 
watch-glass rnthout heat, as an explosion might take place. 

2. If a cold sol. of indigo is added to a cold sol. of a chlorate 
till distinctly blue, and .some H2SO4 then poured in and shaken, 
the blue color of the indigo is at once destroyed. Chlorites, 
perchlorates. and hypochlorites also give this reaction. 

3. If a chlorate is mixed with Xa2C03 and ignited, O2 is 
given off and a chloride remains. On dissolving tlie residue, 
acidifying with nitric acid, and adding silver nitrate, a white 
pp. of AgCl is formed. 

GROUP III 
Boracic Acid 

Dry Reactions. — 1. Boric acid tinges the Bunsen flame 
green. 

2. Pour some methylated spirits on finely powdered borax 
in a porcelain dish; add a little H2SO4; mix and ignite; the 
flame will show a green edge. 

Wet Reactions. — 1. If a sol. of an alkaline borate is mixed 
with HCl to slight but distinct acid reaction, and a strip of 
turmeric paper is half rUpped into it and then dried at 212''F. 
(lOO'C), the dipped half will show a peculiar red color — very 
delicate. Sodium carbonate turns this to a dark blackish-green, 
and HCl will restore the color. 



CHEMICAL DATA 287 



Carbonic Acid 

Wei Readions. — 1. Almost any acid when poured on a car- 
bonate in a test-tube causes effervescence due to rapid evolution 
of CO2. When conducted into lime-water this gas causes a pp. 
of CaCOs, which is sol. in large excess of the gas. Cyanides, 
sulphites, tellurides, selenides, sulphides, and thiosulphates 
also effervesce. Be careful about inhaling these gases. 

Chromic Acid 

Dry Reactions. — 1. Compounds of chromic acid give an 
emerald-colored bead with borax on platinum loop in both 
outer and inner blowpipe flames. 

Wet Reactions. — 1. HjS added to an acidified sol. of a chro- 
mate produces a green coloration due to reduction of the chromic 
acid [CrOs]. A white precipitate of sulphur is formed at the 
same time. 

(Readily oxidizable substances deoxidize K2Cr207 with pro- 
duction of a chromic salt; the color of the solution at the same 
time changes from orange red to bright green.) 

2. H2O2 or Ba02 if added to a cold acidified sol. of a chromate 
produces an intense blue coloration, which becomes fixed if 
ether is first added and the liquid well shaken after adding the 
peroxide. The ether assumes and retains the blue color. 
A few drops of HNO3 are useful. This is an extremely delicate 
and characteristic test. 

3. BaCl2 gives a light yellow pp. of BaCr04, sol. in HCl 
and HNO3. 

4. AgNOa gives a dark purple-red pp. of Ag2Cr04, sol. in 
KNO3 and NH4OH. 

5. Pb(C2H302)2 gives a yellow pp. of PbCr04, sol. in KOH, 
but insol. in C2H4O2. This precipitate, "chrome yellow," is 
very characteristic. 

6. If insoluble chromates are fused with Na2C03 and KNO3, 
alkaline chromates will be formed, which are soluble in water. 

Hydrofluoric Acid 

The ordinary tests for a fluoride depend on the liberation 
of HF, which is allowed to etch glass. 

1. If strong H2SO4 is warmed with a little finely powdered 
CaF2 in a test-tube, HF is liberated. 

2. Cover the convex side of a watch-glass with melted paraffin 
or wax. Trace lines near the middle of the glass with the point 
of a penknife so as to remove the wax from these parts, but not 
to scratch the glass. Place the prepared glass on the top of a 
platinum crucible containing a little finely powdered CaF2 
and some strong H2SO4. Pour a few drops of water into the 
watch-glass to keep it cool, and gently heat the bottom of the 
crucible. Allow to stand for 20 minutes. Melt off wax, and on 
the clean surface the etched lines will be visible. If small 



288 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

traces of a fluoride were present, the tracing will become visible 
by breathing on the cold surface of the glass. 

This reaction fails when there is too nuicli SiOs present, as 
the H-iSOj tiien liberates SiF4 instead of IIF. 

SiF4 does not etch glass, but produces wliite fumes in moist 
air; when these fumes are conducted into water a colorless 
flocculent pp. of gelatinous silica is separated. 

H^SiOi = SiOa + 2H2O 

3. CaClj when added to the solution of a fluoride gives an 
almost transparent gelatinous pp. of CaP'j, which becomes more 
visible when the liquid is heated or when ammonia is added. 

Phosphoric Acid 

Wet Reaclions. — 1. MgSO* solution (to which ammonium 
chloride has been added and then a little ammonia) gives with 
the solution of a phosphate a white crystalline pp. of magnesium 
ammonium phosphate (MgNH4P0i + CH2O) which rapidly 
settles. This pp. is insol. in NH4OH, but is readily sol. in 
acids, even C2H4O2. If very little phosphate is present, the 
pp. often appears only after the solution has been warmed and 
allowed to stand. 

2. Silver nitrate throws down from neutral solutions a light 
yellow pp. of Ag3P04, readily soluble in nitric acid and ammonia. 

3. The solution of ammonium molybdate in nitric acid gives 
in the coUl a finely divided yellow pp. which settles rapidly. 
With small quantities of a phosphate, a few hours must be 
allowed for the reaction, and the liquid may be warmed gently, 
but not above 40°C. (104°F.). Not more than an equal 
volume of the fluid to be tested should be added to the molyb- 
date. Large quantities of HCl interfere with the precipitation. 

The pp. after subsiding maj' be separated by filtering, 
washed with ammonium molybdate solution, then dissolved in 
ammonia, and, by adding NH4CI and MgS04 as in (1), the pp. 
of MgXH4P04 + 6H2O may be obtained. 

The solution to be tested must not be alkaline to test paper, 
but should be made distinctly acid with HNO3. It should 
then be added in small qunnlities only to some NH4HM0O4 
sol. in a test-tube, more being added if no yellow pp. forms after 
a few minutes, when the liquid may be gently warmed. 

Arsenates 

The pps. found in (1) and (3) with a phosphate are precisely 
the same as those formed when an arsenate is present. AgNOs 
gives with an arsenate a brown pp.; with a phosphate a yellow 
pp.; and ammonium molybdate solution gives a pp. with an 
arsenate only after boiling instead of gently heating as with a 
phosphate. It is also possible to remove the arsenic with H2S 
in HCl solution before making confirmatory tests for phosphates. 



CHEMICAL DATA 289 

Silicic Acid 

Dry Reaction. — 1. If a fragment of silica or a silicate is 
licated in a bead of microcosmic salt, it remains undissolved 
;uid floats about in the bead as a more or less transparent mass, 
wliich retains its original shape. In the case of a silicate the 
liases dissolve out. 

Wet Reactions. — 2. NH4CI produces in not too dilute solutions 
of alkaline silicates a pp. of hydrated Si02. 

3. The solutions of alkaline silicates are decomposed by all 
acids, the Si02 separating as the gelatinous hydrate. The acid 
should be added drop by drop and the solution stirred. 

Sulphate Group 

Remarks. — Sulphates are the only commonly occurring salts 
which give with BaCh a pp. insoluble in boiling HCl. (Sele- 
nates also give a pp. of BaSe04 with BaClj, but it dissolves on 
boiling with strong HCl for some time.) 

Tests for Sulphates (SO3, and a Base) 

Wet Reactions. — 1. All solutions of the sulphates give with 
BaCU a white pp. of BaS04 which is insoluble in all acids. 

2. If a sulphate or any solid substance containing sulphur 
is mixed with pure solid Na2C03 and fused on charcoal in the 
inner reducing blowpipe flame, it will yield Na2S. 

Detach the cold fused mass with the point of a knife, place 
a portion on a bright silver coin, and moisten with H2O. Allow 
to remain a short time, and then rinse off; a black stain of 
Ag2S will be seen upon the coin, if sulphur is present. 

3. Lead acetate produces a heavy white pp. of PbS04, which 
dissolves readily in hot strong HCl, or alkaline acetates. 

4. Sulphuric acid gives, with sugar, a black mass. 

5. To detect free sulphuric acid, mix the fluid with a very 
little cane-sugar and evaporate to dryness at 212°F. (100°C.). 
If any is present, a black residue will remain; or with small 
traces a blackish-green residue. No other free acid decomposes 
cane-sugar in this way. 

Cyanides and Acetates 

Cyanides. — These give a blue color with a mixture of ferrous 
and ferric salts. 

Some additional tests for other acids are : 

A concentrated solution in hydrochloric acid will, when 
H2S is passed in, give a precipitate of sulphur if it contains 
nitrates, nitrites, chlorates, sulphites, thiosulphates, arsenates, 
chromates, manganates or permanganates. 

Acetates evolve a characteristic odor when present in large 
quantity in strong sulphuric-acid solution. They give a 
blood-red solution with ferric salts. If the solution be neutral 
the iron is precipitated on boiling. 



290 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
SOME PROPERTIES OF RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES 

Tho table below is based on tables in Le Radium, Jan., 1909, 
.Ian., 1910 and .Jan., 1911, and in Zeit. fur Angew. Chemie. July 
0, 1915. See also pages 239-253. 

Substance Properties 

U Sol. in exce.ss of am. carb. Nitrate soluble in ether 

and acetone. Atomic weight, 238.2. Half-de- 
cay period, 5 X 10" years. Gives off oc particles. 
UX Carried down by BaS04. Soluble in HCl. Less 
A'olatile than U. Volatile in electric arc. In- 
soluble in excess of am. carb. Soluble in water 
and ether. Half-decay period, 24.6 days. 
UY Carried down by barium sulphate, with moist 
ferric hydrate, and by animal charcoal. Half- 
decay period, 1.5 days, 
lo Soluble in excess of am. oxalate. Carried down by 

H2O2 in presence of U salts. Half-decay period, 
over 2 X 10^ years (?). Gives off oc particles. 
Ha Characteristic spectrum. Spontaneously lumi- 
nous. Analogous to Ba. RaClo and RaBro are 
less soluble than BaClo and BaBr:. Atomic 
weight, 226.4. Half-decay period, 2000 years. 
RaEm One of group of inert gases. Characteristic spec- 
(Xiton) trum. Mol. wt. =218. Half-decay period, 

3.85 days, oc particles. 
RaA ^ Behaves as a solid. Deposited on cathode in an 
. electric field. Volatile at 800-900°C. Soluble 
in strong acids. Half-decav period, 3 min. 
RaB Like RaA. Volatile at 400-600°C. Precipitated 

by BaSO^. Half-decav period, 26.8 min. 
RaC Physically like RaA. Volatile at 800-1300°C. 
Chemically like RaB. Deposited on Cu and Ni. 
Perhaps mixture of two products. 19.5 min. 
RaD Volatile below 1000°C. Soluble in strong acids. 
Reactions of RaD and RaEi analogous to those 
of Pb. Sometimes known as radiolead. 
RaE, Volatile at red heat. Soluble in cold acetic acid. 
RaE2 Not volatile at red heat. Reactions similar to Bi. 
RaF Volatile toward 1000°C. Deposited from its solu- 
(Polonium.) tions on Bi, Cu, Sb, Ag, Pt. Carried down by 
PbCOa, and by SnCl, witii Hg and Te. RaD, 
El, E2, and F can be .separated by electrolysis. 
136 days, breaks down to lead, oc particles. 
Ac Produces helium. Precipitated by oxalic acid in 

acid solutions. Oxalate insoluble in HF; accom- 
panies thorium and rare earths. Unknown 
period, oc particles. Same as emanium. 
Rad. Ac Shghtly volatile at high temps. Insoluble in 
NH4OH. Separated from Ac by electrolysis, by 
fractional precipitation, by ammonia, and by 



CHEMICAL DATA 



291 



animal charcoal. Half-decay period, 19.5 days, 
oc . Discovered by Hahn. 

AcX Deposited by electrolysis in alkaline solution. 

Not precipitated by XH4OH. 10.5 days. 
AcEm Behaves as inert gas. Coef . of diffusion in air 0.11. 
Condenses at -120=C. Half-decav, 3.9 sec. 

AcA Volatile below 400°C. Soluble in NH4OH and 
strong acids. Half-decav, 36 min. Ravless. 

AcB Volatile below 700°C. Soluble in XH46H and 
strong acids. Deposited by electrolysis of active 
deposits on cathode in HCl. Half-decay, 2 min. 
Th Volatile in electric arc. Colorless salts not spon- 
taneously phosphorescent. Salts ppd. by XH4- 
OH and oxalic acid. Atomic weight, 232.4. 
Half -decay period 2.4 X 10^ years, oc particles. 
Had. Th Carried down by hydrates, precipitated by XH4- 
OH. Separated by Hahn and much more active 
than thorium, and it may be a small contamina- 
tion of this element gives out the rays in the 
thorium transformation and that the thorium 
transformation is in reahty raj'less. a rays. 

ThX Soluble in XH4OH. Carried down by iron. De- 
posited by electrolysis in alkalis. 4 days. 
ThEm Inert gas. Condenses just above — 120°C. Half- 
decay period, 54.5 sec. oc particles. 

ThA Volatile under 630°C. Soluble in strong acids. 
11 hrs. 

ThB Volatile below 730°C. Like ThA. Deposited on 
Ni. Separated from ThA by electrolysis. 55 
min. oc , /3, 7 particles. 

ThC Like ThB. Probably two products. 
One gram of radium gives off 0.0328 cal. per sec, and produces 
5.17 X 10-' cc. of helium (0°, 76 cm. pressure) per gram per sec. 

Heats of Formation 

Heats of formation are expre.ssed in calories, i.e., the amount 
of heat necessary to raise 1 gram of water from 10°C. to 11°C. 
When it is said that the heat of formation of any compound is a 
certain number of units, it is meant that this number of calories 
is developed in the production of a mass in grams of the sub- 
stance equal to its molecular weight, i.e., when we say that 

C -t- O2 = CO2 97,200 cal. 
we mean that 12 grams of carbon and 32 of oxvgen develop 
97,200 cal. 

The heat of formation and the heat of decomposition of any 
substance are the same; i.e., in order to effect the deromposition 
of a substance an amount of heat must be suppUed equal to 
the amount evolved in the formation. 

The heat of combination of the elements, like many others 
of their properties, follows the periodic law, the relation being 
thus stated bj' W. G. Mexter (Am. Journ. Sci., June. 1914): 
The heat equivalents of the elements of a subgroup in the series 



292 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



111 to VIU are either linear functions of the atomic weights, or 
the heat of fi)rniatiou of the oxide of the niidcUe member falls 
below the linear value by a constant amount for each atom of 
oxygen combined. 

IIk.\t of Formation op Silicates 







Grani- 






Gram- 




Gram- 


cal. per 




Gram- 


cal. per 


Starting from 


cal. per 


gram of 


Starting from 


cal. per 


gram of 




molecule 


silicate 
formed 




molecule 


silicate 
formed 


FeO. SiOi 


10,600 


80 


Fe, Si. Os 


254,000 


1,929 


MnO, SiOi 


5.400 


41 


Mn. Si, Oj 


270.300 


2,109 


BaO, SiOj 


14.700 


09 


Ba, Si, O3 


328.100 


1,540 


CaO, SiOi 


17.850 


154 


Ca, Si, O3 


329,350 


2,839 


2CaO, SiOj 


28.300 


105 


Cas, Si, O4 


471,300 


2,740 


3CaO, SiOj 


28,550 


125 


Cm, Si. Os 


603,050 


2,645 


SrO, SiOj 


17,900 


110 


Sr. Si, O3 


329,100 


2,019 


AhOi, 2SiOj 


14.900 


67 


AI2, Sis, O7 


767.500 


3,457 


3CaO,AljOa,2SiOj 


33.500 


86 


Ca3. AI2, Si2. Oio.. 


1,195,550 


3,065 


3HjO,Al203,2Si02 


43.800 


170 


Hz, AI2, Si2, O9.. . 


927,420 


3.595 


Li.O. SiOj 


65,100 


720 


Li2, Si2, O3 


347,100 


3,856 


NajO, Si02 


45,200 


370 


Na2, Si, Os 


326,100 


2,673 


CaO, AljOa 


450 


3 


Ca, AI2, O4 


524,550 


3,220 


2CaO, AhOi 


3,300 


15 


Cai. Al2, Os 


658,900 


3.079 


3CaO. AUOj 


2,950 


11 


Caa. AI2, Os 


789,050 


2,922 


SiCh 35.5, FeO, 


1 










39.7, MnO. 1.0, 


1 










CaO 11.4, MgO 


I 


133 








2.7, AhOa 9.2, 








Cu 0.42, S 0.42 


1 










per cent. 


J 










2FeO, SiOi 


22,236 


109 


Fe2. Si, O4 


333,636 


1,637 


FeO 70.80. SiOj 












29.20 per cent. 












FeO 57.58, CaO 












12.00. SiOi 30.42 
















140 








FeO 40.30. CaO 










28.00. SiOz 31.70 
















193 



















Hkats of Formation op Mixtures op Si02, CaO, and An- 
hydrous Kaolin 
The kaolin used in these experiments was: Si02, 53.58 per 
cent., AlsOa, 43.40, Fe203, 1.25. The difference between the 
sum of the AI2O3 and CaO and 100% is the Si02. 



Al'O' per cent. 
CaO per cent. 


2 


10 


20 


30 


10 






+ 19.2 
+ 47.9 
+ 82.3 
+ 106.5 
+ 137.8 


+ 1.7 


20 




+ 42.8 
+ 69.7 
+ 109.0 
+ 135.8 
+ 180.4 


+49.9 


30 
40 
50 


+ 76.1 
+ 103.2 
+ 150.6 
+ 154.0 


+73.0 


60 











' Revue de Metallurgie, 1913, p. 073. 



CHEMICAL DATA 



293 



Heat of Formation of Oxides 



Formula 



Molecular 
weights 



Molecular 
heat of formation 



In dilute 
solution 



Mg, O.. 
Ba, O... 
Ca, O... 
Sr. O.... 
AI2. O3. . 
Ti, Oj... 
Na2, O.. 
Kt.O... 
Si, O2. . . 
Mn. O.. 
B2. O3... 
Zn, O... 
Mn3, O4. 
Pj, Oi... 
Sn, O. . . 
Sn. O2. . . 
CO, O.. 

H2. O. . . 



H2 O2' 

Fea, O4 

Cd, O 

Fe, O 

Fei, O3 

Co, O 

Mn, O2 

Ni, O 

Sb2, O3 

Aaj, O3 

Pb, O 

C. O2 

Bi2, O3 

Sbi, Os 

Asi, 0« 

CU2, O 

TI2, O 

Cu. O 

Ba, O2 

S, Oj 

Pb, O2 

8,0. 

TI2, Oa 

CO 

Hg2, O 

Hg, O 

Te. O2 

Pd, O 

Pt, O 

Agi, O 

AU2, O3 

Ni, O 

N, O 

Ni, O3 

N, O2 (at 22°).. 
N, O2 (at 150°). 

N20$ 

CatO 

LiiO 

Rb20 

W. Oj 

V2. Ob 

Cr2, O3 



24 + 16 = 
137 + 16 = 
40 + 16 = 
87 + 16 = 
54+48 = 
48 + 32 = 
46 + 16 = 
78 + 16 = 
28 + 32 = 

55 + 16 = 
22 + 48 = 
65 + 16 = 

165 + 64 = 

62 + 80 = 

118 + 16 = 

118 + 32 = 

28 + 16 = 

r 2 + 16 = 

I 2 + 16 = 

[ 2 + 16 = 

2 + 32 = 

168 + 64 = 

112 + 16 = 

56 + 16 = 
112+48 = 

59 + 16 = 
55 + 32 = 

58.5 + 16 = 
240 + 48 = 
150 + 48 = 
207 + 16 = 

12 + 32 = 
416 + 48 = 
240 + 80 = 
150 + 80 = 
127.2 + 16 = 
408 + 16 = 

63.6 + 16 = 
137 + 32 = 

32 + 32 = 

207 + 32 = 

32+48 = 

408 + 48 = 

12 + 16 = 

400 + 16 = 

200 + 16 = 

125.-5 + 32 = 

106 + 16 = 

195+16 = 

216 + 16 = 

394+48 = 

28 + 16 = 

14 + 16 = 

28 + 48 = 

14 + 32 = 

14 + 28 = 

28 + 70 = 

266 + 16 = 

14 + 16 = 

171 + 16 = 

184+48 = 

102 + 80 = 

104+48 = 



= 40 
= 153 
= 56 
= 103 
= 102 
= 80 
= 62 
= 94 
= 60 
= 71 
= 70 
= 81 
= 229 
= 142 
= 134 
= 150 
= 44 
= 18 
= 18 
= 18 

34 

232 
a28 
= 72 
= 160 

75 
= 87 

74.5 
= 288 
= 198 
= 223 
= 44 
= 464 

320 
= 230 
=143.2 
= 424 
= 79.6 

169 

64 

239 

80 

456 

28 

416 

216 

157.5 

122 

211 

232 

442 

44 

30 

76 

46 

42 

98 

:282 

30 

= 187 
232 
= 182 
= 152 



143,400 
133,4001 
131,500 
131,200 
392,600 
218,500 
100,900 

98,200 
180,000 

90,900 
272,600 

84,8002 
328,000 
365,300 

70,700 
141,300 
•68,040 
70,400 solid 
69,000 liquid 
58,060 gas 



270,800 

66,300 

65,700 
195,600 

64,100 
125,300 

61,500 
166,900 
156,400 

50,800 

97,200 gas 
139,2004 
231,200 
219,400 

43,800 

42,800 

37,700 
145,500 

69,260 gas 

63,400 

91,9005 

87,600 

29,160 gas 

22,200 

21,500 



21,000 

17,000 

7,00a 

-11,500 

-19,000« 

-21,600« 

-21,400« 

-1,700« 

-7,6006 



100,000 
140.000 
94,900 
243,000 
441,000 
266.000^ 



148,800 
161,500 
149,600 
158,400 



155,900 
165,200 
180,000« 



279,900 
82,680 



405,0000 
' 73,946' 

47,300' 



148,900 
103,166' 



225,400 
"39,766' 



77,600 
'l'4'l',666' 



78,300 



3,600« 



> Thomsem, 126,000. 2 42,740 at 1125°C. ' "Annuaire des Bureau des 
Longitudes," 1914. » Kate and Laby, 20,000. ' Kayb and Laby, 103,000. 
•Thomsen', " Thermochemistry." 

' This is the heat evolved by a stable amorphous oxide. There is an 
unstable form evolving only 243,000 cal. 



294 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Heat of Formation of Hydroxides 



Formula 


Molecular 
weights 


Molecular heat 
of formation 


In dilute 
solution 


Li, 0, H 


7 + 16 + 1=24 
24 + 32 + 2 = 58 
87 + 32 + 2 = 121 
40 + 32+2 = 74 
39 + 16 + 1=56 
23 + 16 + 1=40 
18 + 16+1=35 
27 + 48 + 3 = 78 

1 + 16 + 1 = 18 

204 + 16 + 1=221 
208 + 48 + 3 = 259 

65 + 32 + 2 = 99 

127 + 32 + 2=161 

127 + 48 + 3 = 178 

79 + 32+2 = 113 

79 + 48 + 3 = 130 

204+48+3 = 255 

137 + 32 + 2 = 171 

112 + 32 + 2 = 146 

133 + 16 + 1 = 1.50 

85.5 + 16 + 1 = 102.5 


112,300 
217,800 
217,300 
215,600' 
104,600 
102,700 

88,800 

301,300 

r 70,400 solid 

\ 69,000 liquid 

[ 58,060 gas 

57,400 
171.700 

83,. 500 

78,300 

99,500 

52,400 

79,300 

43,800 
217,0002 

66,0002 
101, .300 
102,000 


118,110 


Mg, O:, Hi 


Sr, Oj, Hj 


227,400 
219,500 
117,100 
112 500 


Ca, Oj, Hj 

K, 0, H 


Na, 0, H 


N, 0. Hs 


90,000 


Al, 03, H. 






H, 0, H 








Tl, 0. H 

Bi, Oj, H3 


64,300 


Zn, O2, Hj 




Te, O2, H2 




Te, Oi. Hi 




Se, O2. Hi 

Se, Oj, H3 


51.500 


Tl. O3, Hs 




Ba, 02. Hj 




Cd, 02, H2 




Cs, 0, H 




Rb, 0, H 









' Kaye .ind I,AnT, 229.000. 

" THOM8EN, " Thermochcnii.stry. 



Heat of Formation of Cyanides 



Formula 



Molecular weights 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In dilute 
solution 



Ca, Cj, Ni.... 

K, C. N 

Na, C, N 

K, Ag, C2, N, 
Fe7, C18, Nu.. 
Zn, C2, N2. ... 
Cd, C2, N2.... 

Cu. C, N 

Pd, C2. N2.... 

H, C, N 

Hg, C2, N2.... 



40+ 24+ 28 = 

39+ 12+ 14 = 

23+ 12+ 14 = 

39 + 108+ 24+ 28 = 

392+216 + 252 = 

65+ 24+ 28 = 

112+ 24+ 28 = 

63.0+ 12+ 14 = 

106+ 24+ 28 = 

1+ 12+ 14 = 

200+ 24+ 28 = 



: 92 
= 65 
. 49 
= 199 
860 
117 
164 
89.6 
158 
27 
252 



33.450 

25,9.50 

13,700 

-256,700 

- 24, .550 

- 31,850 
■ 20.375 

- 49,250 

• 27.150 

• 59.1.50 



41.650 . 

30,250 

25,450 

5,350 



-21,050 



Heat of Formation of Cyanates 



Formula 



Molecular weights 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In dilute 
eolution 



K, C. N. 39 + 12 + 14 + 16=81! 105,850 

Na, C, N, 23 + 12 + 14 + 16=65, 105,050 

Ag, C, N, 108 + 12 + 14 + 16 = 150' 20,450 



100,050 
100,250 



CHEMIC.AX DATA 295 

Heat of Formation of Ferrocyanides 



Formula 



Molecular weights 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In dilute 
solution 



K4, Fe, Ce, Xe.. 
H4, Fe, C«, Xe.. 
Kj, Fe, Co, Xe.. 
H3. Fe, C«. Xs.. 



156 + 56 + 72+84 = 368' 157.300 
4 + 56 + 72 + 84 = 216 -102,000 

117 + 56 + 72 + 84 = 329 129,000 
3 + 56-72-1-84 = 215 



145,300 
-101,500 

100,800 
-127,400 



Heat of Formation of Selexides 



Formula 



Molecular weights 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In dilute 
solution 



Lii, Se 

Ki. Se.... 
Ba, Se... 

Sr, Se 

Ca, Se... 
Nai, Se.. 

Zn, Se 

Cd, Se... 
Mn, Se... 
N, Hs, Se. 
Cu, Se.... 
Pb, Se... 
Fe, Se.... 
Ni, Se.... 
Co, Se.... 
Tlj, Se... 
Cui, Se. . . 
Hg. Se... 
Agj, Se... 
Hj, Se.... 
N, Se 



14+79 = 
78+79 = 

137 + 79 = 
87 + 79 = 
40 + 79 = 
46 + 79 = 
65 + 79 = 

112 + 79 = 

55 + 79 = 
14 + 5 + 79 = 

63.6 + 79 = 
207 + 79 = 

56 + 79 = 
58.5 + 79 = 

59+79 = 

408 + 79 = 

127.2+79 = 

200 + 79 = 

216 + 79 = 

2 + 79 = 

11+79 = 



•93 
157 
•216 

:166 
:119 

•125 

•144 

•191 

•134 

•98 

•142.6 

•286 

= 135 

•137.5 

•138 

•487 

= 206 . 2 

•279 

= 295 

= 81 

•93 



93,700 
87,900 



78,600 



12,800 



83,000 
79,600 
69,900 
67,600 
58,000 
60,900 
30,300 
23,700 
22,400 
17,800 
17,300 
17,000 
15,200 
14,700 

13.900 I 

13,400 

8,000 I 

6,300 1 

2,000 

-25,100 (gas) -15,800 
- 12,.300 



He.\t of Formation of Tellurides 



Formula 



Molecular weights j 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In dilute 
solution 



Zn, Te. 
Cd, Te. 
Co, Te. 
Fe. Te. 
Ni, Te. 
Th, Te. 
Cuj, Te 
Pb, Te. 
Hj. Te. 



65 + 126 = 191 

112 + 126 = 238 

59 + 126=185 

56 + 126 = 182 

58.5 + 126=184. 

408 + 126 = .534 

127.2 + 126 = 253. 

207 + 126 = 333 

2 + 126 = 128 



31,000 
16,600 
13,000 
12,000 
11,6(XJ 
10,600 

8,200 

6,200 
-34,900 fgasl 



296 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Heat of Formation of Sulphides 



Formula 



Molecular weights 



Molecular heat 
of forniatioa 



In dilute 
solution 



Li., S. . . 
K.. S. . . 
Ba. S... 
Sr, S.... 
Ca. 8... 
Nai. S.. 
Mg, S... 
K. Si... 
Na. Si.. 
Mn, S... 
Zn. S... 
All. Si.. 
N. H.. S 
Cd. S... 
B,. Si. . . 
Fe. S.... 
Co. S. . . 
Th. S. . . 
Cuj. S.. 
Pb. S... 
Si. St... 
Ni. S... 
Sbt, Si. . 
Hg, S. . . 
Cu. S... 
Hi. S... 
Agi. S.. 

C.St... 

I,S 



14+32 = 
78 + 32 = 
137 + 32 = 
87 + 32 = 
40 + 32 = 
46 + 32 = 
24+32 = 
39 + 64 = 
23 + 64 = 

55 + 32 = 
65 + 32 = 
54+96 = 

14 + 5 + 32 = 

112+32 = 

22+96 = 

56 + 32 = 
59 + 32 = 

204 + 32 = 

127.2 + 32 = 

207 + 32 = 

28 + 64 = 

58.5 + 32: 
240 + 96: 
200 + 32 = 

63.6 + 32 = 
2 + 32 = 

216 + 32 = 



46 

110 

169 

119 

72 

78 

56 

103 

87 

87 

97 

150 

51 

:144 

118 

88 

:91 

= 236 
=159.2 
= 239 
= 92 
= 90.5 
= 336 
= 232 
= 95.6 
= 34 
= 248 



12 + 64 = 76 
127 + 32 = 159 



103,500 
102,900 
99,300 
94,300 
89,300 
79,400 
59,300 
49.500 
45,600 
43,000 
126,400 
40,000 
34,400 
75,800 
24,000 
21,900 
21,600 
20,300 
20,200 
40,000 
19,500 
34.400 
10,600 
10.100 

4.800 gas 

3.000 
- 25,400 gas 
-19,0001iquid 

9,000 



115,400 
113,500 
109,800 
106.700 
100,600 
104.300 



59.700 
54,400 



36.700 



9,500 



> Molecular heat of combustion of HjS = 122.500 cal. 
bustion of 1 cu. meter HiS = 5513 cal. 



and heat of com- 



Heat of Formation of Nitrides 




Formula 


Molecular weights 


Molecular heat 
of formation 


In dilute 
solution 


Ci. Nj 


24+28 = 52 

3 + 14 = 17 

411+28 = 439 
21 + 14 = 35 
39+3 + 14 = 56 
120 + 28=148 


-73,900 gas 
/ 12.200 gas I 
\ 16,600 liquid 
149,400 
49,500 
30.700 
111.200 


-68.300 


H,, N 


21.000 


Baj Nj 




Lis N 




K Hi N 




Caj \j 









1 F 



Haber gives 10,975. Chem. Tr. Journ., Aug. 14, 1915. 

Heat of Formation op Metallic Hydrides 



Formula I Molecular weights "^'^'fof^^lT 


In dilute 
solution 


Sr Hi 


87+2 = 89 

137+2 = 139 

1950 + 1 = 1951 

1590 + 1 = 1591 

28 + 4 = 32 

3 + 14 = 17 


38,400 
37,500 
14,200 
4,600 
-6.700> gas 




Ba Hi 




Ptio H 




Pdis H 




Si H« 




N, Hi 


12.200 gas' 


21.000 





F. Haber. 10,975. Chem. Tr. Journ," Aug. 14, 1915. 



CHEMICAL DATA 297 

Heat of Formation of Phosphides 



Formula 



Molecular weights 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In dilute 
solution 



Mnj, Pi 165 + 62 = 227 

H3, P 3 + 31 = 34 

Fe, P 56 + 39 = 95 



70.900 

4,900 

nearly 



Arsenides, Antimonides, Borates 



Formula 



Molecular weights 



Molecular heat In dilute 

of formation ' solution 



Hi, As 

Hi. Sb 

Nai, Bj. O7 



3+ 73 = 78 
3 + 120 = 123 
46 + 44 + 112 = 202 



— 44,200 gas 
-86,800 gas 
748,100 



-36,700 
"758,366' 



Heat of Formation of Fluorides 



Fornmla 



Molecular weights ^ifZ^^^^^' 



In dilute 
solution 



Br, Fj. . . , 
Ba. Fi... 

Li. F 

K, F 

Ca. Fi. . . 
Mg. Fj. . . 
Na. F. . . 
N, H«. F. 
Al. Fi. . . . 
B. Fi. . . . 
Mn. Fi. . 
Zn. Fj. . . 

Si, F« 

Fe. Fj... 
Cd. Fi. . . 
Co, Fj. . . 
Ni. Fj. . . 
Fe. Fi. . . 
Tl, F. . . . 
Pb. Fj... 

H. F 

Sb. Fj. . . 
Cu, Fj. . . 
Ag. F. . . . 



87 + 38 = 

137+38 = 

7 + 19 = 

39 + 19 = 

40 + 38 = 
24 + 38 = 
23 + 19 = 

14 + 4 + 19 = 

27 + 57 = 
11+57 = 

55 + 38 = 
65 + 38 = 

28 + 76 = 
56+38 = 

112+38 = 

59+38 = 

58.5+38 = 

56 + 57 = 
204+19 = 
207+38 = 

1 + 19 = 

120 + 57 = 

63.6 + 38 = 

108 + 19 = 



= 125 

= 175 
= 26 
= 58 
= 78 
= 62 
= 42 
= 37 
= 84 

:68 

^93 
= 103 
= 104 
•94 
= 150 
= 97 
= 96.5 
= 113 
= 223 
= 245 
= 20 
= 177 
= 101. 
127 



224,020 
224,000 



110,000 
216.450 
209,500 
109,720 
101.250 



275.920 gas 



101,600 
38,500 gas 



22,070 



221,500 
116,880 
113,600 



109,120 
99,750 
275,220 
219,345 
153,310 
138,220 



125,220 
121,720 
120,340 
118,980 
164,940 
54,405 



50,3001 

136,680 

88,160 

25,470 



1 Other authorities, 69,000. 

Heat of Formation of Silicides 



Formula 



Molecular weights 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In dilute 
solution 



Mn:, Sii. 
H«. Si... 



385 + 56 = 441 

4 + 28 = 32 



47,400 
-6,700 gas 



298 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Heat of Formation of Carbides 



Formula 



Molecular weights 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In ililiilo 
solution 



AI4. Cs. 
Mn, Cj 
Mn, Ca 
Fes, C. 
Ca, Ci. 
Na. C. 
Li, C... 
Nj, Ci 
Ag. C. . 
Mn3, C 



108+36 = 144 
55 + 24 = 79 
55 + 36=91 

168 + 12 = 180 

40 + 24 = 64 

23 + 12 = 35 

7 + 12 = 19 

28 + 24 = 52 

108 + 12 = 120 

165 + 12 = 177 



232,000 

114,400 

9,900 

8,460 

-6,250 

-4,400 

-5,750 

-73,000 gas 

-43.575 

10.400 



131,500 



-67,100 



Heat of Formation of Bromides 



Formula 



Molecular 
weights 



Molecular heat of 
formation 



In dilute 
solution 



Xa.Br 

K.Br 

A\,Bt3 

Zn,Br2 

Cd.Bri 

Pb.Brj 

Sn, Bra 

Cu. Brj 

Sn, Br4 

Hg. Br 

Ag, Br (cryst.) 

Sb, Br3 

Cu, Bri 

Pt, Bt* 

Au. Brj 

Au, Br; 

H, Br 



23+ 80 = 

46+ 80 = 

27 + 240 = 

65 + 160 = 

112 + 160 = 

207 + 160 = 

118 + 160 = 

63+ 80 = 

118 + 320 = 

200+ 80 = 
108+ 80 = 
120 + 240 = 
63 + 160 = 
195 + 320 = 
197 + 240 = 
197 + 160 = 
1+80 = 



= 103 
= 126 

= 267 
225 

:272 

= 367 
^278 
= 143 

438 

280 

:188 

= 360 
= 223 
= 515 

= 437 
357 

= 81 



Liquid bromine 

79,450 

99,050 
120,600 

78,200 

76,200 

69,000 

63,000 

26,000 
/ 101,400 (solid) 
\ 98.400(liiiuid) 
24,500 
23,700 
64,900 
34,800 
42.400 
12,1001 

1,000 

8,400 



207,500 
93,200 
77,200 
59,000 



118,000 



53,000 

52,200 

8,400 



28,600 



' 8800 Berthelot. 

Heat of Formation of Iodides 



t;. , 1 Molecular 
Formula j ^.^i^j^jg 


Molecular heat of 
formation 


In dilute 
solution 


Zn. Ii 


65 + 254 = 319 


49,200 
45,000 
42,000 
16,500 
14,200 
14,300 
24,. 300 
29,200 
-55,000 
- 6,400 
87,500 


60,600 


Cd. Is 


112 + 254 = 366 

207 + 254=461 

63.5 + 254 = 317.5 

200 + 254=454 

108 + 127 = 235 

200 + 254 = 454 

120 + 381 = 501 

197 + 127 = 324 

1 + 127=128 

46+127 = 173 

23 -4- 1 27 - 1 .30 


44.000 


Pb I2 




Cu 1 2 




Hg', I2 

Ag, I (cryst.) 

Hg, Ii (red) 

Sb I3 










Ku I 




H, I 

K I 


13,200 


Na i 


76,. 500 











CHEMICAL DATA 



299 



Heat of Formation of Carbonates 



Formula 



Molecular weights 



Molecular beat 
of formation 



In dilute 
solution 



Ba. C, O3. . . . 
Kj, C, Oa.... 

Sr, C. Oj 

Ca. C, Oi.... 
Nas, C, O3... 
Mg, C, Oj... 
Mn, C, O3... 

Zn, C, Oj 

Fe, C, Oj.... 
Cd. C. O3.... 
Pb. C, Oj.... 
Cu, C. Oj... 
Agj, C, O3... 
N, H< H, CO3 



137 + 12 + 48=197 
78 + 12 + 48 = 138 
87 + 12 + 48 = 147 
40 + 12 + 48 = 100 
46 + 12 + 48 = 106 
24 + 12 + 48= 84 

55 + 12 + 48 = 115 
65 + 12 + 48=125 

56 + 12 + 48 = 116 
112 + 12 + 48 = 172 
207 + 12 + 48 = 267 

63.6 + 12 + 48=123.6 

216 + 12 + 48 = 276 
14 + 4 + 1 + 12+48 = 79 



286,300 
282,100 
281,400 
273,850 
273,700 
269,900 
210,300 
197,500 
187,800 
183,200 
170,000 
146,100 
123,800 
205,300 



288,600 
'279,300 



199,000 



He.\t of Formation of Bic.\rbon.\tes 



Formula 



Molecular 
weights 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In dilute 
solution 



K, H. C, Oj 39 + 11-12+48 = 100! 

Na, H, C, O3 23 + 1 + 12 + 48= 841 



233,300 
227,000 



228,000 
222,700 



Heat of Form.ation of Sulphates 



Formula 



Molecular weights 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In dilute 
solution 



Ki, S, O4.... 
Ba. S, O4.... 

Lis, S, O4 

Sr, S. O* 

Nai, S, O4... 
Ca, S, O4.... 
Mg, S. O4... 
All, Sj, On.. 
Ni. Hj, S, O4 
Mn, S, O4 . . . 

Zn, S, O4 

Fe, S, O4.... 
Co, S, O4. 



78+32+ 64 
137+32+ 64 
14 + 32+ 64 
87 + 32+ 64 
46 + 32+ 64 
40 + 32+ 64 
24 + 32+ 64 

54 + 96 + 192 
28 + 8 + 32+ 64 

55 + 32+ 64 
65 + 32+ 64 

56 + 32+ 64 
59+32+ 64 

Ni, S, O4 i 58.5 + 32+ 64 = 



Fej, Sj, O12. 

Th, S, O4 

Cd, S, O4 

Pb, S, O4 

Hj, S, O4 

Cu, S, O4 

Hg2, S, O4 

Agj, S, O4 

Hg, S, O4 

Co, S, 04-7H20. 
Nj, Hj, S, O4 . . 

Rbi, S. O4 

C82, S,04 



112+96 + 192 

408 + 32+ 64 

112+32+ 64 

207 + 32+ 64 

2 + 32+ 64 

63.6 + 32+ 64 = 

400 + 32+ 64 

216 + 32+ 64 

200 + 32+ 64 

'59 + 32 + 64 + 126 

,28+ 8 + 32+ 64 

171+32+ 64 

I 266 + 32+ 64 



= 174 
= 233 
= 110 
= 183 
= 142 
= 136 
= 120 
= 342 
= 132 
= 151 
= 161 
= 152 
= 155 
154.5 
= 400 
= 504 
= 208 
= 303 



159. G 
= 496 
= 312 
= 296 
= 281 
= 132 
= 267 
= 362 



344,300 
339,400 
333,500 
330,200 
328,100 
317,400 
300,900 

'283,500' 
249,400 
229,600 



221,800 
219,900 
215,700 
192,200 
181,700 
175,000 
167,100 
165,100 
234,000 
283, .500 
344,700 
349,700 



337,700 



339,600 



328,500 
321,800 
321,100 
879,700 
281,100 
263,200 
248,000 
234,9001 
228,900 
228,700 
650,500 
213,500 
231,600 

'216,266' 
197,500 

i62,'60O " 



281,100 



J 240,000 for FeS04 7H2O. 



300 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMLSTS' HANDBOOK 



Heat of Formation' of Chlorides 



Formula 



Molecular 
weights 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In dilute 
solution 



K. CT 39-1- 35.5 = 

Ba, CU , 137-)- 71 = 

Be, Cli 9-1-71 ■ 

Na. CI 234- 35.5 = 

Li. CI 7+ 35.5 = 

Sr, Clj 87-1- 71 = 

Ca. Cli 40-f 71 = 

N. Hi. CI 14-h4-|-35.5 = 

Mg, Ch ; 24-1-71 « 

S. Cli I 28-f-142 = 

Al. CIi 27-1-106.5 = 

Mn. Clj I 55-f- 71 = 

Zn. Clt ! 65-f- 71 = 

Tl, CI I 204 -f- 35 

Cd. Cli 112-1- 71 = 

Pb. Cli 207 -f- 71 = 

Fe. Cli I 56-1- 71 = 

Sn. Clj 118-(- 71 = 

Co. Cli I 59-f- 71 = 

Ni, Cli 58.5-1- 71 = 

Cu. CI 63.5-1- 35.5 = 



5 = 



Sn, Cl« 1184-142 

Fe, Cli 564-106.5 = 

Hg. CI 2004- 35.5 = 

Sb, Cli 120 4-106.5 = 

Hi. Ch ; 2084-106.5 = 

B, CU 114-106.5 = 

Ag. CI 1 1084- 35.5 = 

Hg, Cli , 2004- 71 = 

Cu, Cli ,63.64- 71 = 

As, CU I 754-106.5 = 

H, CI ' 14- 35.5 = 

Sb, CU I 1204-177.5 = 

Pd, CU ! 1064- 71 = 

Pt. CU I 1954-142 = 

Au, CU i 1974-106.5 = 

Au, CI 1 1974- 35.5 = 

P, CU 314-106.5 = 

Rb, CI 85.54- 35.4 = 

Ca, CI I 1334- 35.4 = 

Zr, Oi I 914-32 = 

Ce, Oi 1 1404- 32 = 

Si. CU i'S.4-141 7 = 



74.5 

208 
80 
58.5 
42.5, 

158 

111 I 
53.5' 
95 I 

170 

133.5' 

126 I 
136 ! 
239.5 
183 
278 

127 I 
189 
130 
129.5 

99 i 
260 
162.5 
235.5 
226.5 
314.5 
117.5 
143.5! 
271 i 
134.61 
18J.5 

36.5 
297.5 
177 I 
337 
303.5! 
232.5 
137.5 
120.9, 
168.4 
123 
172 I 
lf.9.7. 



105,700 

197,100 

155.000 

97,900 

93.900 

134,700 

169,900 

76,800 

151,200 

128,800 

161,800 

112,000 

97,400 

48,600 

93,700 

83,900 

82,200 

80,900 

76,700 

74.700 

35.400 

129.800 

96.150 

31.320 

91.400 

90.800 

89,100 

29.000 

53.300 

51.400 

71,500 

22,000 

104.500 

40,500 

60,200 

22,800 

5,800 

69,700 

105,900 

109.900 

177,500 

224,600 

121,800 



liquid 



liquid 



101,200 
198,300 
199,500 

96,600 
102,300 
195,850 
187,400 

72.800 
187,100 



238.100 
128.000 
113.000 
38.400 
96.400 
77.900 
100.100 



127,850 



93.400 



I 50.300 

I 62,500 



39,400 



79,800 
27.200 



Heat of Formation of Pho.sphates and Miscellaneous 
Acids 



Formula 



Molecular weights 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In dilute 
solution 



Cai. Pi, 0» 
Mgi, Pi. Oi 
Na», P, 0«. 
Hi, P, 0«'. 
H, Br. Oi'. 
H, CI, Oi« . 
H, CI, OaK 
H, I, Oi>.. 
Hi, P, Oi'. 



1204- 624-128 = 310 
724- 624-128 = 262 
694- 314- 64 = 164 
3 4-31 4- 64= 98 
14- 804- 48 = 129 
14-35.54- 48= 84.5 
14-35.54- 64 = 100.5 
14- 127 4- 48 = 176 
34- 314- 48= 82 



919,200 
910,600 
452.400 



302,000 
12,500 
22.000 
39,100 
57.700 

228,800 



> These results from " Annuaire du Bureau des Longitudes," 1914. 



CHEMICAL DATA 301 

Heat of Formation of Bi-sulphates 



■c. , 1 Molecular 
Formula j ^.^-^^^^ 


Molecular heat 
of formation 


In dilute 
solution 


K. H, S, O4 39 + 1+32 + 64 = 136 

Na, H, S, O4 123 + 1+32 + 64 = 120 

N, Hs, S, O4 14 + 5 + 32 + 64 = 115 

H, H, S, O4 1 + 1+32 + 64=98 


276,100 
269,100 
244,600 
192,200 


272,900 
268,300 
245,100 
210,200 



Heat of Formation of Sulphites 



Formula 


Molecular 
weights 


Molecular heat 
of formation 


In dilute 
solution 


S, O3, K2 


32+48 + 78 = 158 
32+48 + 46 = 126 




272,600 


S, O3, Naj 




261,000 









Heat of Formation of Nitrates 



Formula 



Molecular weights 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In dilute 
solution 



K, N, O3 

Na, N, Oi 

Zn, N2, Oe 

Pb, N2, Oe 

Cu, No, Oe 

H, N, Oj 

Ag, N. Os 

Ca, N2, Oei 

Co, N2, Os 6H20' 

LiNOsi 

N, H4, N, Oi>... 



39 + 14+ 48 = 101 
23 + 14+ 48= 85 
65 + 28+ 96 = 187 

207 + 28+ 96 = 331 

63.5 + 28+ 96 = 187. 

1 + 14+ 48= 63 

108 + 14+ 48 = 170 

40 + 28+ 96 = 164 
59 + 28 + 96 + 108 = 283 

7 + 14+ 48= 69 
14+ 4 + 14+ 48= 80 



119,000 
110,700 



105,400 



34,400 gas 

28,700 
202,000 



112,000 
88,600 



110,700 
106,000 
131,700 
98,200 
81,300 
48,800 
23,000 



119,000 

' 82, 406 



Heat of Formation 


OF Alxjminates 


Formula 


Molecular weights 


Molecular heat 
of formation 


In dilute 
solution 


Ca, AU, O4 


40 + 54 + 64 = 158 

80 + 54+80 = 214 

120 + 54+96 = 270 


524,550 
658,900 
789,050 




Caj, AI2, Os 




Ca3, AI2, Os 









Heat of Formation of Amalgams 



Formula 



Molecular weights 



Molecular heat 
of formation 



In dilute 
solution 



Hgi2, K ' 2,400 + 39 = 2,4.39 

Hg», K 800+39=839 

Hge, Na 1,200+ 23 = 1,223 

Hg,, Au z + 197 = 197+j-] 

Hgx, Ag 1 i + 108 = 108 + x 



34,600 
29,700 
21,900 



25,600 

25,600 

19,000 

2,580 

2,470 



302 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
IIf.at of For.m.\tiOiV of Alloys 



FormuUi 



Molecular weights 



Molecular hoat 
of formation 



In dilute 
solution 



Cu, Zni 

Cu, Zn. 
Cu3, Al. 
Cu2, Al. 
Cu3. Alj 
Cu, Al.. 
Cui, Ah 
Cu, Al2 



63.6 + 130=193.6 

63.6+ 65 = 128.6 

190.8+ 27 = 217.8 

127.2+ 27 = 154.2 

190.8+ 54 = 244.8 

63.6+ 27 = 90.6 

127.2+ 81=208.2 

63.6+ 54 = 117.6 



10,143 
5,783 
26,910 
21,278 
17,395 
1,887 
10,196 
- r.,738 



Dehydhatiox of 


Metallic Sulphates 




Temperature of 
beginning 
dehydration, 
deg. C. 


Product formed 


Remarks 


FeS04 + 7H2O 

FeS04 + 4H2O 

FeS04 + H2O 


21 

80 

406 

51 

82 

97 

109 

180 

316 

27 

93 

155 

25 

60 

,K 

25 

28 

115 

225 

40 

106 

279 

19 

58 

276 

30 

41 

170 

19 

38 

112 

203 

38 

80 

119 


FeS04 + 4HiO 

FeS04 + H2O 

Fe20i + 2SOi 

Al2(S04)i + 13H20... 
Al2(S04>. -r IOH2O. . 
Al2(S04)i + 7H2O.. .. 
Al2(S04)« + 4H2O... . 

Al2(S04)l + H20 

Al2(S04)t 


Slight apple green. 
White. 
Yellowish brown. 


Al2vS04)l+ I6H1O 

Al2(S04)i + I3H2O.... 
Al2(S04)« + IOH2O... . 

Al2(S04)i + 7H;0 

Ah(S04)i + 41120 

Al:(S04)i + H2O 

CuS04 + 5H2O 

CuS04 + 3H2O 

CuS04 + H2O 


White. 
White. 
White. 
White. 
White. 
White. 


CuS04 + 3H2O 

CuS04 + H2O 

CuS04 


Sky blue. 
Pale blue. 
White. 


MnS04 + 5HiO 

MnS04 + 2H2O 

MnS04 + H2O 

ZnS04 + 7H2O 

ZnS04 + 6H2O 

ZnS04 + 2H20 

ZnS04 + H2O 


MnS04 + 2H2O 

MnS04 + HiO 

MnS04 

ZnS04 + 6H1O 

ZnS04 + 2H2O 

ZnSO» + H2O 

ZnS04 


Pale peach 
blossom. 

Paler than pre- 
ceding. 

Paler than pre- 
ceding. 

White. 

White, granular. 

White. 

White. 


NiS04 + 7H20 

NiSOa + 4H2O 

NiS04 + H2O 


NiS04 +4H2O 

NiSO. + H2O 

NiS04 


Green. 

Yellow. 

Orange colored, . 

Rose. 

Lilac. 

Lilac. 


C0SO4 + 7HjO 

C0SO4 + 4H2O 

C0SO4 + H2O 


C0SO4 + 4H2O 

C0SO4 + H2O 

C0SO4 


CdS04 + ^SHiO 

CdS04 + 2H2O 

CdS04 + H20 


CdS04 + 2HiO 

CdS04 + HjO 

CdS04 


White. 
White. 
White. 


MgS04 + 7H2O 

MgS04 + 6H2O 

MgS04 + 2H2O 

MgS04 + H20 

CaS04 +2H2O 

2CaS04 + 2H20 

2CaS04 + H2O 


MgS04 + 6H2O 

MgS04 + 2H2O 

MgS04 + H2O 

MgS04 


White. 
White. 
White. 
White. 


CaS04 + HiO 

2CaS04 + HjO 

2CaS04 


White. 
White. 
Whit*. 



CHEMICAL DATA 



303 





B 



3 


CD CO l>t^iCi 




• cn -.-H 


o 


CD 


o 


Tf< 


o 






n 


«3 (N t^C^ 00 




•CD -l^ 


o 


Tt< 


o 


"* 


■* 




^ 




OS t^ '^coco 




•00 -(M 


04 


00 


t^ 


iO_ 


o 




3 
























s 

O 

u 


-t^ 


.-H <N.-H!M 




CO •t^ 


CD 


^ 




i-T 


cf 




■3 


CO t^ OOIM 




o :»o 


CO 


t^ 


o 


Tt< 


CO 




03 CO lo CO CO 




■* .CS| 


r^ 


C^ 


IQ 


Tf< 


CD 




* 


^^ 


"3 CO 0^(N 




•* . t^ 


oi 


TJH 


o 


t^ 


1—1 


























o> 


6 


00 "3 (M Tt< ,-1 




■* ••* 


lO 


CD 


t^ 


CO 


X 




s 


^ (M^-M 




CO :cD 


kO 


1—1 




1—1 






•2 g S fl 

3 " O o 


o o oooooooooooo oooooo 




t-^ CO ot^coc;rocoro^ocic;ot^ r^t^cococotc 




O 05 05 t^ 00 O ^ CO O CO «? M i-i(M (M CD CO ■* ri lUD 




Jii « m 








^ ^ O ^ ^ CD OOIQOOOOCO 00O»O C0CDiO»OCDC0 




a T}H OCC^t^O»OCDMCOC~5!MC2CD -^lOOOOO 






T-H CO -*co-*oi>i> '^^^■^^c^^c^i^cD^co i-H ,-1 c^ CO CO M< 


O'c 








■«d 




."2 ."2 rs ci'^^c: rs ?? i? 


g a 






ffi «- 




^ ^ CC -^ 02 1^ ^1^ '^ X -^ CO 3 a; 




crCcjCrio^O crrtCreJCTcJ 


< (t 


C Q 




•^ -^ b£;:3 bJD tc 1:3 to ;s tc".is ssc— ti 


O B 




^^ y y- ^-^.^ -^^' ^s,^^-^'' ^^^ 


2'? 


O O OCOOO O oooooo OOOOOO 


Pi b 




LO O LO LO i-O lO lO lO O LO iC LO lO IQ lO lO if5 »0 IQ '.';. 




"o-- 


(M CD 00(NOOt^Ci»CX'*'OOl> OcD(Mi-hcD.-i 


k?H o 






1«^ 


(N CD COi-iCCiO t^t^T-HOiTfO-* iOCDCOCOO!Ml 




C^ CS 


CO >— 1 ^ 05 CO lO CD lO l>- CD CD CD 


fa 01 






1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


O c 








^ 3 




CD C 


^XC^INOO CD 00 QOCD (N CD 00 


5^ « 




T-H C^ 


•*C<1-*05I> CO (M tXMCO ''JH i-O 


o S 






I— 1 1— 1 1— 1 


^r 


^5 


II II 


II II II II II II II II II II II II 


;<^ 


5-« 


T}< CC 


OOTt<CDOOCD CD 00 0(N CO CD CD 


S a, 


c?.5? 




1—1 1— 1 r- 1 1— 1 i-H 


§3 


3^ 


+ + +++++ +++++++ 1 


<!; 


IM Tf 


CD Tt< CD Tt< C<I O O OOtJ* Tf< CD CD 




^ (N 


COiMCOOOt^ M C^ CD(N _L Jl. -1_ 








(N Tt< CO 






r-H (N CO 








^ ^ ^ 






^-v ^- 




Q 


^< 


_3 

"5 




y2 








P9^'»-^*D O ^ <**» 




O 


'^ ^ 


. ii^^O^ O 9. OO O J ;;J 






: >> 


(5J . . 












o 


"o 








^■^ 


-S : ^ 












o 










03 


>j . bC 












"o 








tc a; 


a .^ 












^ — 


CJ 








^g 


£ :S 














^^ 








oc-S 


rv c3 




















Q> 


- b 


c? :cc 












o 








H 

"4, 


2,i 


■-2 






<o a <o 


<L 




o 
















1 


^ KflH 


L^ 


« 


H Z 


-< 


<; 


.^ 


H 


< 


1 



304 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Heat of Solution 

Salt dissolved Calories 

CUSO4.5H2O -2,750 

CdS04.f^HoO 2,660 . 

ZnS04.7H20 -4,260 

FeS04.7H20 - 400 

ZnCl. in water 15,630 

ZnS04 in water 18,500 



Desulphatization of Anhydrous Metallic Sulphates* 



Metallic 

sulphates 


Tempera- 
ture of 
beginning 
of decom- 
position, 
deg. C. 


Tempera- 
ture of 
energetic 
decom- 
position, 
deg. C. 


Products of 
decomposition 


Remarks 


Fe,(S04)i 167 

Fe20i.2SOi 492 


480 
560 
639 
639 
705 
670 
790 
720 
736 
764 
770 
767 

846 
890 
890 
972 
925 


Fe20..2SOi.'. . . 
FeiOi 


Yellow brown. 
Red. 


BiHS04)i 

AhCSOiu 


570 
590 
637 
653 
699 
702 
702 
702 
720 
755 

827 
870 
878 
890 
917 
952 
1200 
1510 


5BijOi-4(SOi)«. 
A1jO« 


White. 
White. 


PbSOi 

CuSOt 

MnS04 

ZnS04 

2CuOSOi 


6PbO-5SOi.... 

2CuOSOi 

Mnj04 

3ZnO-2SOi.... 
CuO 


White. 

Orange color. 
Dark red to black. 
White, cold and hot. 
Black. 


NiS04 


NiO 


Brownish green. 


C0SO4 


CoO 


3ZnO-2SOi 

CdS04 


ZnO 

5CdO-SOi 

BiiOiC?^ 

CdO 


Hot yellow, cold 

white. 
White. 


5Bi50i-4(SOj)i.. 
SCdOSOi 


Yellow. 
Black. 


MgS04 


MgO 


White. 


Ag2S04 


Ag 




6PbOoSOi 

CaS04 


2PbOSO«(?) 
CaO. 


White to yellow. 
White. 


BaS04 


BaO 


White. 











Dissociation Te.nsions of Sulphates at Various Tempera- 
tures. Expressed in Millimeters of Mercury 



Temp., 
deg. C. 


Fe2(S04)i 


CuS04 


Ali(S04)i 


2CuOSOi 


ZnSOi 


550 


9.8 

22.8 

58.0 

94.0 

219.0 


25.5 
28.7 
37.7 
50.5 
71.0 
148.0 


9.8 
16.0 
25.8 
34.0 
50.0 
82.0 






600 


27.6 
33.0 




650 




675 


0.5 


700 
725 


36.0 
39.0 
46.0 


0.8 


750 




7.5 


775 




1 . . . . '. 


14.5 


800 






85.0 


24.0 













■ Hofman, "General Metallurgy." For additional data on decomposition see 
pp. 305, 523 and 524. 



CHEMICAL DATA 305 

Reduction Temperatures of Metallic Oxides 

Various metallic oxides were submitted to the action of 
hydrogen, carbon monoxide, ammonia and methane, at various 
temperatures for a period of 6 hours, and the investigators 
report in the Journ. Soc. Chem. hid., July 30, 1910, the lowest 
temperatures at which the oxides begin to lose oxygen. The 
accompanying tabulation shows the results obtained. 

Temperatures at Which Oxides of the Metals Give up 
Oxygen 



Oxide 


Carbon 

monoxide, 

deg. C. 


Hydrogen, 
deg. C. 


Ammonia, 
deg. C. 


Methane, 
deg. C. 


AU2O3 


and below 





and below 

90 


and below 

• 80 

50 

115 






AgjO 




Hg20 

HgO (yellow). 


67 


220 


HgO (red).... 
PbzO 


157 
202 
198 
Above 300 
299 
225 
208 


200-210 
202 


Pb02 

Pb304 

PbO 

CuO 


110 

150 

160 

75 


150 
170 
190 
125 


45 

158 
210 
280 


CU2O 


230 


CoO 


140 

170 

60 






ZnO 




233 


152-159 


AS2O3 















Oxide 


Reduction 


and 


tempera- 


carbon 


ture 


BeO 


2400° 


MgO 




CaO 


1540° 


AI2O3 


1800° 


BjOa 


2400° 


MnO 


1100° 


UO2 


1600° 



Reduction Temperatures of Some Refractory Oxides^ 

Remarks 

Forms carbide. 

Oxide dissociates before reduction. 

Carbide dissociates above 800°. 

Forms carbide. 

Carbide sublimes. 

Carbide dissociates at 1550°. 

Forms carbide. 

Reduction by Hydrogen 
A paper on "The Reduction of Metallic Oxides with Hydro- 
gen at High Pressures," by E. Newbery and J. N. Pring, was 
read at a meeting of the Royal Society, January, 1916. Metal- 
lic oxides have been heated to temperatures of 2500°C. in dry 
hydrogen at pressures up to 150 atmospheres, water vapour 
being removed by metallic sodium. The following oxides were 
reduced to metals: CraOsto Crand Mn02to Mn. The follow- 
ing oxides were reduced to lower oxides: V2O5 to VO, NbaOs 
to NbO, U3O8 to UO2, Ti02 to TiO, and CeOa to Ce^Oa. The 
following oxides were unchanged: ALjO.'i, MgO, ZrOa, Y2O3, 
Th02. The metals obtained, chromium and manganese, are 

» Zeit. fur angew. Chemie., p. 118, Vol. XXVIII, 1915. 
20 



300 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

probably the purest samples of these metals that have been 
prepared up to the present. This supposition is supported ])y 
the sharp nature of their melting points, a feature which hiis 
not been obser\^ed with samples prepared by other methods. 

Decomposition of Carbonates^ 

ZnC03 = ZnO + CO. 300°C. 

MgCOa = MgO + COo 650°C. 

FeCOa = No simple product 800°C. 

CaCOa = CaO + CO2 812°C. 

SrCOs = SrO + CO, begins 1141 °C. 

BaCO, = BaO + CO2 begins 136 1°C. 

MgCOa = MgO + CO2 546°C. 

Decomposition of Sulphides- 

Pvrite - FeSo = FeS + S:* 565°C. 

Chalcopyrite 720°C. 

Oxidation of Metallic Oxides at High Temperatxires and 
Pressures 

J. MiLBAUER has experimented on the reactions of metallic 
oxides at high temperatures and pressures {Journ. Soc. Chem. 
Ind., May 31, 1916). When heated in oxygen for an hour at 
480°C., and 12 atmospheric pressure, most of the normal metal- 
lic oxides remained unchanged. The following exceptions were 
noted: Potassium and barium oxides were converted into per- 
oxides, lead oxide into red lead, antimony oxide into the tetrox- 
ide, and manganese oxide into sesquioxide; the lower oxides of 
nickel and cobalt j'ielded traces of nickelic and cobaltic oxides. 
Silver was converted into black crusts of, apparently, a perox- 
ide, since on treatment with hydrochloric acid they yielded 
chlorine. Platinum remained unchanged. Experiments under 
similar conditions with metallic oxides intimately mixed with 
chromium sesquioxide, showed in many cases a more or less 
complete conversion into metallic chromate with absorption of 
oxygen. Thus, for example, the products obtained from chro- 
mium oxide and the following oxides (or carbonates) contained 
the annexed percentages of chromate respectively: Silver oxide, 
100 per cent, of chromate; magnesium oxide, 82.7 per cent.; 
calcium oxide, 56.9 per cent.; zinc oxide, 72 per cent.; and lead 
carbonate, 100 per cent. The reaction is therefore available 
for the preparation of certain chromates, notably that of mag- 
nesium, which in many cases can be substituted for alkali 
chromates. 

1 Soe pp. 52.3 antl .524 for additional rlata. 



CHEMIC-\L DATA 



307 



Molecular Heat of DUution* 

The heat set free or absorbed on diluting a gram molecule of 
liquid with water is the molecular heat of dilution, thus on 
diluting HCl to (HCl, .300 HoO) 17,300 cal. per 36.5 grams of 
HCl are set free; diluting 2XaCl, nH.O (n = 20) to (2NaCl, 
100 H2O) absorbs 1060 cal. per 2 X 58.65 grams of XaCI. 



HCl 
n = H2O 


HXO3 
n = H2O 


H:SO, 
n = H:0 


NaOII 
n = 3 H2O 


NHi! 
n 


1 5,370 

2 11,360 
5 14,960 

50 17,100 
300 17,300 


1 3,280 

5 6,600 

10 7,320 

20 7,460 

320 7,490 


. 1 6,380 

5 13,100 

49 16,700 

199 17,100 

1,600 17,900 


5 2,130 

7 2,900 

9 3,100 

25 3,260 

200 2,940 


1 1,260 

3 385 

5.8 210 

9.5 20 

110 



ZnCh , ZnfX08^2 
n = 5 H2O n = 10 




Standards for Work with the Bomb Calorimeter' 



Berthelot 



Atwater 



Fischer & 
Wrede 



U. S. Bureau 
of Standards 



Naphthalene 

Benzoic acid 

Cane sugar (sucrose) . 



9692 
6322 
3961 



9628 
6322 

3957 



9640 
63.33 
3957 



9610 
6320 



'From K.\TE and L.\bt. Physical and Chemical Constants." 

'Heat developed on diluting NHs nHsO to NHs 200H2O (Berthelot). 

'From Somermeier's " Coal." 



308 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOC)l\ 

Thermoelectric Constants 

The electromotive forces' given by various thermo-couples 
in general use, and at a temperature of 500°C., with the cold 
junction temperature O'C, are as follows: 

Approximate cloctro- 
Xame of thermo-couple motive force in milli- 

volts at 500°C. 

Platjnum-platinum 10 per cent, rhodium 4.4 

Platinum-platinum 10 per cent, iridium 7.4 

Nickel-nickel 10 per cent, chromium (The Hoskin's 

couple) 10.0 

Iron-nickel 12.0 

Iron-constantan 26.7 

Silver-constantan 27.6 

Coppcr-constantan 27 . 8 

The relation between temperature and the electromotive 
force produced by a thermo-couple when the cold junction is 
maintained at 0°C. is usually given in an equation of the form 

log c = A log t + B, 
where 

e = c.m.f. of the thermo-couple in millivolts, 
t = the temperature of the thermo-couple in degrees 
Centigrade, 

and A and B are constants depending on the wire employed. 

For the chief thermo-couples in general use at the present 
time this equation is as follows: 

Platinum-platinum rhodium approximately log e = 1.19 log t + 0.52 

Platinum-platinum iridium approximately log e = 1.10 log t + 0.89 

Silver-constantan approximately log e = 1.14 log ( -j- 1 . 34 

(See also p. 171) 

J Engineering, Aug. 1, 1913. 



CHEMICAL DATA 



309 



Thebmochemical Constants Per Chemical Equhalent 
WITH Corresponding Voltages 

In the table of therrao-chemical constants per chemical 
equivalents (bj' J. W. Richards, Journ. Franklin hist., 1906) 
the column headed " per chemical equivalents " gives the addi- 
tional energy in case of the plus figures, or the smaller amount, 
in case of the negative, required to set free a chemical equiva- 
lent (molecular weight divided by valence) of the given sub- 
stance as compared with the energy required to decompose the 
corresponding hj^drogen compound. 

In the formation of CuClj the data in the table are — 7900 
Cu, + 39,400 CI2 = 31,500 gram-cal. required for the decom- 
position of one chemical equivalent of CuCh, the corresponding 
drop in voltage is - 0.34 Cu, + 1.71 CI2 = 1.37 volts for the 
decomposition voltage of CuCl2. The order in which the 
elements are placed gives also the order in which they will be 
deposited one after another by decreasing voltages. 



Basic elements 


Element 


Acid elements 


Salt 




1 Per chemical 


Corre- 


ZZ Corre- 


Element 


equivalents, 


sponding 




cnem. 


sponding! 




gram-cals. 


voltage 




equiv., 
gram-cal. 


voltage 




Li' 


+62.900 


+ 2.73 


F:" (gas).... 


r 
+ 52,900 +2.30 


Fluoride. 


Rb'.... 


+62,000 


+ 2.69 


Ch" (gas)... 


+ 39,400 +1.71 


Chloride. 


K' 


+ 61,900 


+ 2.69 


Brj" (gas).. . 


+ 32,300 +1.40 


Bromide. 


Ba". . . . 


+ 59,950 


+ 2.60 


Br' aiquid) . 


+ 28,600 +1.20 


Bromide. 


Sr" 


+ 58,700 


+ 2.55 


Br' (solid).. . 


+ 27,300 +1.1S 


Bromide. 


Na'.... 


+ 57,200 


+2.48 


I2" (gas) 


+ 20,000 


+0.87 


Iodide. 


Ca". . . . 


+ 54,400 


+ 2.36 


r (liquid)... 


+ 14,600 


+0.63 


Iodide. 


Mg"... 


+ 54,300 


+ 2.36 


r (solid) .... 


+ 13,200 


+ 0.57 


Iodide. 


Al'".... 


+ 40,100 


+ 1.74 


S" (solid) . . . 


- 5,100 


-0.22 


Sulphide. 


NH«'... 


+ 33,400 


+ 1.45 


Se" (met.) . . 


-17,900 


-0.78 


Selenide. 


Mn"... 


+24,900 


+ 1.08 










Zn".... 


+ 17,200 


+0.75 










Fe".... 


+ 19,900 


+0.47 










Cd".... 


+ 9,000 


+0.39 










Co".... 


+ 8,200 


+0.36 










Ni".... 


+ 7,700 


+0.33 










Fe'".... 


+ 3,230 


+ 0.14 










Sn". . . . 


+ 1,900 


+ 0.08 










Pb". . . . 


+ 400 


+0.02 










H' 
















Tl".. .. 


- 900 


-0.04 










Cu".... 


- 7,900 


-0.34 










Hg".... 


-14,250 


-0.62 










Pt""... 


-19,450 


-0.84 










Ag' 


-25,200 


-1.10 










Au"'... 


-30,300 


-1.32 











Calculation of Electromotive Force (Thomson's R,ule) 

One coulomb liberates 0.000010392 grams of H. In order 
to set free 1 gram of H, or 1 gram equivalent of anv other ele- 
ment, an e.xpenditure of 1 -^ 0.000010392 = 96,600 coulombs 
is required. This is known as a Faraday and is usually denoted 
by the letter F. 



810 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMLSTS' HANDBOOK 

If Q is the heat energy of formation of one molecular weight, 
71 the valence of the compound, then 

nEF = Q X 4.19 
or since F = 96,600 

^ = oo r..r> (Thomson's rule). 
23,040« 

The rule is not quite correct. The true relation between heat 
and electrical energy is given by the Gibbs-Helmholz equation 

dE 
nEF = Q + t'~ 

dE . 
in which T = absolute temperature, and -p^ is the temperature 

coefficient of the e.m.f. As this coefficient is usually not large, 
Thomson's rule is sometimes used to give an approximate 
value. 
Example : 

Cu + CI2 + aq = 62,500; n = 2 valences 
„ 62,500 , „- - 

^ = 23,040X2 = ^-^^^^^^^^ 
CuSO* 4- H2O = Cu + HjSO* + O 
197,500 + 69,000 - 210,000 = 56,300 
„ 56,300 , -^ ,^ 

^ = 2X23,040 =^-22 volts 

Electroplating Baths' 
Brass Bath (Roselecr'sj. — Per liter of water: 

Sodium carbonate, dry (NaoCOsj 10 g. 

Cupric acetate, pulverized 14 g. 

Sodium bisulphite (HNaSOs) 14 g. 

Zinc chloride, fused (ZnCU) 14 g. 

Potassium cyanide (lOO per cent. KCN) 40 g. 

Ammonium chloride (NH4CI) 2 g. 

Current density-, 0.3 amp. per sq. dm.; e.m.f., 2.7 volts; sp. gr., 
1.0545; deposit per hour, 0.0041 mm. 

Di-ssolve the sodium salts in 400 cc. warm water, stir the 
copper and zinc salts with 400 cc. of warm water, and stir 
slowly into the first solution. Dissolve the cyanide in the 
remainder of the water and stir into the other portion of the 
bath, where the precipitate should di.ssolve. Add the ammo- 
nium chloride and boil for an hour, replacing the water evap- 
orated. 

Copper Bath — Acid. — Per liter of water: 

Copper .sulphate (Cu80v5H20) 200 g. 

Sulphuric acid (cone. H2SO4) 30 g. 

Current density, 1 to 3 amp. per sq. dm.; sp. gr. 1.1417. 

' "A Laboratory Course in Electrochemistry," Watts. 



CHEMICAL DATA 311 

Copper Bath — Alkaline. — Per liter of water: 

Sodium sulphite (Na2S03) 20 g. 

Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3-10H2O) 20 g. 

Sodium bisulphite (HNaSOs) 20 g. 

Cupric acetate (Cu-2C2H302-H20) 20 g. 

Potassium cyanide (100 per cent. KCN) 20 g. 

Current density, 0.3 amp.; e.m.f., 2.9 volts; sp. gr., 1.0507; 
deposit in 1 hour, 0.0056 mm.; temp., 20°C.; make-up as 
under brass bath. 

Cobalt Bath I. — Cobalt-ammonium sulphate, CoS04-(NH4)2- 
S04-6H20, 200 grams per liter of water (or 145 grams of the 
anhydrous salt). Sp. gr., 1.053 at 15°C. 

Cobalt Bath II. — Cobalt sulphate, C0SO4, 312 grams, sodium 
chloride, NaCl, 19.6 grams, boric acid, nearly to saturation, 
water, 1000 cc. Sp. gr., 1.25 at 15°C. 

• Use cobalt anodes, and current even up to 100 amp. per 
square foot where possible (H. T. Kalmus et al., Electrical 
Review, May 8, 1915). 

Gold Bath. — Per liter of water: 

Sodium carbonate, dry (Na2C03) 10 g. 

Gold-ammonium chloride (NH4)2AuCl« 2 g. 

Potassium cyanide 7 g. 

Current density, 0.1 amp. per sq. dm.; e.m.f., 2.8 volts; sp. 
gr., 1.0175; deposit per hour, 0.00184 mm.; temperature, 
20°C.; anode area one-third cathode. 
Iron Bath. — Per liter of water: 

Ferrous sulphate (FeS04-7H90) 150 g. 

Ferrous chloride (FeCl24H20) 75 g. 

Ammonium sulphate (NH4)2S04 100 g. 

Current density, 1.0 amp. This bath can be used for refining 
iron. At 20°C. the deposit is hard and brittle, but electrolysis 
at 80'* to 90° yields a soft metal. See also p. 593. 
Lead Bath. — Per liter of water : 

Lead (as PbSiFe) 50 to 80 g. 

Hydrofluosilicic acid (HaSiFe) 100 to 150 g. 

Gelatin 0.5 g. 

Current density, 1.2 to 1.6 amp. per sq. dm. This bath is 
used for refining. For plating reduce the free acid to 2 or 3 per 
cent. 

Nickeling on Iron or Steel. — Per liter of water: 

Nickel-ammonium sulphate 75 g. 

Current density, 0.3 amp.; e.m.f., 3.5 volts; sp. gr., 1.0479; 
deposit per hour, 0.0034 mm.; cast anodes should be half the 
area of cathode. 

Nickeling on Brass or Copper. — Per liter of water: 

Nickel sulphate (NiS04-7H20) 50 g. 

Ammonium chloride (NH4CI) 25 g. 

Current density, 0.5 amp. per sq. dm.; e.m.f., 2.3 volts; sp. gr. 
1.0357; deposit in 1 hour, 0.0059 mm.; cast anodes should be 
one-half area of cathode. 



312 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Nickeling on Zinc. — Per liter of water: 

Nickel sulphate 40 g. 

Sodium citrate 35 g. 

Current density, 0.27 amp. per sq. dm.; e.m.f., 3.6 volts; sp. 
gr., 1.0394; deposit per hour, 0.00301 mm.; rolled anodes 
should have two and one-half times area of cathodes. 

Nickel Solution — Thick Deposits. — Per liter of water: 

Nickel sulphate, XiSO^-TH.O 50 g. 

Ammonium tartrate, neutral 36 g. 

Tannin 0.25 g. 

Current density, 0.3 amp. per sq. dm. 
Black Nickel. — Per liter of water: 

Nickel-ammonium sulphate 60 g. 

Ammonium sulphocyanide 15 g. 

Zinc sulphate, cryst 7 g. 

Use nickel anodes three to four times the surface of the 
cathodes. Current density, 0.05 amp. per sq. dm. Deposit 
takes best on white nickel. Solution must be kept neutral 
by nickel carbonate. 

Platiniun Bath — (Roseleur's). — Per liter of water: 

Thin Thick 

deposita deposits 

Ammonium phosphate 20.0 g. 100.0 g. 

Sodium phosphate 100. Og. 100.0 g. 

Platinum as Pt CI 4 2.3 g. 10.0 g. 

Current density, 1 to 2 amp. per sq. dm.; e.m.f., 3 to 4 volts. 

Dissolve the platinic chloride in 100 cc. of water. Dissolve 
the ammonium phosphate in 200 cc. of wat€r and stir into the 
platinum solution, when the precipitate previously formed will 
dissolve. Boil until odor of ammonia has disappeared and add 
water to make up for evaporation. Bath should have acid 
reaction and should be used hot. Potential difference, 6-8 
volts. 

Silver Bath — Heavy Plating. — Per liter of water: 

Silver as silver cyanide 25 g. 

Potassium cyanide 27 g. 

Current density, 0.3 amp.; e.m.f., 1.3 volts; sp. gr., 1.0338; 
deposit per hour, 0.0114 mm.; area of anodes equals area of 
cathode. 

Silver Bath — Ordinary Plating. — 

Silver as silver cyanide 10 g. 

Potassium cyanide 20 g. 

Current density, 0.3 amp. per sq. dm.; e.m.f., 1.5 volts; sp. gr., 
1.0175; deposit per hour, 0.0115 mm. 
Tin Bath (Roseleur's). — Per liter of water: 

Sodium pyropho-sphate (Na4P207) 40 g. 

Tin chloride, fused (SnCU) 16 g. 

Tin chloride, cr>'st. (SnCU^HaO) 4 g. 



CHEMICAL DATA 



313 



Current density, 0.3 amp. per sq. dm.; e.m.f., 2 volts; sp. gr., 
1.0357; deposit per hour, 0.0059 mm.; anode area equal to cath- 
ode, solution gives deposit on copper, brass, bronze or zinc ; but 
iron or steel must be coppered first or given a preliminary coat 
of tin by an immersion bath. The tin anodes do not corrode 
evenly and tin salts must be added to maintain sufficient 
amount of tin in solution. 

Tin Baths. — Per liter of water: 



Caustic soda (NaOH) 

Tin chloride, cryst (SnCh ^HoO) 

Sodium hyposulphite.. . . (Na2S203 -51120) 

Sodium chloride (NaCl) 



90 g. 120 g. 

30 g. 30 g. 

15 g. 60 g. 

15 g.. 



125 g. 
50 g. 
75 g. 



Tin Bath, by Immersion. — Per liter of water: 

Ammonium alum (NH4A1(S04)2-12H20) 25 g. 

Tin chloride, fused (SnCl2) 2 g. 

A bright coating is produced on clean iron by 30 to 60 seconds 
immersion in the boiling solution. 
Zinc Bath. — Per liter of water : 

Zinc sulphate (ZnSOi^HaO) 100 g. 

Ammonium chloride (NH4CI) 25 g. 

Ammonium citrate 40 g. 

Current density, 0.5 to 1.0 amp. per sq. dm.; e.m.f., 1.1 to 
2.2; sp. gr., 1.0781; deposit per ampere-hour,. 0.0173 mm. 
Zinc Bath. — Per liter of water: 

Zinc chloride 60 g. 

Ammonium chloride 30 g. 

Hydrochloric acid 4 g. 

Glycerine 4 g. 

Use anodes of zinc and of antimonial lead in equal numbers. 

Electrolytic Oxidation and Reduction 

Overvoltage of Hydrogen and Oxygen. 

(Quoted from Watts "A Laboratory Course in Electrochem- 
istry.") 

"Electrolysis lends itself well to oxidation and reduction proc- 
esses, since it is possible to vary not only the speed, but also the 
intensity of the action with great nicety. Factors affecting the 
intensity of the reducing action are the material of the electrode, 
the nature of its surface, and the current density. In comparing 
the effects of different cathodes, an attempt is frequently made 
to resolve the reducing action of the cathodes into the catalytic 
action of the electrode material, and the 'overvoltage' of the 



314 ME'r\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



OVERVOLTAGE OF HyDROGEN 



Cathode 



By 
Cas- 
pari' 

SO4 



By Foerster and 2N Hi 
Pignet- N' UjS04 "sO« By 

) 1 1 0.125 TafeP 

I Least Current 1 amp. lO.l amp. 
poten- I 0.04 arap. per sq. sq 
I tial per sq. cm.i cm. 




Discharge poten- 
tials, N.H1SO4 



.Mercury ... . 78 

Zinc I 0,70 

Lead 0.64 

Tin 1 0.53 

0,48 
0.46 
0.23 
0.21 
0.15 
0,09 



0.43 



Cadmium 
Palladium 
Copper.. . 
Nickel. . . 
Silver. . . . 
Platinum. 

Gold 0.02 

Platinized- 1 
platinum. ,0,0 



0.35 
0.43 
0.48 



1.25 



1.32 



1.30 



1.26 
1.08 
1.18 



0.10 
0.10 



0.67 
0.64 



0.07 
0.055 



0.005 



1.35 
1.16 
1.23 



1.30 
1.15 
1.22 



0.79 
0.74 



0.79 
0.74 
0.93(?) 



0.86 

0.05 



0.96 

0,07 



0,95 

0.07 



+ .5476 
-I-.4676 
-I-.4076 
-t-.2976 
+ .2476 
+ .2276 
-.0024 
-.0224 
-.0824 
-.1424 
-.2124 



+ . 1976 



1176 
1676 
1976 



.1324 
.1324 



.1624 
.1874 



-.2324 -.2274 



Note. — " X " in the above table stands for normal. 
' Zeit. phys. Chem., 1899, p. 89. 
s Zeit. /. EUktrochfm., 1904. p. 715. 
» Zeit. /. Chem.. 1904, p. 712. 

hydrogen. The variation in the potential required by elec- 
trodes of different metals for visible evolution of hydrogen is 
usually expres,sed as the "overvoltage" of hydrogen on the par- 
ticular metal, the least potential of platinized platinum being 
taken as zero. The di.scharge potentials referred to the calomel 
electrode (value, — O.06 volt) have been calculated for the differ- 
ence between the calomel electrode and the hydrogen electrode 
in normal sulphuric acid. The increase of overvoltage with 
time and its diminution with rise of temperature varies for 
different metals. 



Anode Potextials and Overvoltage 


OF Oxygen 




Anode 


FJy Coehn. Least 
anode potential 
for evolution of ( )3 
vs. hvd. electrode 
in NKOH 

Overvoltage AU- 
niand, p. 131 


Discharge poten- 
tial vs. calomel 
electrode calcu- 
lated by Watts 

By K e r » t e r. 
Least potential for 
evolution hyd. vs. 
hyd. electrode 
2N KOH 




a> 


X 



01 

d 

K 
Z 


Nickel, sponge, . 


1.28 
1.35 
1.36 
1.47 

1.47 
1.48 
1.53 
1.63 
1.65 
1.65 
1.67 
1 75 


0.05 
0.12 
0.13 
0.24 

0.24 
0.25 
0.30 


-0.9524 
-1.0224 
-1.0324 
-1.1424 

-1.1424 
-1.1524 
- 1 2024 










Nickel, smooth.. 
Cobalt 


1.35 


2.00 


1.77 




Iron 

Platinized- 

plaiinum 

Copper 


1.47 
1.47 


2.02 
2.30 


1.89 


















Silver 


0.40 -1 3024 










Cadmium 


0.42 1-1.3224 
0.42 1-1.3224 
0.44 1-1.3424 
52 1 — 1 4924 












1.65 
1.67 


2.45 
2.92 






Platinum 

Gold 


2.50 


2.17 















CHEMICAL DATA 



315 



Electrochemical Order of the Elements* 

In the following series each metal is electropositive to all that 
follow it. Two metals in contact in the presence of an electro- 
lyte form a galvanic couple which causes the more electro- 
positive to be decomposed by electrolysis. 

Cs-I-, Rb, K, Na, Li, Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg. Al, Cr, Mn, Zn, Ga, Fe, 
Co, Ni, Tl, In, Pb, Cd, Sn, Bi, Cu, H, Hg, Ag, Sb, Te, Pd, Au, 
Ir, Rh, Pt, Os, Si, C, B, N, As, Se, P, S, I, Br, CI, O, F. 

Some authors put Cd just before Fe, Sn before Pb, and Sb and 
As before Cu. That the last two should precede copper ordi- 
narily seems probable. The order changes with the specific 
electrolyte, and the position of selenium varies with the amount 
of illumination. 



Potentials of Metals ix their Normal Salts 

(Neumann) 





Sulphate 


Chloride 


Nitrate 


Acetate 


Magnesium 


+ 1.239 
+ 1.040 
+ 0.815 
+0.524 
+0.162 
+0.093 
-0.019 
-0.022 


+ 1.231 
+ 1.015 
+ 0.824 
+ 0.503 
+0.174 
+0.087 
-0.015 
-0.020 
-0.085 
-0.095 
-0.249 
-0.315 
-0.376 
-0.550 


+ 1.060 
+0.775 
+ 0.560 
+ 0.473 
+0.122 


+ 1.240 






Zinc 


+ 522 


Cadmium 




Cobalt 


-0.078 
-0.060 


— 004 


Nickel 




Tin 








-0.115 


— 079 




-0.238 
-0.490 


— 150 




-0.500 


















-0.515 
-0.980 
-0.974 


-0.615 
-1.028 
-1.055 


— 580 








Silver 




— 991 




-1.066 
-1.140 
-1.356 




Platinum 








Gold 











1 



Decomposition Voltages 

(Le Blanc) 



HjSO*. . 
HNO.... 
HtPOi.. 
HCl.... 
NaOH.. 
KOH.. . 
NH4OH. 
Na2S04 . 
NaNOa.. 
NaCl. . . 
NaBr. . . 



1.67 
1.69 
1.70 
1.31 
1.67 
1.69 
1.74 
2.21 
2.15 
1.98 
1.58 



NaT 


1.12 


XaCjHjOz 


2.10 


K2SO4.... 


2.20 


KNOa.... 


2.17 


KCl 


1.96 


(NH4)2S04 


2.11 


CaCh 


1.89 


SrClj 


2.01 


BaCh 


1.95 


ZnS04 . . . 


2.35 


ZnBr 


1.80 



XiS04... 
NiCh.... 
AgXOs... 
CdS04 . . . 
C0SO4 . . . 
HgCl2... 
Fe2CS04)3 
FeS04 . . . 

AuCb I 

FeCb 2 



2.09 




1.84 




0.70 




2.03 


SnCh.. . 


1.92 


MnS04. 


1.30 


MnCh.. 


1.64 


CuCh... 


2.02 




0.39 




2.16 





1.76 
2.60 
2.77 
1.36 



' Gore, "The Art of Electrolytic Separation of Metals." 



316 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Electromotive Force of Metals and Minerals in KCN 
Solution' 
M 

-- KCN' = 6.5 per cent. 





Volts 




Volts 




+ 0.99 
+ 0.93 
+ 0.81 
+ 0.61 
+ 0.45 
+0.45 
+0.39(?) 
+0.37 
+ 0.33 
+ 0.29{?) 
+ 0.13 
-0.09 




— 17 


Zinc, amalgamated 


Chalcopyrite 


— 20 




Pyrite 


-0 28 






— 28 


Tin 




— 28 






-0 30 


Copr>er, amalgamated. . . . 




-0.40 




—0 40 


Silver 




-0 43 


Copper glance 


Electric-light carbon.. . . 
Blende 


-0.46 
-0.48 




Bournonite 


-0.50 




Coke 


-0 52 


Antimony 


+ 0.06 
+ 0.04 


Ruby silver ore 

Stephanite 


-0.54 
-0.54 






-0.56 


Niccolite 1 -0.11 







Decompositiox Voltages of Molten Alkali Halides and 
Alkaline-earth Chlorides^ 



Compound 



Decompound voltage 


Temp, coeff. 


630° C. 


= 2.62 V. 


1.35 X 10-» 


835° C. 


= 2.6 V. 


1.46 X 10-' 


810° C. 


= 2.8 V. 


1.51 X 10-' 


690° C. 


= 2.45 V. 


1.465 X 10-' 


690° C. 


= 2.6 V. 


1.465 X 10-' 


630° C. 


= 2.05 V. 


1.48 X 10-' 


630° C. 


= 2.2 V. 


1.48 X 10-' 


890° C. 


= 2.5 V. 


2.00 X 10-' 


890° C. 


= 2.6 V. 


2.00 X 10-' 


770° C. 
585° C. 


= 1.3 V. 
= 2.85 V. 




0.685 X 10-' 


615° C. 


= 3.0 V. 


0.715 X 10-' 


650° C. 


= 3.05 V. 





Li CI... 
NaCl... 
KCl... 
NaBr.. 
KBr. . . 
Nal . . . 

KI 

NajSOi 
K2SO4 . 
NajCOa 
CaClj. . 
SrCU . . 
BaCl.. . 



• Pkof. S. B. Chhlsty, Tran.f. A. I. M. E., Sept.. 1899. 

' B. Nelma.sn a.nd E. Bergvk. Z. Ekktroclum. 21, 152-60 (1915).— It 
these experiments a C crucible covered with a mixture of water-glass and as- 
Lestos was found to be the only one practicable. Graphite electrodes were 
used covered, where exposed, with the same mixture. 



CHEMICAL DATA 317 

Deposition by Immersion ^ 

Solution Deposits on Does not deposit on 

SbCla. . , Bi, Brass, German Ag, Sb, Cu, Fe, Ni, Au, Pt, 

Pb, Sn, Zn Ag. 

BiCls Fe, Pb, Sn, Zn Sb, Bi, Brass, Cu, Au, 

Pt, Ag. 
CUSO4, Cu- Fe, Pb, Sn, Zn Sb, Bi, Cu, Au, Ni, Pt. 

(N03)2 

CuCh Bi, Fe, Pb, Sn, Zn. . . . Sb, Cu, Au, Ni, Pt, Ag. 

CuCls (am- 

moniacal). Zn Sb, Cu, Au, Bi, Fe, 

Pb, Ni, Pt, Ag. 

HgNOs As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Sb, Fe, 

brass, Pb, Zn 

AgNoj Pb, Sn, Cd, Zn, Cu, Bi, 

Sb, Fe, Ni Ag, Au, Pt. 

AgNo2 As, Sb, Bi, Zn, Sn, Cu, Fe. 

(alcoholic). 
AgCNKCN . . Zn, Pb, Cu, brass, f Sb, Bi, Sn, Fe, Ni, 

CrprTTi Jiri As* iA0"An T^t 

Au(CN)3KCN Zn, Cu, brass, German /Sb, Bi, Sn, Pb, Fe, 
Ag. 1 Ni, Ag, Au, Pt. 

Cleaning Metals by Electrolysis. — In cleaning adhesions of 
dirt, rust, etc., from metals, the following method is recom- 
mended: The articles are connected to the poles of an alter- 
nating circuit and immersed in a salt solution. The liberation 
of gases on the surface of the metals very quickly removes or 
loosens everything of a non-metallic character, while the alter- 
nating current prevents any permanent action on the metal 
itself, and it is said the finish of the surface is not interfered 
with. The voltage should be sufficient to cause evolution of 
gas at the poles, and currents up to 110 volts have been used. 
{Mining Review, Melbourne, Aust.) 

Other authorities recommend a 10 per cent, solution of 
H3P04. A carbon electrode is used if both electrodes cannot 
be composed of metals to be cleaned. 

A mixture of freshly moistened crushed sodium bisulphate 
and common salt can also be used. This is applied and allowed 
to remain in contact with the plate to be cleaned for some time. 
After the plate is clean the mixture should be scraped oflf and 
the plate washed with an alkaline solution. 

'Gore, " Art of Electrolptic Separation of the Metals." 



SECTION V 
SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS ^ 



STANDARD SOLUTIONS 

Ammonium-nitrate solution — for washing ammonium phos- 
phoinolybdate — 5 to 10 per cent. Dissolve 50 to 100 grains 
XH4N(33 in water and acidifj- with HNO3, using 1 cc. per liter 
excess. Or add ammonia to strong HXC)3 (sp. gr. 1.42) until 
alkaline to litmus, and bring back to acidity with HNO3, using 
1 cc. per liter excess. 

Ammonium-oxalate solution — used chiefly as a precipitant 
for calcium. 1 gram of salt per 10 cc. of water. 1 cc. will 
then ])rccipitate 0.0145 gram of CaO. 

Barium chloride — used as precipitant for SOs. 1 gram 
of crystals per 10 cc. of water. 1 cc. will precipitate 0.0327 
gram .SO3. 

Bichromate solution — for iron determination — 8.79 grams 
pure K-Cr-jO? in two liters of water. 1.0 cc. = 0.005 mg. Fe. 

Cochineal — Grind 1 gram of the bugs in a mortar and 
digest with 100 to 150 cc. of cold dilute alcohol (1vol. alcohol, 
3 vol. water) for 20 or 30 min. Filter and the solution is ready 
for use. See note under phenolphthalein concerning acidity 
of alcohol. Useful with titrations with ammonia. Salts of 
copper, iron and aluminum must be removed. Color changes 
from yellowish red in acids to purple in alkalis. 

Cuprous-chloride solution (ammoniacal) — for gas analj'sis. 
Weigh out 16 grams of fresh CU2CI2, or about 25 if it is old. 
Place in large Plorence flask and add 250 cc. water. By means 
of delivery tube immersed in water, pass the gas from 200 cc. 
concentrated ammonia water into the CU2CI2 flask using a two- 
hole stopper in this flask with a check valve. Pass until practi- 
cally all ammonia has passed over. 100 cc. of this Cu^Cli 
solution will absorb 24 cc. of CO but should not be used in sec- 
ond pipette after it has absorbed 6. 

Cyanide solution — for copper determination. Use about 23 
grams commercial potassium cyanide per liter of water. The 
theoretical amount is 20.63. 1.0 cc. = 0.005 gram Cu. 

Ferrocyanide — for zinc determination — 45 grams of pure 
K^FeCve per liter of water. 1.0 cc. = 0.010 gram Zn. 

Hydrodisodium phosphate — HXaaPO* — used as precipitant 
for magnesia. 1 gram to 10 cc. of water. 1 cc. of solution 
precipitates 0.0112 gram of MgO. 

Hyposulphite solution — for use in iodide copper determination 
— 19.59 grams c.p. sodium hyposulphite per liter of water. 
1.0 cc. = 0.005 g. Cu. 

Litmus — Dissolve 1 gram of litmus in 100 cc. of hot water 

> For data on qualitative analysis see the previous section, pp. 270-289 inc. 
318 



SAiMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 819 

and add, drop bj' drop, dilute sulphuric acid until the liquid 
acquires a red color. Boil for 10 min. to expel the carbon 
dioxide. Should the red color pass into blue during the boiling, 
restore the color by adding a few drops of dilute sulphuric 
acid. Then add bar.yta water, drop by drop, until a violet color 
develops, set aside to deposit, and falter. Preserve the litmus 
tincture in bottles not completely filled, and preferably covered 
only with a loose cover. 

Magnesia mixture — -Dissolve 3 grams calcined MgO in 
least necessary quantity HCl. Add excess of magnesia and 
heat. Filter off any precipitated iron, alumina or phosphates 
and add 35 grams ammonium chloride and 25 cc. of strong 
ammonia, and dilute to 250 cc. 1 cc. = 0.016 gram PsOj 
approximately. 

Magnesium-nitrate solution — Dissolve 16 grams calcined 
magnesia in least necessary nitric acid. Add an excess of 
magnesia, heat for a few minutes, filter and make up 100 cc. 

Manganese sulphate solution — for use in iron titrations, to 
render end-point more distinct. 160 grams of manganous 
sulphate are dissolved and diluted to 1750 cc. To this are 
added 330 cc. of phosphoric acid (syrup 1.7 sp. gr.) and 320 cc. 
of sulphuric acid. About 6 or 8 cc. are used in a titration. 

Mercuric-chloride solution — for tin precipitation in iron 
analysis — 7 grams HgCU in 150 cc. water. 

Methyl orange — Dissolve the dry substance in water, about 
0.3 gram per liter. It must be used in cold solutions. It 
cannot, as a rule, be vised with organic acids or with nitrites. 
Yellow with alkalis, pink with acids. 

Molybdate solution — Dissolve 25 grams molybdic acid 
(M0O3) in about 100 cc. ammonia water. If action is too slow, 
warm and add a little more strong ammonia water. Cool and 
pour solution, a little at a time, into about 300 cc. of HNO3 
(sp. gr. 1.20). Cool mixture during this process. Dilute to 
500 cc. 1 cc. will precipitate about 0.001 gram of phosphorus. 

For lead determination dissolve 9 grams of the salt in 1000 
cc. water. 1.0 cc. = 0.01 gram Pb. 

Nessler's solution — for estimation of ammonia in water 
analysis. Dissolve 50 grams potassium iodide in a small 
quantity of hot water, cool, and add with frequent agitation 
a strong solution of mercuric chloride (40 grams of HgCh 
to 300 cc. of water until the red precipitate just redissolves. 
Filter. Add to the filtrate a strong solution of potassium hy- 
drate containing 200 grams of the salt. Filter. Dilute to 
1000 cc. and add 5 cc. of a saturated solution of mercuric chloride. 
Allow the precipitate to settle, decant the clear liquid and 
keep for use in a tightly stoppered bottle. 

Normal acid or alkaline solutions — contain 1.008 grams of 
acid hydrogen or 17.008 grams of hydroxyl per liter. 

Permanganate solution — for iron, lime, etc. — 12 grams 
KMriOi to 2030 cc. water. Ice. =10mg. Fe. The same 
solution may be used for lime, 1 cc. =5 mg. CaO; and for 
Mn, 1 cc. = 0.002946 gram Mn. 



320 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Phenolphthalein — The dry material is dissolved in alcohol, 
5 grams per liter. The alcohol may have some acidity which 
can be removed by boiling, or by redistilhition with Hme. 
Cannot be used with ammonia or ammonium salts. Can be 
used for' weak organic acids. Red with alkalis, colorless with 
acids. 

Platinic chloride — Dissolve 1 gram of metal in aqua regia, 
evaporate to dryness, and dissolve in 1 cc. HCl and 9 cc. H2O. 
1 gram of this solution precipitates 0.048 gram of K2O. 

Salt solution — 5.4189 grams per liter. 1.0 cc. = 0.01 mg. 
of silver. The salt should be dried at about 125°C. 

Silver nitrate — 1 gram per 20 cc. of water. 1 cc. precipitates 
0.0104 gram of CI. 

Sodium chloride — See salt solution. 

Stannous chloride solution — Heat 15 grams SnClj and 1 
gram pure Sn with 40 cc. water and 10 cc. cone. HCl. Keep 
tightly stoppered as it readily absorbs o.xygen. 

Starch paste — Rub 2 or 3 grams of starch with cold water to 
a smooth paste which is then added a little at a time to 400 or 
500 cc. of boiling water into which it should be thoroughly 
stirred. After several minutes remove from heat and dilute 
(if necessary) to 600 cc. and add 5 grams of crystalhzed zinc 
chloride. Stir until the zinc salt dissolves, then allow to cool 
and settle. Decant and bottle the clear liquid for use. 

Tannin — for use as indicator in lead assay by titration with 
ammonium molybdate. Dissolve 1 gram of tannin in 300 cc. 
water. 

COMMON NAMES AND THEIR CHEMICAL 
EQUIVALENTS 

Alum — usually the potassium-aluminum sulphate KAl(SO«)a 
I2H2O is meant. 

Argols — potassium bitartrate. 

Bilking soda — sodium bicarbonate. 

Bleaching powder — CaOClj. 

Bluestone — copper sulphate, CuS04-5H20. 

Calomel — mercurous chloride, Hg2Cl5. 

Copperas — ferrous sulphate, FeSOi-SHjO. 

Corrosive sublimate — mercuric chloride, HgCU. 

Epsom salts — magnesium sulphate. 

Eschka's mixture — magnesium o.xide and sodium carbonate. 

Glauber's salts — sodium sulphate. 

Green vitriol — ferrous sulphate. 

Marignac's salt — potassium stannosulphate, KjSn(S04)j. 

Microcosmic salt — sodium-ammonium-hydrogen phosphate, 
HXaXH^POi^H.O. 

Minium — red lead, Pb304. 

Mohr'ssalt— FeS04(XH4)2S04-6H20. 

Muriatic acid — hydrochloric acid. 

Oil of vitriol — sulphuric acid. 

Orpiment — yellow arsenic glass. 

Plaster of Paris — dehydrated gypsum, CaS04. 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 321 

Realgar — red arsenic glass. 

Rochelle salts — potassium-sodium tartrate, KNaC4H406- 

4H:0. 

Salt of Amber — succinic acid. 

Sal am.moniac — ammonium chloride, NH4CI. 

Salts of lemon — acid potassium oxalate, HKC2O4. 

Salt cake — the residue from nitric-acid making, impure 
HNaS04. 

Sal soda — sodium bicarbonate. 

Scluff's reagent — ammonium thioacetate solution, CH3- 
COSNH4. 

Seidlitz powders — 35 grains of tartaric acid and a mixture 
of 40 grains of sodium bicarbonate with 120 grains of potassium 
and sodium tartrate. 

Soluble water-glass — sodium silicate, NaoSiOs. 

Sorensen's oxalate — sodium oxalate. 

Sugar of lead — lead acetate. 

Washing soda — sodium carbonate. 

White vitriol — zinc sulphate, ZnS04-5H20. 

The Preparation of Proof Gold^ 

The purest gold which can be obtained (usually assay 
cornets) is dissolved in aqua regia and the excess of nitric 
acid expelled by repeated evaporation with additional hydro- 
chloric acid on a water bath. The final solution is then poured 
in a thin stream into a large beaker full of distilled water, pro- 
ducing a solution of about 1 oz. of gold per pint of water. Stir 
vigorously and leave the solution to settle. At the end of 
about a week the chloride of silver will have subsided to the bot- 
tom. Remove the clear supernatant liquor with a glass siphon 
and dilute to about 1 oz. of gold per gallon of water. If the 
gold originally used was free from platinum, precipitate with 
sulphurous acid; if platinum was present, precipitate with oxalic 
acid. Sulphurous acid acts almost immediatelj^ but if oxalic 
acid is used the solution should be warmed and allowed to 
stand for 3 or 4 days. 

After the precipitated gold has settled the acid solution is 
siphoned off and the gold transferred to a large flask and re- 
peatedly shaken with cold distilled water, closing the mouth of 
the flask with a watch-glass. The gold is then washed thor- 
oughly with hot water and turned out into a porcelain basin, 
dried and melted in a clay crucible and poured into an iron 
mould, which should be neither smoked nor oiled, but rubbed 
with powdered graphite and then brushed clean with a stiff 
brush. The ingot is cleaned by brushing and heating in hydro- 
chloric acid. It is then dried and rolled out. The rolls must 
be clean and bright and free from grease. The surface of the 
rolled gold plate is then cleaned by scrubbing with fine sand and 
ammonia, and also with hydrochloric acid, and is scraped with 
a clean knife before being used for proof in the bullion assay. 

>T. K. Rose, "Metallurgy of Gold," fifth edition, p. 488. 
21 



322 MET.^LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Another method is given in the Memorandum by the Assayers 
of the Melbourne Mint, in the "Annual Report of the Mint," 
19i;i, p. 138. Cornets of gold, derived from the metal obtained 
by reduction with sulphurous acid, and containing 0.1 per cent, 
of impurity (cliiefly Ag), were treated with cold aqua regia 
(4:1), the solution largely diluted and allowed to stand for a 
week to efifect separation of silver chloride. Three successive 
quantities of a dilute solution of silver nitrate (containing 
Ag 0.5 grain) were then added at intervals of 3 days, the surface 
of the hquid being gently stirred after each addition, and the 
whole was allowed to stand for 14 days. Any iridium or other 
impurity suspended in the liquid was entangled in the pre- 
cipitated silver chloride; the clear solution was siphoned off, 
evaporated to dryness and ignited in porcelain; the sponge gold 
fused in a clay crucible with potassium bisulphate and nitrate, 
borax added, the melt allowed to cool, the cone of gcjld treated 
with boiling hydrochloric acid to remove adhering slag, placed 
by hand upon borax-glass contained in a clay crucible within a 
large, covered guard-pot, and melted under conditions preclud- 
ing contamination of the metal by furnace dust. A slow 
current of chlorine was then passed through the molten metal 
for 1 hour, the gas being conducted through a clay tube (3>^-in. 
bore) by which the gold was continuously stirred. The charge 
was allowed to cool in the crucible, the cone of gold treated 
with boiling hydrochloric acid and finally rolled (with special 
precautions against contamination) into a fillet \yhich was also 
treated with boiling acid. The original gold weighed 21.5 oz., 
the finished fillet 21.28 oz., and 0.204 oz. was subsequently 
recovered from the slag. 

The Preparation of Proof Silver 

Dissolve commercial fine silver in dilute nitric acid (1 :1), 
and allow the liquid to stand until any fine gold has settled. 
Siphon off from the gold, dilute with hot water, precipitate the 
silver with hydrochloric acid, stir well, allow to settle, and wash 
thoroughly by decantation. When the decanted liquid no 
longer shows hj'drochloric acid, which can be ascertained by 
testing it with a little silver nitrate, it may be considered clean. 
Allow the silver chloride to settle and decant off the solution. 
Transfer the silver chloride to a porous cup which has been 
soaked in hydrochloric acid and thoroughly washed afterward 
by standing in frequently changed distilled water. A cathode 
of pure silver or platinum is placed in the silver chloride and the 
porous cup immersed in a deeper one, in which a carbon anode 
is placed. Then a current is started, and silver chloride begins 
to reduce at the cathode. The outer liquid will become satu- 
rated with chlorine and should be renewed from time to time. 
The silver may then be melted down and rolled as given above 
under the head of gold. Another method is to use the best 
obtainable fine silver melted into the form of a cathode about 
6 or 8 in. long, about 2 in. wide and ^i to H in. thick. Wrap 
this in filter paper so that no gold can be detached under 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 323 

electrolysis. The electrolyte is about a 4 per cent, solution of 
silver nitrate slightly acidulated, and the cathode is pure silver. 
The current density should be such that the silver is deposited 
in the form of crystals, which should be later removed, melted 
and cast, although these crystals may be used themselves in 
the bullion proof. Still another method of preparing fine silver, 
due 1 believe, to A. E. Knorr, is to prepare a solution of silver 
nitrate from the best commercial fine silver obtainable (mat erial 
which is already 999 fine) evaporate to remove the excess of 
nitric acid, and to the neutral solution add enough sodium 
carbonate to precipitate about one-tenth of the silver present. 
Boil the precipitate and solution thus produced for some time. 
The silver carbonate first formed precipitates all other im- 
purities. Allow to settle, decant carefully (or filter). 

The remainder of the silver is then precipitated by chemically 
pure sodium carbonate. This precipitate carries down a 
considerable amount of sodium carbonate, but when the 
material is melted down all of the sodium carbonate comes to 
the surface as a slag, and can be dissolved ofT with hydrochloric 
acid later. The silver carbonate will decompose without the 
addition of any other reagent if heated sufficiently. The bar 
produced in this way should be, as said above, cleaned with 
hydrochloric acid and then rolled, as given above under the 
head of the preparation of proof gold. 

Assay Fluxes 

Basic. — Sodium carbonate (Na2C03) — ^best used in the anhy- 
drous form. 

Sodium bicarbonate (HNaCOs) — less convenient than the 
above as it carries much less soda for the same bulk. 

Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) — a mixture of sodium and 
potassium carbonates fuses at a much lower temperature than 
does either one alone. 

Litharge (PbO) — forms exceedingly fusible silicates. Gives 
metallic lead with reducing agents, C, S, etc. 

Red lead (Pb304) — same as above, but is more of an oxidizing 
agent. Carries silver into slag unless completely decomposed. 

Lead peroxide (Pb02) — still more energetic oxidizer. 

Hematite (Fe203) — extremely infusible and must be reduced 
with carbon in presence of silica in order to work as a flux. 

Lime (CaO) — when used with silica and some other base it 
forms fusible slags. 

Sodium hydrate (NaOH) — used chiefly to decompose 
sulphides and sulphates, certain silicates and oxides, and organic 
compounds. 

Acid. — Borax (Na2B407) — should be fused before use to 
render it anhydrous. Has the property of holding almost all 
oxides in suspension. 

Silica (Si02) — occasionally used with basic ores to lessen 
corrosion of crucibles. Better to use glass which carries about 
80 per cent. Si02. 

Glass — see silica. 



324 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Neutral. — Fluorspar (CaFj) — is extremely fusible, and 
readily carries phosphates, etc., in suspension. 

Common salt — also very fusible but does not dissolve 
infusible substances readily. Is mainly used as a cover to 
prevent oxidation of the charge underneath. 

Metallic. — Iron — often used in the form of nails to take 
care of sulphur. 

Lead — used in scorification assay both as a collector of the 
precious metals and, as it oxidizes, to take care of the gangue. 
in the crucible assay it is reduced from some oxide as a collector. 

Oxidizing. — Niter (KNO3 or NaNOa) — at about red heat 
niter decomposes into potassium nitrite and oxygen, KNO3 = 
O + KNO;, at a higher temperature the nitrite also decom- 
poses, 2KNO2 = K2O + 2N0 + O. 

Lead peroxide (see under basic fluxes). 

Manganese dioxide — must be used with some other base, and if 
any remains undecomposed it appears to carry silver into the 

slag- 
Sodium peroxide — extremely energetic and forms very fusible 
slags. Especially good in decomposing tin ores, and sulphides, 
antimonites, etc. 

Approximate Reducing Effect of Various Reducing Agents* 

Quantity of lead in grama 
Reducing agent reduced from litharge^ by 

1 gram of reagent 

Wood charcoal 22-30 

Powdered hard coal 25 

Powdered soft coal 22 

Powdered coke 24 

Argol (crude tartar) 5 -9.5 

Cream of tartar 4.5-6.5 

Wheat flour 10.0-12.0 

Starch 11.5-13.0 

Sugar 12.0-14.5 

Potassium cyanide 6 

Antimonite 6 

Blende 7-8 

Copper pyrites 7-8 

Fahlerz 7-8 

Galena 3 

Iron pyrites 11 

Mispickel 7-8 

In Assay Ton Charges 

6 per cent. FeS reduces a lo-gram button. 
8 per cent. ZnS reduces a 15-gram button. 

7 per cent. CuFeSz reduces a 15-gram button. 
13 per cent. CU2S reduces a 15-gram button. 
20 per cent. PbS reduces a 15-gram button. 

> For amount of lead reduced from red lead multiply the factors given 
by 0.55. , „ 

» E. A. Smith's, "Sampling and Assay of the Precious Metals. 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 325 



Oxidizing Agents (Wet) 

Ammonium Nitrate. — Readily decomposes on heating. 

Bichromates. — Usually used as the potassium salt. 

Bromine. — Usually used as liquid. 

Chlorine. — Generated from bleaching powder and sulphuric 
acid. 

Chromates. — Usually used as the potassium salt. 

Chlorates. — The sodium or potassium salt is used both in 
fusion and solution. 

Hydrogen Peroxide. — A powerful oxidizer both in alkaline 
and acid solution. 

Nitrates. — The sodium, potassium and ammonium salts are 
used. 

Nitric Acid. — An extremely powerful reagent. The fuming 
acid is still more so and should be kept in a cool, dark place and 
handled carefullj-. 

Permanganate. — The alkali-metal permanganates are ener- 
getic oxidizers both in acid and alkaline solution. 

Peroxides (See also Hydrogen Peroxide). — Sodium and potas- 
sium peroxide are energetic agents in alkaline solution. The 
barium, manganese, lead and sodium peroxides are often used 
advantageously in fusion. 

Reducing Agents 

The chief reduction agents in fusions have been spoken of on 
p. 308. In solution we may use: 

Alkaline. — Sodium amalgam, zinc dust, sodium sulphite, 
sugar, arsenious acid, sodium stannite. 

Acid. — Zinc, iron, tin, aluminum, lead, stannous chloride, 
sulphur dioxide, sulphuretted hydrogen, hypophosphorous acid, 
oxalic acid, ferrous sulphate. 

Niter Required to Oxidize 1 Part of Metallic Sulphide 



Sulphide 

Iron pyrites 

Mispickel, copper pyrites, fahlerz, blende. 

Antimonite 

Galena 

Stock Fluxes 



Parts niter to 1 of 
sulphide 
2 -2\i 

iM-2 





Sulphide 
ores 


Tellurides 


Blende 


Tin ores 




I 


II ' 


Litharge 

Niter 


8 


10 


30 


50 
20 


60 * 






7 
6 




Sodium carb. . . 
Borax glass. . . . 
Sand 


3 


3 
6 


20 

15 

5 


40 
10 


Charcoal 


0.11 




1.5 


Flour 




1 
Litharge 

75 grams 






Cover 

Amount for \'i 
a.t. charge.. . . 


Salt 
8 a.t. 


Litharge 
150 grams 


Borax 
75 grams 


Soda 
125 grams 



326 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



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SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 327 



Cupel Absorption 

A safe table for cupel absorption of lead buttons is given in 
Ernest A. Smith's "Sampling and Assay of the Precious 
Metals, ' ' if there is no great departure from a ratio of height to 
diameter of 3 : 4. 

Diameter of cupel, in H H 1 l^i Wi \^i U^ \% 

Absorption in grams 3 5 8 10 16 20 28 40 

As to the cupel absorption of silver and gold, it seems unsafe 
to give any tables, as this varies with the nature of the material 
cupelled, the temperature, whether induced draft is used or 
not, and many other factors. It seems fairly safe to say that a 
small silver button will lose about 2 per cent., that at 100 mg. 
the loss will be about 1.5 per cent, and less for larger buttons, 
and that the gold loss will probably not run over 0.5 per cent., 
but these figures must be taken as approximations only. It 
must also be remembered that not all of the button remaining 
in the cupel is gold and silver. 1 have usually found about 0.3 
per cent, of Pb and Bi as impurity in the silver button; with 
cement cupels I have found as much as 0.8 per cent. Pb and Bi. 
The factor is usually neglected in working on comparative tests 
on different cupels, although both Dewey and 1 have repeatedly 
pointed it out. 

W. J. Sharwood states {Trans. A. I. M. E., 1915, page 1484) 
that "when a given amount of silver (or of gold) is cupeled 
with a given amount of lead, under a fixed set of conditions as 
to temperature, etc., the apparent loss of weight sustained by 
the precious metal is directly proportional to the surface of the 
button of fine metal remaining." From this he deduces that 
■'the loss of weight varies as the % power of the weight, or as 
the square of the diameter of the button. The percentage loss 
varies inversely as the diameter of the button, or inversely as 
the cube root of the weight." This means that, if we run proof 
assays of any weight whatever, we can deduce the loss of a 
button of any other weight. 

Lead Retained in the Cupellation of Platinum Allots^ 



Composition of alloy 


Lead 

retained, 

mg. 


Character of button 


Pt, mg. 


Ag, mg. 


Au, mg. 


100 






37.5 
31.0 
26.2 
25.0 
24.0 
22.0 
10.0 
10.0 
5.0 
2.0 


Hard silvery. 


100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 


25 
50 
100 
101 
206 
206 
310 
427 
470 


'48.0" 
48.0 

6.0 

19.4" 


Hard silvery. |2'^ 
Dull gray. B~° 
Dull gray. ^5 t; 
Dull gray. "He 
Smooth silvery. "^1^ c 
Smooth silvery. Ji g °'^ 
Slightly crystallized, ogt'o- 
Smooth and silvery, h^ a'o 
Smooth and silvery. 



W. J. Sharwood, "Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind.," Apr. 30, 1901, p. 413. 



328 MET.\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Parting of Gold-Silver Alloys in Nitric Acid' after 
h. c.\rmicuael^ 



Weight 
mj 


of metals used, 
lligrams 


Ratio of metals 


Weight of 
cornet,' 
Au + Pt 


Weight of 
Pt in 
cornet* 


Pt 


Au 


Ag 


Pt 


• 

Au ! Ag 


20 


100 


300 


1 


5 


15 


102.7 


2.7 


15 


100 


400 


1 


6.6 


26.6 


/ 101.2 
\100.2 


1.2 
0.2 


10 


100 


300 


1 


10 


30 


/ 100.8 
\100.4 


0.8 
0.4 


10 


100 


500 


1 


10 


50 


100.2 


0.2 


10 


200 


600 


1 


20 


60 


100.0 


0.0 


14 


200 


800 


1 


14.3 


57.1 


200.3 


0.3 


14 


300 


900 


1 


21.4 


64.3 


300 


0.0 


7 


100 


400 


1 


14.3 


57.1 


100.2 


0.2 


5 


100 


500 


1 ' 


20 


100 


100 


0.0 



' The first acid was of I.IG sp. gr., the second of 1.26. 

» Taken from S.mith's "Sampling and Assay of the Precious Metals" 
as were also the next two tables. 

• The author seems to assume a 100 per cent, gold recovery. This is 
by no means a sure matter, and all the errors of work are thrown on the 
results for platinum, which are therefore open to suspicion. 

Solx:bility of Platinum-Silver Allots in Nitric Acid 



Composition of alloy 



Parted in HNOi of 
I 1.10 sp. gr. 



Parted in HNOj of 
1.40 sp. gr. 



Pt, per cent. 



Ag, per 
cent. 



Platinifei^ 
ous resi- 
due,' per 
cent. 



Pt dis- 
solved,' 
per cent. 



Platinifer- 
ous resi- 
due,' per 
cent. 



Pt dis- 
solved,' 
per cent. 



0.5 

1.0 

2.0 

3.0 

4.0 

5.0 

10.0 

13.0 

14.0 

15.0 

16.0 

18.0 

20.0 

25.0 

30.0 

31.5 



99.5 
99.0 
98.0 
97.0 
96.0 
95.0 
90.0 
87.0 
86.0 
85.0 
84.0 
82.0 
80.0 
75.0 
70.0 
68.5 



0.42 
0.85 
1.74 
2.19 
2.98 
3.56 



0.08 
0.15 
0.26 
0.81 
1.02 
1.44 



3.33 
4.26 
4.32 
4.55 
4.53 



9.67 

9.74 

10.68 

11.45 

13.46 



16.62 
33.58 



8.38 



0.22 

0.42 

1.09 

1.81 

2.42 

2.62 

4.53 

5.79 

4.97 

7.93 

11.. 54 

11.65 

13.94 

20.66 

29.29 



0.28 
0.58 
0.91 
1.19 
1.58 
2.38 
5.47 
7.21 
9.03 
7.07 
4.46 
6.35 
6.06 
4.34 
0.71 



' Contains Pt and Ag. 

' Apparently these figures were arrived at by difference and they are 
probably unreliable for large weights of residue. See the table following. 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 329 

Solubility of Platinum-Silver Alloys in Nitric Acid of 
1.10 Sp. Gr. (Thompson and Miller's Table)i 



Composition of alloy 


Total 

residue, 

per cent. 


Silver in 
residue, 
per cent. 


Platinum 
in residue, 
per cent. 


Platinum 


Pt, per cent. 


Ag, per 
cent. 


dissolved, 
per cent.t 


10.39 
20.59 

31.46 
37.89 
57.05 


89.61 
79.41 
68.54 
62.11 
42.95 


3.86 

8.58 

36.59 

49.13 

65.16 


0.27 

1.81 

12.09 

13.64 

12.19 


3.59 

6.77 

24.50 

35.49 

52.79 


6.80 
13.82 
6.96 
2.40 
4.08 



Highly Refractory Crucibles 

According to Deville a particularly refractory crucible can 
be made by heating alumina and strongly ignited marble in 
equal proportions to the highest temperature of the wind 
furnace, and then using equal proportions of the substance thus 
obtained with powdered ignited alumina and gelatinous 
alumina. 

Lime crucibles are made by taking a piece of well-burned 
slightly hydrated lime, cutting it by means of a saw into a rec- 
tangular prism 3 or 4 in. on the side and 5 or 6 in. high. The 
edges are rounded off, and a hole is bored in the center. ^ 

Magnesia Crucibles. — George Weintraub^ of the General 
Electric Company, of Schenectady, N. Y., makes refractory 
articles of magnesia, alumina, thoria, etc., without the use of a 
binder. The magnesium oxide is first heated in an electric 
furnace to a high temperature in order to let it assume a stable 
condition. This firing causes the magnesia to cake together so 
that regrinding is necessary. It is ground to the fineness of 
flour in a tube mill. A mould is then made for the article to be 
produced, say, a crucible. This mould is made of carbon or 
graphite and a layer of the powdered magnesia is placed on the 
bottom. A carbon or graphite plug is now placed centrally in 
the crucible upon this magnesia layer. It is surrounded by a 
layer of paper which permits the magnesia to shrink when 
heated. When moulding a crucible of 23^ in. inside diameter, a 
paper of from ^e to 3'^ in. thickness is suitable. The space 
between the walls of the mould and the paper-covered core is 
then filled with magnesia powder and packed to a certain degree 
by shaking and bumping. The mould is now placed in an 
electric furnace and heated to about 1500°C. When finished 
and the mould is cooled, the walls of the magnesia crucible 
contract upon the layer of loose paper carbon, so that cracking is 

> The solubility of these platinum-silver alloys seems to depend upon the 
strength of acid used, how the alloy has been annealed, and the amount of 
gold present, if any. 
-Sexton, "Fuel and Refractory Materials." 
• Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering, Vol. 10, p. 308. 



330 MET.\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

avoided. The finished crucibles are smooth, homogeneous and 
strong and may be safely handled and may even be worked on 
the lathe. Tubes may be made in the same way.' 



Analyses of Graphite Crucibles* 



1 

1 1 


3 1 4 


5 

1 


6 


7 


8 


SiO. 

AliOi 

FeiOj 

Ca.Mg.O... 
Graphite . . 
Water 


. . 25.91 
.. 11.26 
. . 0.48 

tr 
. . 58.24 
. . 2.77 


27.22 

/7.031 

10.51/ 

tr 

62.54 

2.42 


33.44 34.03 32.67 
15.70 12.95 ("fg) 


37.09 
14.58 


31.40 
/ 19.571 
1.78/ 
1.10 

42.08 
1.20 


31.31 
17.30 


48.15 50.18 
0.77 1.63 


48.68 
1.50 


44.40 
2.92 


47.40 
3.42 




98.66 


99.72 


98.06 98.79! 97.16 


98.99 


97.13 


99.43 



Weights to be Taken in Sampling Ore* 



Weight-s 


Diameters of largest particle 




Pounds 


Very low 
grade of 
uniform 

ores, mm. 


Low 
grade 
ores, 
mm. 


Medium ores 


Rich 
ores, 
mm. 


Riah 


Grams 


Mm. 


Mm. 


spotty 
ores, mm. 




20,000.0 


207.0 


114.0 


76.2 


50.8 


31.6 


5.4 




10,000.0 


147.0 


80.3 


53.9 


35.9 


22.4 


3.8 




5,000.0 


104.0 


56.8 


38.1 


25.4 


15.8 


2.7 




2,000,0 


Co. 6 


35.9 


24.1 


16.1 


10.0 


1.7 




1,000.0 


46.4 


25.4 


17.0 


11.4 


7.1 


1.2 




500.0 


32.8 


18.0 


12.0 


8.0 


5.0 


0.85 




200.0 


20.7 


11.4 


7.6 


5.1 


3.2 


0.54 




100.0 


14.7 


8.0 


5.4 


3.6 


2.2 


0.38 




50.0 


10.4 


5.7 


3.8 


2.5 


1.6 


0.27 




20.0 


6.6 


3.6 


2.4 


1.6 


1.0 


0.17 




10,0 


4.6 


2.5 


1.7 


1.1 


0.71 


0.12 




5.0 


3.3 


1.8 


1.2 


0.80 


0.50 






2.0 


2.1 


1.1 


0.76 


0.51 


0.32 






1.0 


1.5 


0.80 


0.54 


0.36 


0.22 






0,5 


1.0 


0.57 


0.38 


0.25 


0.16 




90.0 


0.2 


0.66 


0.36 


0.24 


0.16 


0.10 




45 


0.1 

O.Oo 

0.02 


0.46 
0.33 
0.21 


0.25 
0.18 
0.11 


0.17 
0.12 


0.11 






22 5 






9.0 








4.5 


0.01 


0.15 












2 25 


0.005 


0.10 


1 - 



















1 U. S. Patent, 1,022,011, April 2, 1912. 

' Kebl, "Handbuch dcr gesammten Thonwaaren Industrie." 
1, 2, Hesse; 3, Rhenish; 4, DtJsseldobf; 5, German crucible after 18 
beats; 6, London (Morgan); 7, English; 8, American. 
» Richards, "Ore Dressing," Vol. IL , 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 331 
Size-Weight Ratio in Sampling^ 



largest 


particle, 


Minimum weight of sample, pounds 


nches 




Colorado practice 


0.04 




0.0625 


0.08 




0.50 


0.16 




4.00 


0.32 




32.00 


0.64 




256 . 00 


1.25 




2,048.00 


2.50 




16,348.00 



Smallest Permissible Weight for Samples of a Given Size^ 









Effect on value 


Size, inches 
cube or mesh 


Weight of 
sample, lb. 


Ratio of weight of 
largest cube to 
weight of sample 


created by one 

cube assaying 

$100,000 per ton, 

of sp. gr. 5 


2 


10,000 


1 : 7,000 


$14.42 


IM 


5,000 




8,300 


12.17 


1 


2,000 




11,000 


9.00 


% 


1,000 




13,000 


7.50 


M 


400 




18,000 


5.62 


% 


300 




31,000 


3.17 


H 


200 




71,000 


1.40 


Kg 


100 




83,000 


1.20 


M 


75 




220,000 


0.44 


6 mesh 


50 




.430,000 


0.23 


10 mesh 


25 




930,000 


0.107 


18 mesh 


10 




1,900,000 


0.051 


30 mesh 


4 




4,200,000 


0.023 


50 me.sh 


1 




5,500,000 


0.018 



Scheme for Sampling Rich Ores with Vezin Samplers' 





Inches 


Sample, 
per cent. 


Lb. in 100 
tons 


Maximum size of cubes. 

Maximum size of cubes. 

8 mesh 


1.00 
0.25 
0.0625 
0.0171 


20.0000 
1.25 
0.0785 
0.005 


40,000 

2,500 

157 


30 mesh 


10 



'E. A. Smith, "Sampling and Assay of the Precious Metals." 
2 R. H. Richards, "Ore Dressing," Vol. III. 
' R. H. Richards, "Ore Dressing," Vol. III. 



332 METALLURC.ISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Coal Sampling! 

Size of Slate Contained in Coal, and Size of Griginai- 

Sample Required to iNsrui: tiie Euuou of Sampling 

Being Less Than 1 Per Cent. 



Size of slate, inches 


Weight of largest piece 
of slate, lb. 


Original sample should 
weigh, lb. 


4 




6.7 


39,000 


3 




2.5 


12,500 


2 




0.75 


3,800 


IH 




0.38 


1,900 


m 




0.24 


1,200 


1 




0.12 


600 


H 




0.046 


230 


M 




0.018 


90 



Size to Which Slate and Coal Should be Broken before 
Quartering Samples of Various Weights 



Weight of sam- 
ple to be 
divided, lb. 


Should be broken 
to, inches 


Weight of sample 

to be 

divided, lb. 


Should be broken 
to, inches 


7500 

3800 

1200 

460 

180 


2 

1 

H 

H 

• 


40 
5 

H 


2 mesh 

4 mesh 

8 mesh 

10 mesh 









Coke Sampling^ 

A point that is of utmost importance in the sampling of coke 
for blast-furnace use is the ash determination, since every pound 
of ash in a ton of coke means more expensive fluxing, increased 
co.st of smelting, useless cinder and less furnace capacity avail- 
able for the production of metal. For this reason differences of jl 
opinion as to the ash content of coke for blast-furnace use often" 
cause bitter controversies. 

In an investigation of this subject several years ago, 1 was 
surprised to find how much of the apparent ash content of coke 
was due to foreign material introduced in the process of grinding 
the sample. For instance, the analysis of a sample reported as' 
containing 17 per cent, of ash showed that one-seventeenth of 
this ash, or 1 per cent, of the weight of the sample, was iron 
abraded from a Braun pulverizer, while the ordinary cast-iron 
bucking-board and muUer much used in grinding samples to be 
tested introduces iron into the sample to the extent of from ^ 
to 3 per cent. 

yJourn. Ind. and Eng. Chem., p. 161, 1909. 

* Excerpts from an original article in "Coal Age," July 24, 1915. r 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 333 

Whether the grinding be done by machinery or by hand, this 
introduction of foreign matter in grinding can be cut down 
greatly by the use of manganese- or chrome-steel grinding 
plates. 

It is impossible to determine the amount of this contamina- 
tion with a magnet, for the reason that too much coke dust will 
adhere to the iron filings. It is necessary to treat the sample with 
a neutral copper-sulphate solution, agitate thoroughly, filter 
and wash the residue with hot water until entirely free from 
soluble copper salts. This residue is now dried and ignited and 
the ash tested for copper or the coke treated directly with nitric 
acid to dissolve the copper. The weight of copper precipitated 
by the iron in this process is then calculated from the ratio of 
their respective atomic weights. 

This method will not answer for the determination of any 
foreign material introduced by pebble mills, but is very effectual 
where the grinding surfaces are of iron. It may be objected 
that the original ash of the coke may have contained some iron 
which has been reduced to the metallic state by the red-hot 
carbon of the coke during the coking process. In answer to this 
argument, any iron in the coke is probably present as ferrous 
oxide and combined with silica to form ferrous silicate (FeSiOs). 
But in any event the objection is not valid, because if the coke 
sample is crushed in a silica-pebble mill or in an agate mortar, 
the iron in the coke does not react with neutral copper-sulphate 
solution. 

Limit beyond Which Samples Should not be Divided 
WHEN Crushed to Different Sizes in Laboratory 



Size of coal mesh 



Should not be divided to less than, 
grama 



2 

4 

8 

10 

20 



8300 
1100 

J.- I Should be pulverized 
Q I to at least 60 mesh. 
•J J 



ETCHING REAGENTS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS^ 

Etching Reagents for Iron and Steel 
Copper-Ammonium Chloride. — Usually consists of a 10 per 
cent, solution of the salt in water, and is suitable for wrought 
iron and mild steel. The specimen is immersed in the solution 
for about 1 minute, then washed, and the copper deposit, which 
is readily detached, wiped off under running water. This 
reagent is used for deep etching effects, and also to darken parts 
rich in phosphorus. 

Copper Chloride. — Dilute acidulated copper chloride in 

' O. F. Hudson, "Iron and Steel Institute," March, 1915. 



334 MET.VLLUIIGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

alcohol is used b)- Stead to detect phosphorus in steels. The 
reagent is made up as follows: 

Copper chloride 10 grains. 

Magnesium chloride 40 grams. 

Hydrochloric acid 20 cc. 

The salts are dissolved in the least possible quantity of water, 
and the solution made up to 1000 cc. with alcohol. The purer 
portions of the steel become coated with copper before the 
phosphoric portions. 

Hydrochloric Acid. — A dilute solution (1 per cent.) in ethyl 
alcohol is generally used. Hoyt (c) writes that a solution of 1 
cc. hydrochloric acid (sp. gr. 1.19) in 100 cc. absolute alcohol 
" is recommended for all the iron-carbon alloys whether in 
a hardened or annealed state," while the action can be ac- 
celerated (for special steels) by the addition of a few cubic centi- 
meters of a 5 per cent, solution of picric acid in alcohol. 

Iodine. — The ordinary tincture should be used. A simple 
solution in absolute alcohol is not so suitable. The specimen 
may be immersed in the solution, or a drop or two placed on the 
surface to be etched, and allowed to remain until decolorized. 

Nitric Acid. — Until the introduction of picric acid, a dilute 
solution of nitric acid was the principal etching agent for iron 
and steel, and it is still often used. Solutions (up to about 5 per 
cent.) inwater, or, preferably, alcohol, are generally used. When 
alcohol is the solvent, absolute alcoliol should be used for wash- 
ing the specimen, and not water. Lantsberry (c), who always 
uses nitric acid for steels, points out that the success of the 
method depends on thoroughly washing the specimen with 
alcohol and drying at once, and that the surface should never be 
moistened with water. 

Saitveur (c) writes that for all grades of steel, wrought iron, 
and pig iron, regardless of treatment, he uses solutions of con- 
centrated nitric acid in absolute alcoliol, in proportions varying 
between 1 and 10 per cent, of acid, according to requirements. 
He prefers it to picric acid. The .samples are washed in ab- 
solute alcohol and dried by means of an air-blast. For man- 
ganese steel he uses 10 per cent, nitric acid in absolute alcohol, 
leaving the specimen in the bath until it is covered with a black 
deposit. It is then washed in alcohol, without any attempt at 
removing the deposit by rubbing. 

Howe (c) uses a solution of 2 per cent, of concentrated nitric 
acid in water for hardened steels, manganese steels, etc., and 
also occasionally to develop grain boundaries quickly in low- 
carbon material, although he notes that it roughens up the 
ferrite much more than picric acid. He recommends a pre- 
liminary treatment for the removal of grease, using "alcohol, 
hydrochloric acid in alcohol, or, best, picric acid in al(;ohol." 

A 4 per cent, solution of nitric acid in iso-amyl alcohol (as 
suggested by Kourbatoff) is also used, and gives a slow and 
delicate etching. 

(c) Information tpecially communicated for this paper. 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 335 

Picric Acid. — This reagent, introduced by Ischewsky, is the 
one most commonly used, generally as a saturated or nearly 
saturated solution in alcohol. The specimen is immersed for 
times varying with the kind of steel and the effect desired, from 
a few seconds for light etching of ordinary rolled or annealed 
steels and cast irons, to several minutes for hardened steels and 
wrought irons. Picric acid is sometimes used in conjunction 
with nitric acid. Thus Desch (c) recommends for all ordinary 
(unhardened) steels alcoholic picric acid to which a few drops of 
nitric acid have been added. A solution of picric acid in amyl 
alcohol is also used for a slow etching. L. Archbutt (c) also 
finds it "an advantage to add a small quantity of nitric acid, 
which gives greater certainty of etching, especially in cold 
weather." The solution he uses contains 80 vols, of picric acid 
in alcohol and 20 vols, of 2 per cent, nitric acid in alcohol. 

RosEXH.\ix's and Hatjghton's Reagent consists of: 

Ferric chloride 30 grams 

Hydrochloric acid (cone.) 100 cc. 

Cupric chloride 10 grams 

Stannous chloride 0.5 grams 

Water 1000 cc. 

It is used for determination of the distribution of phosphorus 
in steel, the purer portions of the steel being stained by deposi- 
tion of copper, leaving the phosphorus-rich portions white. 

Of the numerous other reagents some are used for special 
purposes, such as sodium picrate, for the detection of cementite; 
while others are more or less complicated solutions, such as 
Kourb.\toff's reagent, consisting of 3 vols, of a saturated 
solution of o-nitrophenol in alcohol and 1 vol. of a 4 per cent, 
solution of nitric acid in alcohol, used for the determination of 
troostite and sorbite in hardened steels. 

Electrolytic Etching 

This method is of great value in special cases. Generally a 
solution of a neutral salt is used as the electrolyte; the specimen 
is made the anode and a piece of platinum foil the cathode. A 
feeble current of a small fraction of an ampere is used. Desch 
(c) finds that etched figures in brasses, etc., are most perfectly 
developed by electrolytic etching, using a 5 per cent, sodium- 
chloride solution and a platinum cathode with two dry cells. 
Other electrolytes used are ammonium nitrate, sodium thio- 
sulphate (used by Le Ch.a.telier for copper-tin alloys), 
ammonia, and sometimes verj- dilute acid solutions. 

For Monel metal, L. Archbutt (c) "obtained very good 
results by electrolytic etching in a solution containing 4.5 cc. 
dilute sulphuric acid (1:3) and 5 cc. hydrogen peroxide solution, 
using a current of 0.1 amp. and 0.5 volt, etching for about 50 
seconds. A slight staining of the specimen was subsequently 
removed by light rubbing with a dilute solution of bromine in 
hydrochloric acid." Constantan was etched in a similar way, 
"but stains were removed by using a mixture of dilute sulphuric 



336 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

acid and hydrogen peroxide and rubbing with the finger." 
RosENHAix (,c) has also found that electrolytic etching is useful 
for nickel-copper alloys. 

Polish Attack. — Used with such success by Osmond and it 
is one which, if not always applicable, is not adopted as widely 
as it should be. The objections which appear to be urged 
against the method are (a) the difficulty of getting uniformly 
good results, and (6) the danger of obscuring the structure by 
the flowing action of polishing. Neither of these objections 
need, however, be serious; the former is overcome by experience, 
while the latter is probably largely imaginary, unless altogether 
unnecessarj' pressure is used. The procedure which has been 
found suitable for copper and its alloys has already been de- 
scribed in dealing with ammonia as an etching agent. For steels 
Osmond used a very gentle etching reagent, such as a 2 per cent, 
solution of ammonium nitrate with precipitated calcium 
sulphate in parchment, but this method is not now so often used. 
The author, however, for iron and steel, makes use of parchment 
thoroughly soaked in water on which a paste of precipitated 
calcium sulphate is spread. The specimen is then alternately 
lightly etched with picric acid, and rubbed gently for a few 
seconds on the parchment. Frequently also it is found to be an 
advantage to etch the specimen lightly, then polish very gently 
with alumina and re-etch, repeating if necessary. 

GwvER (c) finds that polish attack is sometimes very effective 
for light aluminum alloj-s, "for example, in bringing out the 
structure of the iron-aluminum eutectic. For this washed and 
ignited magnesia is required, the polishing being done on parch- 
ment kept moistened with very dilute caustic soda solution." 

GuLLrvER (c) notes that sometimes a good polish attack may 
be obtained with water alone, although not if the pad is new. 
He found, for example, that polish attack with water alone was 
defective in the case of bismuth-tin alloys. 

Heat-tinting. — .\lthough not perhaps, strictly speaking, an 
etching process, heat-tinting is a valuable and widely used 
method of revealing the structure of alloys, and especially for 
the detection of small differences in concentration of solid 
solutions. It consists in heating the specimen until a tliin film 
of oxide is formed on the surface, differences in composition 
giving rise to variations in thickness, and hence variations in 
color of the film. Stead used it with great advantage in study- 
ing phosphoric cast irons and alloys of iron and phosphorus, 
and showed that by its use phosphide and carbide of iron could 
readily be distinguished, while Heycock and Neville proved 
its value in their work on the copper-tin alloys. Stead has 
also applied the method to the determination of the distribution 
of phosphorus in steel. In a paper on "Metallographic Methods 
for the Detection of Phosphorus in Steel," read before the 
Cleveland Society of Engineers in December last, Stead gives 
details of the heat-tinting method suitable for this purpose. 
The specimen is floated on a bath of molten tin at a temperature 
of about 300°C., and allowed to remain until the whole surface 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 337 

has a reddish-brown color. On examining the specimen, the 
portions richest in phosphorus will be detected bj' their blue 
color, since the parts which are richer in phosphorus than the 
surrounding metal become colored more quickly. The pre- 
liminary treatment of the specimen before it is raised to the 
tinting temperature is important. Washing with a 1 per cent, 
solution of picric acid in alcohol is recommended, and the surface 
should always be "cleaned by rubbing with a clean piece of 
linen or cotton. The specimen is heated to about 150°C., and 
then rubbed with a clean piece of chamois leather while still hot." 
It is then immediately' raised to the tinting temperature. 

Instead of heating in air, and obtaining a colored oxide 
film, Stead has shown that other atmospheres maj' be used, 
such as sulphuretted hj'drogen or bromine. The use of an 
atmosphere containing bromine for the examination of Muntz 
metal has been described recently by Stead. 

Heat-tinting appears to require considerable experience in order 
to obtain consistent results, and the author, among others cannot 
rely upon it to be uniformly successful. The following is a sum- 
mary of the principal reagents for particular metals and alloys. 

Etching Reagents Suitable for Particular Metals and Alloys 

The following list gives the principal reagents which have 
been found especially suitable for different metals and alloys: 

Copper, — Ammonia (.sp. gr. 0.88, diluted 1:1 with water), 
ammonium persulphate (10 per cent, aqueous solution), 
bromine (followed by a wash with ammonia), copper-ammonium 
chloride (5 grams of copper-ammonium chloride in 100 cc. of 
water, add ammonia until precipitate just di.ssolves). 

Brasses. — Ammonia, ammonium persulphate, copper-am- 
monium chloride, electrolj'tic etching, ferric chloride (slightly 
acidulated with HCl), chromic acid (saturated or nearly satu- 
rated solution), nitric acid (strong acid, followed by water), 
Tinofeef 's reagent (94 grams HNO3 and 6 grams Cr203, a few 
drops are used in 50 cc. of water). 

Bronzes. — Ammonia, ammonium persulphate, ferric chloride. 

Copper-Aluminum Alloys (Aluminum Bronzes). — Ammonium 
persulphate, ferric chloride, copper-ammonium chloride, nitric 
acid. 

German Silver. — Ammonium persulphate, ferric chloride. 

Nickel-Copper Alloys, Monel Metal.— Electrolytic etching. 

Gold and Rich Gold Alloys, Platinum and Its Alloys. — Aqua 
regia (dilute, 1 part HNO3, 5 parts HCl, 6 parts distilled water, 
used at 15°C.). 

Aluminum and Light Aluminiun Alloys. — Caustic soda, 
hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid (1 part fuming HF to 10 
or 20 parts of water, clear after treatment by a few second's 
immersion in HNO3). 

Lead, Tin and Their Alloys (White Metal, etc.). — Chronaic 
acid in nitric acid, ferric chloride, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, 
silver nitrate (5 per cent, solution). 

Zinc and Alloys Rich in Zinc. — Caustic soda, iodine (1 part 
iodine, 3 parts Kl and 10 parts water). 
22 



338 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Gravimetric Factors 










Multiply 




Given 


Sought 


by factor 
A' 


Aluminum, 27.1 .... 


AI2O3 


Al 


0.5303 




Al 


AI2O, 


1.885G 




AIPO4 


AI2O, 


0.4187 




AI2O3 


Al 2 (804)3 


3.3504 


Antimony, 120.2 


SbjOi 


Sb 


0.7900 




SbjOi 


SbsOa 


0.9474 




Sb204 


SbsOs 


1.0526 




SbjS, 


Sb 


0.7142 




Sb2S3 


Sb203 


0.8569 




SbjSs 


SbjOs 


0.9520 




Sb 


SbjOa 


1.1998 




Sb 


SbsOs 


1.3330 


Arsenic, 74.96 


AS2S3 


As 


0.6091 




AS2S3 


AS2O, 


0.8041 




AS2S3 


AS2O5 


0.9341 




AS2S3 


ASO4 


1.1291 




AS2S5 


As 


0.4832 




MgjASiOy 


As 


0.4827 




MgzAsjOT 


AS2O3 


0.6373 




Mg2AS207 


AszOs 


. 7403 




MgjAsjOj 


A3O4 


0.8949 




AgaAsOi 


As 


0.1620 




As 


AS2OJ 


1.3202 




As 


AsjOj 


1 . 5336 


Barium, 137.37 


BaS04 


Ba 


0.5885 




BaS04 


BaO 


0.6568 




BaCr04 


Ba 


0.5422 




BaCr04 


BaO 


0.6053 




BaCO, 


Ba 


0.6960 




BaCOa 


BaO 


0.7771 




Ba 


BaO 


1.1165 


Bismuth, 208.0 


BioOs 


Bi 


0.8966 




BiOCl 


Bi 


0.8017 




BiOCl 


Bi203 


0.8942 




BijSa 


Bi 


0.8122 




Bi2S3 


Bi203 


0.9061 




Bi 


BizOs 


1.1154 


Boron, 11 


B2O3 


B 


0.3143 




B 


B2O3 


3.1818 


Bromine, 79.92 


AgBr 


Br 


0.4256 




AgBr 


HBr 


0.4309 




Br -CI 


Br 


1.7969 




Br - C! 


AgBr 


4 . 2202 




Br 


Oh 


0.1001 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 



339 



Gravimetric Factors 







r- 


Multiply 




Given 


Sought 


bv factor 
.V 


Cadmium, 112.4. . . . 


CdO 


Cd 


0.8754 




CdS 


Cd 


0.7780 




CdS 


CdO 


0.8888 




Cd 


CdO 


1 . 1424 


Caesium, 132.81 


CS2SO4 


Cs 


0.7344 




CsaPtClg 


Cs 


0.3943 




Cs 


CS2O 


1.0623 


Calcium, 40.07 


CaO 


Ca 


0.7146 




CaO 


CaCOs 


1 . 7847 




CaS04 


Ca 


0.2943 




CaS04 


CaO 


0.4119 




CaCOa 


Ca 


0.4005 




CaCOa 


CaO 


0.5603 




Ca 


CaO 


1.3993 




Ca 


CaCO., 


2.4971 




CaO 


CaCzO* 


2.2841 


Carbon, 12 


CaC20« 


CO2 


0.3436 




CaCOa 


CO2 


0.4397 




CO2 


C 


0.2727 




C 


CO2 


3.6667 




CO2 


CO3 


1.3636 


Chlorine, 35.46 


AgCl 


CI 


0.2474 




AgCl 


HCl 


0.2544 




Ag 


CI 


0.3287 




CI 


0^ 


0.2256 




AgCl 


Oh 


0.05581 


Chromium, 52.0. . . . 


CrjOa 


Cr 


0.6842 




CT2O3 


CrO, 


1.3158 




PbCr04 


Cr 


0.1609 




PbCr04 


CrjO, 


0.2351 




PbCr04 


CrO, 


0.3094 




Cr 


CT2O3 


1.4615 




Cr 


CrOs 


1.9230 


Cobalt, 58.97 


C0SO4 


Co 


0.3804 




C03O4 


Co 


0.7343 




Co 


CoO 


1.2713 




Co(N02)3-3IvN02 


Co 


0.1303 


Copper, 63.57 


CuO 


Cu 


0.7989 




Cu 


CuO 


1.2517 




CujS 


Cu 


0.7986 




CujS 


CuO 


0.9996 




CuSCN 


Cu 


0.5226 




CuSCN 


CuO 


0.6541 



340 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Gravimethic Factors 







1 


Multiply 




Given 


Sought 


by factor 

N 


Cyanogen, 26.01 .. . . 


AgCN 


CN 


0.19427 




Ag 


CN 


0.2411 


Fluorine, 19 


CaF2 


F 


0.4867 




SiFi 


F 


0.7286 


Gold, 197.2 


Au 


AuCl, 


1.5395 


Hvdrogen, 1.008 


H2O 


H 


0.11190 


Iodine, 126.92 


Agl 


I 


0.54055 




Pdl. 


I 


0.7041 




I - CI 


I 


1.3877 




I -CI 


Agl 


2.5673 


Iron, 55.84 


FejOa 


Fe 


0.6994 




FejO, 


FeO 


0.8998 




FejOa 


FeaO* 


0.9666 




FejOs 


FeSj 


1.5028 




FeO 


Fe 


0.7773 




FeO 


FejOa 


1.1114 




FeS 


Fe 


0.6352 




Fe 


FeO 


1.2865 




Fe 


FejOa 


1.4298 


Lead, 207.2 


PbS04 


Pb 


0.6832 




PbS04 


PbO 


0.7360 




PbS04 


Pb02 


0.7887 




PbS04 


PbS 


0.7890 




PbCr04 


Pb 


0.6411 




PbCr04 


PbO 


0.6906 




PbS 


Pb 


0.8660 




PbS 


PbO 


0.9328 




PbClj 


Pb 


0.7450 




PbO 


Pb 


0.9283 




Pb 


PbO 


1.0772 


Lithium, 6.94 


Li2S04 


Li 


0.13474 




LioSO* 


U2O 


0.29007 




Li3P04 


Li 


0.18197 




Li 


U2O 


2.1527 




LizCOs 


Li 


0.1879 




LijCOa 


U2O 


0.4044 


Magnesium, 24.32. . 


Mg2P207 


Mg 


0.2184 




Mg2P207 


MgO 


0.3621 




Mg2P207 


MgCO, 


0.7.572 




MgS04 


Mg 


0.20201 




MgS04 


MgO 


0.33491 




MgO 


Mg 


0.6032 




MgO 


MgCOa 


2.0912 




Mg 


MgO 


1 . 6579 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 341 

Gravimetric Factors 









Multiply 




Given 


Sought 


by factor 

N 


Manganese, 54.93. . . 


Mn2P207 


Mn 


0.3869 




Mn2P207 


MnO 


0.4996 




Mn304 


Mn 


0.7203 




Mn304 


MnO 


0.9301 




MnS 


Mn 


0.6314 




MnS 


MnO 


0.8153 




MnS04 


Mn 


0.3638 




MnS04 


MnO 


0.4697 




MnO 


MnOz 


1.2256 




Mn 


MnO 


1.2913 




Mn 


MnOz 


1.5826 


Mercury, 200.6 


HgS 


Hg 


0.8622 




HgS 


HgO 


0.9309 




HgCl 


Hg 


. 8498 




HgCl 


HgO 


0.9176 




Hg 


HgO 


1 . 0798 


Molybdenum, 96.0. 


M0O3 


Mo 


0.6667 




PbMo04 


M0O3 


0.3922 


Nickel, 58.68 


NiS04 


Ni 


0.3792 




NiO 


Ni 


0.7858 




Ni 


NiO 


1.2727 


Nitrogen, 14.01 .... 


NH4CI 


N 


0.26186 




NH4CI 


NH3 


0.31838 




NH4CI 


NH4 


0.33722 




(NH4)2PtCl6 


N 


0.06310 




(NH4)2PtCl6 


NHa 


0.07672 




(NH4)2PtCl6 


NH4 


0.08126 




(NH4)2PtCl6 


NH4C1 


0.2410 




Pt 


N 


0.1435 




Pt 


NH3 


0.1745 




Pt 


NH4 


0.1848 




N 


NH3 


1.2158 




NHs 


N 


. 82247 




N 


(NH4)20 


1.8587 




N 


(NH4)2S04 


4.7164 




N 


N206 


3.8579 




N 


N03 


4.4261 




N 


N02 


3.2841 




N 


NO 


2.1420 


Phosphorus, 31.04. . 


Mg2P207 


P 


0.2787 




Mg2P207 


P2O6 


0.6379 




Mg2P207 


PO4 


0.8534 




FeP04 


P2O5 


0.4708 




U2P20n 


P2O5 


0.1989 



342 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
Gbavimetric Factors 









Multiply 




Given 


Sollgllt 


by factor 

N 


Phosphorus, 3L04.. 


P2O. 


P 


0.4369 




P 


P2O. 


2.2886 


Platinum, 195.2.... 


(NHO^PtCl, 


Pt 


0.4396 




KiPtCl, 


Pt 


0.4015 


Potassium, 39.10. . . 


KCl 


K 


0.5244 




KCl 


KjO 


0.63170 




KBr 


K 


0.3285 




K2SO4 


K 


0.44870 




K5SO4 


K2O 


. 5405 




KjPtCle 


K 


0.1609 




KjPtCle 


KoO 


0.1941 




KjPtClg 


KCl 


0.3071 




KCIO4 


K 


0.28219 




KCIO4 


K2O 


. 33992 




KCIO4 


KCl 


0.53811 




K 


K,0 


1 . 2046 




KOH 


KjCOj 


1.2315 


Rubidium, 85.4.5. . . 


Rb2S04 


Rb 


0.6401 




RbaPtCl. 


Rb 


0.2952 




Rb 


RbiO 


1.0936 


Selenium, 79.2 


Se 


SeOs 


1.4040 




Se 


SeO, 


I.6O6O 


Silicon, 28.3 


SiOz 


Si 


0.4693 




SiO, 


SiOa 


1.2653 




SiO, 


SijOr 


1.3980 




SiOi 


Si04 


1.5307 




Si 


SiOz 


2.1308 


Silver, 107.88 


AgCl 


Ag 


0.7526 




AgCl 


Ag.O 


0.80843 




AgBr 


Ag 


0.57444 




Agl 


Ag 


. 4595 




Ag 


Ag,0 


1 . 0742 


Sodium, 23.00 


NaCl 


Xa 


0.3934 




NaCl 


NajO 


0.53028 




Na2S04 


Na 


0.3238 




NajSO* 


NajO 


0.4364 




NazCOa 


Na 


0.43396 




NajCOa 


Na^O 


0.58491 




Na 


NajO 


1.3478 


Strontium, 87.63.. . 


SrSO« 


Sr 


0.4770 




SrS04 


SrO 


0.5641 




SrCOa 


Sr 


0.5936 




SrC03 


SrO 


0.7019 




Sr 


SrO 


1 . 1826 



I SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 343 

Gravimetric Factors 









Multiply 




Given 


Sought 


by factor 
A' 


Sulphur, 32.07 


BaS04 


s 


0.13738 




BaS04 


S02 


0.27446 




BaSOi 


S03 


0.34300 




BaS04 


S04 


0.41154 




BaS04 


H2S04 


0.42018 




S 


S02 


1.9978 




s 


S03 


2.4967 




s 


H2S04 


3.0585 


Tellurium, 127.5. . . 


Te 


Te02 


1.2510 




Te 


Te03 


1.3765 


Thallium, 204.0.... 


Til 


Tl 


0.6165 




TloPtCle 


Tl 


0.5000 




Tl 


TI2O 


1.0392 


Thorium, 232.4 .... 


ThOa 


Th 


0.8790 


Tin, 118.7 


Sn02 


Sn 


0.7877 




Sn 


Sn02 


1.2693 


Titanium, 48.1 


Ti02 


Ti 


0.6005 


Tungsten, 184.0 . . . 


WO3 


W 


0.7930 


Uranium, 238.2 


U3O8 


U 


0.8481 




UsOg 


UO2 


. 9525 




UO2 


u 


0.8816 


Vanadium, 51.0. . . . 


V2O6 


V 


0.5604 




V 


V206 


1 . 7843 




V 


V04 


2.2549 


Zinc, 65.37 


ZnO 


Zn 


. 8034 




ZnS 


Zn 


0.6709 




ZnS 


ZnO 


0.8351 




Zn2P207 


Zn 


. 4289 




Zn 


ZnO 


1.2448 


Zirconium, 90.6. . . . 


Zr02 


Zr 


0.7390 


Ammonia, 17.03 . . . 


Pt 


NH3 


0.17452 




Pt 


NH4 


0.1848 




Pt 


NH4OH 


0.35912 



Calculated by International Atomic Weight Table of 1915, = 16. 



344 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



1" 


y o 


o 

03 


1.1 


- 3 =^ c a 2 


11 

s. « 


s 

C 
C9 

fl 

s 
s 

a 

8 


-33.= 0?+ ^^1 fe^ 
^.5.5 S+O < CO c'H. 




a 
"3 

CD 


■3t) o~'«'C " o <si: V « = 


o 
s 

09 
00 


"S 
2 c 

.5.2 

C a 


O 




O 

2 

c 

CJ 

72 


lis 


§ § o 




o 




o o 


'S 

o 


J3 x J: J; 

'S . 'S . '3 'S 


J: 




M 


c 

03 

2: 



?5f 



O O 

•1-3 

el. 



e OS 
IS 



U a 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 345 



o 

CO 


6 

O CB 

O O 


•• 

o 

M 


o 

03 


6 

CO 

M 

03 

(U 

a 

CO 


^03 > *^ 2 M^03 

>;y3 -^ c o ^ C>— <_ 


M ^— ' <d2 

T:^ Qc3 


■5 ° S 

flu- a S 
w 2 a 

ill: 

'-' o.«33 CO 


o 

^ 
ill 

C Q 


■Si's ii 

^ >.n.2 Tso 


M > 1 C3 

„ «5 03 a 

9« Ilia 


a-a S ™ " o 

03 .^ ^H o 

oja fc c I* 


O 

CO 

W 

33 
Q 

(S 


«r ' to ^ ' -_: h-" 

S:^ . 1 1 a o-§+ffi 


««§-§ Ml 

^.2:3 a^is^ 
•Jl mOz;s g ^-a 


ep^.i MT3^ 

O^ a-S o Q 


O 
CO 

M 

03 
<S 

a 

03 


.►ram o c8 j;; m 


■SCSI'S a Si: "-3 
oW«5j-5 03 a g p o 

©_• cja a^ a M 
■B gt^9t^ '"'S S ° 

oss.-^-'iSsa^ 


•9o6°s 

5 as 
gs'3§2 

g £ a M 

M Cxi ™^7 03 


o 

CO 


9 9 o 

«! 03 03 




6 

CO 
03 
ffl 


6 

CO 

C3 
(C 
& 
03 
CO 


S^91^ S^ 


c3 C9 

2: pa 


■PI 

»0 S a 

BS^ 03 


^ ■ 


J3 J3 2 

MM g 
'« "S a ^ 


-a 2 
M S 

k5 ■ &a 


M 

II 




08 


M 


^ 



346 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



^ -ti 



V 

5s 


O 


1^ 

£:"S 

PL,* 


c go ™^ ft's 


a 

C 

'£ 

5 

a 
o 
U 




c 
a 

3 


•ci Ellis. -oc.ti.-Sis S-- Sii 


II 

■SI 

O 

O 




= •?« 


"A 

O O O OM - 

CO Ixi b b 


•S £S 

O I, 
o 




u 
O 


S .i 2 2 

« •- 5 5 
a g o . S" c S" a 

K.2 ^ c a!.2M.2 


if 


<S £ 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 347 





o 


6 








c:5 = 


B 

"c 


5 = 

iM 


'a 
'3 

u 

a. 

■a 

u 

.2« 


a 2 O 

■1 -^ « s g « 


< 

d 
a 

3 


.i. ;. i L C i = ;. J.. J. e 

.__,-= o.2g -J E 






.5--.= i.f ii 


S 1, i i — ?~ .^ 


-6 
■p 

C9 


- = o b.2 a 

■5 5S a ?, o 


,!z-3 ^^ 













•• 

■p.; ^os 




-".=■■2 t C5 

"^ll-glz.sil 


ill 

•"33 4> 

Z £.£ 






.a" « 

^ ? t^A2 


1^ 


J: <3 

^.5 *l 


9 


< 





H 



348 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



•2 




a 


<2 




I B 


c 






OD 

1 

a 

'e 

S3 

C 

o 
U 


cj-^ 10 n 0— ."t! .C £-=--0 

= =- ;^ -T -r: c; -;= a; '« -s 


mS a * Oil, 


3 


= .i-3 .i. -ZZ 
<cj< CS.2 S2— 5-1; 


:S Si- =2-^.1 o-5-ii^g 


i = 




i ' -3 -a 1 'J i - ^ 


.^~ "^ = " J :: S J "W^ era 


■^ 


8l « 

c = m 
NN a 


a 


IP 
a S 

j3 a 


-1 -IIIM 


.Sr; e a 003 
eg g § i « - M-3 


1 



S a^ 






a 


1 



H ^ 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 349 



Om 

M O 



.^"0 o3_; 

03 c S 
Oi-H t! OJ o "^ 

_ 0) gi-iai 



O 



5o 






a? 



N§ 

-o.S 

c > 
a g . 

eft's 
to p 

Ogg' 
•"■? a 

"^-^^ 



69 

•B a 

c ® 



"^^ i . 

W ■» 0.0, 
0*7 O O 

tn-« a 

■a ■-< M 

2 eir>> 



^S'O 



'M S. 



CD a m 
-a 3^ 

O'S 03 

b" - 



o3 bc'> 



o£. 



t- C 3 " 



fa ' O, 0, 



S g 

CQ O, „ 

.«a 

CO ..S 

.O 



« ° " £ 33 



O-O. 



2 a °= 
a) o O — 

Lj aS 



tH !r-o.- 
3 0_ . 

Ea3i3;z; 



"5.^ «-o 



■I '^oiz 

- ^ o! u 

O-O g »-a S 

W oSm^ C3M 



a Q.X1 

03^ 



OJ 3^ C OJ 



ge-a M°. 

a 3 • o 

o3h hc 0) a 



c3 u M 

J3— a 
u 0) 2 

Oo'S_S 



•o°5 

o S t. 

a 0) o , 



§5 



Sffi 



22 



I .-r-a-a 

S "^ C3 ^ 

§ o- « 3O 

fc- O ^ (K 

,0! _, i-^ 3 

t? 2'o Oi-r 03 

.5 03 3 fecc 



0^0 

3 osM 
"o M 

o'9 
w5a 

OT3 



<^ Ob 



aW 
isO 

a 



^^ 



a 03^ 
<s £ o 

a ,s 



03 O cjO 00 
a ^ "S r ^ ® 



^ M 



^^:^.i 



350 MET.\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



■2 




i i 


a a 
aw 


eS b oj <u 
UX1J3 
3 ■^ 


bt a -^ ■'ii oj D ° -^ 
".£ SI'S '>S 


(S 

a 

03 

a 
E 

OS 

a 


C* 1 CD 1 OQ 

*j o 5 c o 


11*1 "i-g o III 


3 

m 


t£ o a •- ♦J 

^ o o K » 


§|-§T3§I ll^als lido 


II 

"SI 

O 

o 


2:Hti ^M a as 

- E T. O c lU ~ 


o|d|-i-§ |-§|al| S§|^ 


OS- 


6 


o ^ 

M O tn 

Si £1 £t 

&. cu ei, 


>> « 

'3 S ^ 
O ^ 




*.•= a 

;?ai 

c to 


a egg a 

08 03 iS-^ 09 

a a'" g a 

o J «0.-2 -S 
<aO 0) t, o © . 
t-M i-O f '-co 


8 


09 

03 

a. 2 


J3 .a 2 
'S 'S . a _• 

^.a ^.2 =^1 




3 

O 


CL, 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 351 



\r= ^ 'i 






c » t. 

c ^ o a> ^T3 

;S ~ ~ n— ' « 

C =3 P-G — 
1 .^j^ ■*j'm '^ 



X.2 



O^S. 



aK ? 01 cj m 



& '^ C3 o 



-t^ C C Im, 



i_ c ci 
1° a.2 

Si-- j; 



j=K Si 



C 3! CO 

.Ceo 



..cO 
CD oxi'5 



-- ^ a> C c3 c3 

•"•S ..^ >,'S 

S a o'o.o OS 
^o-S '-^ . 



ZO !i =5 « 






c ^ , 



■ c-0- 



l<i u. =5 C 

I o'.5 J 









CM drH— 



cc ',5 6 

Iz: ~ 



o— _ 
K c3 03 



■CM caT"; *M^^ 

g^£;a+"£oZx 



— ' « 4) C3 

.a 






o « m 2 o " S-e *.§ 
"i^ ^2 S-c iii.2 «^^ 



SS 



C (jj 



&a 

■-.-Ho 
§B3 






::: c = o 

•SI'S r- » 

o . c c"q 

.Sffi's — 

^ -w C3 ^ ^• 

rjlU liffi c 
^Z.EZg 



cS 3 

>3 












^►5 



02.2 



-o 

ajQ 



^^ 



c c^ c 

-5 o3 O 



pl.^2 ' 



c3 o a o3 



— 03 O.H"o S 

i-M cTJ as 



352 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



^ 





O 

M 

•• 
S 


O 

09 

a 

ca 


u 

< 


-S M 


c a „ ^^ = 
S-S » X 2 X 


o— £T^ 

o> til >.r; 3j:a 

CO j:Z:-aS a 


o 

a 

n 
3 

o 

S 

a 


<: 

a 
u 

c 
a 


s 

c 


mm 

o a o rt a 


i <ll 

M -ad 


6 

03 

a 

n 
3 

e 
E 
a 

X 


<; 
3 

o 

a 
a 

M 


X 




O 

a 

a 
3 

o 
a 
a 
m 


< 

3 

u 

a 

a 

03 




— X CJ3 J 

2 SSI 5-1 = 


X Si =o- S X 


6 

m 
a 
Q 

3 

e 


3 

o 

a 


■si? 

.5'" — 


X 




d 

CO 

a 
93 


u 

<! 


^j, X 3 X w e3 


•:-=|..:--j3g| 

c.2:oj2ci3x^ 


= 2.= ^ 
— 2 o — 

C2 3 a 


a 
a 

a 


o 




o . c _ a 


^.1 


J] 


t 

1 

00 


04 


.OQGO o 
03 


o 



SAMPLING, ASSAYING AND ANALYSIS 353 



i 


6 





fc 


Ignition after 
drying. When 
impurities are 
present is deter- 
mined by loss 
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SECTION VI 
ORE DRESSING 



CRUSHING 



Stamps, Chilean mills and rolls are used for coarse crushing; 
feed generally not over 2 in. and discharge screen about 35 to 40 
mesh. The roll makes less fines in the product than either of 
the others. Hardinge mill is a stage crusher; feed about % in. 
product uniform fine sand with but little slime; Huntington 
mill, regrinding machine; best feed not over 3'i in. makes con- 
siderable slime. Tube mill is best and only logical fine grinding 
machine. 

Abb6 Tube Mill. — The original Abbe gear-driven mill was 
supported on a pair of riding rings. The distinguishing feature 
was a spiral of Archimedes through which the ore was fed and 
discharged. Tube mills now supported either on riding rings 
or trunnions. Early tendency was toward long mill of small 
diameter, 22 ft. by 33'^ ft., now changing to 5 and 6 ft. diameter 
and 16 to 18 ft long. Grinding effected by flint pebbles fed 
into mill. (See Ball mill.) 

Amalgamating Pan. — This is a flat-bottomed iron pan with an 
iron cone in the center, with high sides, nearly or quite vertical, 
and in it a horizontal, annular disk, called a muUer, is revolved. 
Many authorities claim that this should not be used as a grinder, 
but only as an amalgamator. From 3 to 5 hp. is needed for 
amalgamating, and 5 to 10 hp. for grinding in a 5-ft. pan. 

Arrastre. — A machine having horizontal surfaces grinding 
concentrically on a vertical shaft. In its original form it 
consists of a circular pavement from 6 to 20 ft. in diameter 
with a retaining wall around it and a step in the center. Upon 
the step stands a vertical revolving spindle from which extend 
horizontal arms, to which large boulders, called dragstones, are 
attached by chains. 

Ball Mill. — Short tube mill (q.v.) of relatively large diameter 
in which grinding is done by steel balls instead of pebbles. 
Wet grinding with steel balls formerly considered unwise due 
to excessive steel consumption now coming into favor. 

Blake Crusher. — Original crusher of jaw type. Rock is 
crushed between two jaws set at an angle to each other, one 
fixed and the other swinging from top suspension rod. Motion 
imparted to lower end of crushing jaw by toggle joint operated 
by eccentric. (See also Dodge crusher.) 

Bryan Mill. — A form of Chilean mill using three rollers instead 
of two. The wear seems a little more even in this type of mill 
than in the Huntington or the regular Chilean. 

355 



35G METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Chilean Mill (Edge Runner). — These mills have vertical rollers 
running in a circular enclosure with a stone or iron base or die. 
They are of two classes: (o) those in which the rollers gyrate 
around a central axis, rolling upon the die as they go (the true 
Chile mill; (6) those in which the enclosvire or pan revolves, and 
the rollers, placed on a fixed axis, are in turn revolved by the 
pan. It was formerly used as a coarse grinder, but is now used 
as a fine. 

Dodge Crusher. — Similar to Blake crusher (q.v.) except 
movable jaw is hinged at bottom. Therefore discharge opening 
is fixed giving a more uniform product than Blake with its 
discharge opening varying every stroke, but this decreases 
capacity. 

Dodge Pulverizer. — A hexagonal barrel revolving on a 
horizontal axis, containing perforated die plates and screens. 
Pulverizing is done by steel balls inside barrel. 

Edge Runner. — See Chilean mill. 

FuUer-Lehigh Pulverizing Mill. — For coal dust pulverizing 
only. Used by the Pennsylvania Steel Co., at Lebanon, Penn. 

Gardner Crusher. — A swing-hammer crusher, the hammers 
being flat U-shaped pieces hung from trunnions between two 
disks keyed to a shaft. When revolved, centrifugal force 
throws hammer out against feed and heavy anvil inside crusher 
housing. 

Griffin Roller Mill. — A centrifugal mill, like the Honting- 
TON except there is one roller only (see "Huntington"). The 
mill is consequently unbalanced and requires a very solid 
foundation. 

Gyratory Crusher. — Consists of a vertical spindle the foot of 
which is mounted in an eccentric bearing. The top carries a 
conical crushing head revolving eccentrically in a conical maw. 
There are three types of gyratory : those which have the greatest 
movement on the smallest lump; those that have equal move- 
ment for all lumps; those that have greatest movement on 
largest lump. 

Hardinge Mill. — This is a tube mill made with two conical 
sections connected by a central very short cylinder. The cone 
at the feed end is very short so that the large pebbles settle and 
grind at the large end where the feed is coarse. 

Huntington Mill. — This operates by the centrifugal force 
of steel rollers revolving against the inner surface of a heavy 
horizontal steel ring or die. The rollers are suspended upon 
rods from horizontal arms by short trunnions allowing a swing 
of the rod and roller in a direction radial from the central 
vertical shaft. 

Kent Roller Mill. — This consists of a revolving steel ring 
with three rolls pressing against its inner face. The rolls are 
supported on springs, and the rings support the roll, so that 
there is some freedom of motion. The material to be crushed 
is held against the ring by centrifugal force. 

Kinkead Mill. — This is a pan mill with a convex conical 
bottom on which a muUer, having two surfaces of different 



ORE DRESSING 357 

Inclinations, grinds. The machine acts on the gyratory princi- 
ple as regards crushing between the surfaces. 

Jeffrey Swing-hammer Crusher. — In an iron casing a shaft 
revolves carrying swinging arms having a free arc movement 
of 120°. The rotation of the driving shaft causes the arms to 
swing out and strike the coal or other brittle material, which, 
when sufficiently fine, passes through the grated bottom. 

Krupp Ball Mill. — This is the classic ball mill. Grinding was 
done by chilled-iron or steel balls of various sizes which ground 
against each other and the die ring, composed of five perforated 
spiral plates, each of which lapped the next. This formed steps 
which gave the balls a drop from one plate to the next, and in 
addition, gave a space through which oversize was returned. 
Outside the die-plate is a coarse perforated screen to take the 
chief wear, while outside that come fine gauze screens. The fines 
discharge through these into the housing inside which the screens 
revolve and which has a hopper bottom. 

Lane Mill. — A .slow-speed roller mill of the Chilean tj-pe. A 
horizontal spider carrying six rollers revolves slowly in pan 
10 ft. or more in diameter making about 8 r.p.m. Advantages: 
great crushing weight, low power, decreased wear due to slow 
speed. 

Marathon Mill. — A form of tube mill used in the cement 
industry, in which the pulverizing is done by long pieces of 
hardened steel shafting. 

Marcy Mill. — A ball mill in which a vertical diaphragm is 
placed about 1 ft. from the discharge end. Between this 
perforated diaphragm and the end of the tube there are ar- 
ranged screens for sizing the material, oversize being returned 
for further grinding while undersize is discharged. 

Nissen Stamps. — This is a gravity stamp with an individual 
circular mortar for each stamp. 

Rolls. — Two cylinders, with faces much less than the diam- 
eters, revolving toward each other, drawing the material in 
between the crushing peripheries. One roll at least usually runs 
in fixed bearings, the other mayor may not run in movable bear- 
ings held by springs. 

Roll Jaw Crusher. — Same general type as Blake and Dodge 
iq.v.), but moving jaw has rolling instead of oscillating 
motion. 

Stamp Battery. — In effect a heavy iron pestle working 
mechanically in a huge iron mortar. Generally grouped in 
units of five per mortar. Stamps vary up to 2000 lb. in weight, 
dropping 6 to 8 in. over 100 times per minute. 

Sturtevant Balanced Rolls. — AU four boxes are movable and 
held in position by springs. The idea is to divide the thrust 
whenever the springs yield and, by dividing by two the distance 
the roll must move, to reduce internal stresses. 

Sturtevant Grinder. — A disk grinder in which one disk is 
stationary and the other rotates. The stationary disk us 
moved out of center from time to time, so that any groove which, 
forms can be ground out. 



358 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Sturtevant Roll Jaw Crusher. — A crusher in which the 
motion of the upper part of tlie jaws is very like that of the 
Dodge crusher, whiletholowerparts of the jaws, two cylindrical 
surfaces of varying radii, grind the ore between them. 

Sturtevant Ring-roll Crusher. — Works as does the Kent 
roller mill, which see. 

Symon's Disk Crusher. — A mill in which the crushing is done 
between two cup-shaped i)latos which revolve on shafts set at a 
small angle to each other. These disks revolve with the same 
speed in the same direction and are so set as to be widest apart 
at the bottoms. Feed is from the center and the material is 
gradually crushed as it nears the edge, and is then thrown out by 
centrifugal force. 

Williams Hinged-hammer Crusher. — A machine similar to 
the Jeffrey machine. There is a rotating central shaft carry- 
ing a number of hinged hammers, which fly out from centrifu- 
gal force, crushing the feed against the casing. 

Crushing with Jaw Crushers 

The jaw crusher is probably still the most popular method of 
reducing the size of ore. A table is given below of what has 
actually been done with jaw crushers, taken from Richard's 
"Ore Dressing," but the ordinary table of manufacturer's figures 
on crusher outputs, etc., is omitted for reasons given in part of 
the general discussion by Milton H. Heller in the Engineering 
arui Mining Journal, Feb. 27, 1915. 

When it is observed that the material fed to crushers is for 
the most part wet, as it comes from the mine, or dampened to 
reduce the dust, it is apparent the water exerts a lubricating 
action, which is further augmented should any clayey material 
be present. This condition might at any time bring the co- 
efficient of friction down to 0.2. Again using Richard's 
formulas, the angle of nip would have to be 11° or under before 
a bite would occur. 

The great variety of shapes and sizes fed to a crusher, as com- 
pared with the rather uniform product to the rolls, would indi- 
cate that whereas a roll operating with an angle of nip of 16° 
is just on the danger point, a cru.sher so operated would have 
e.xceeded it. From this rea.soning it would appear correct that 
the angles between the jaws of a crusher should not exceed 12° 
to work near its utmost capacity. 

By referring to the accompanying table, it is readily seen what 
degree of reduction under present .standard measurements of 
construction will bring the jaw angle about this limit: 



ORE DRESSING 359 

Degree of Reduction and Jaw Angle, Blake Crushers 



Size of 


Actual width 


Length vertical 


Set to crush 


Angle between 


crusher, in. 


opening, m. 


jaw, in. 


to, in. 


jaws 


4X 7 


4 


12 


1 

2 


15° 50' 

13° 45' 

11° 50' 

9° 25' 


7X10 


6K 


17>-2 


1 

2 
3 


16° 30' 
15° 0' 
13° 15' 
10° 30' 


9X15 


8K 


24 


3 

4 


15° 25' 
13° 10' 
12° 0' 
9° 30' 


10X20 


8K 


26 


13^ 
3 

4 


14° 40' 

11° 30' 

9° 40' 


13X24 


IIM 


33 


3 
4 
5 


16° 30' 
14° 15' 
12° 30' 
11° 0' 


15X24 


13H 


33 


3 
4 
5 
6 

7 

_ 


22° 30' 
21° 45' 
20° 30' 
18° 30' 
17° 15' 
15° 20' 
13° 30' 



The manufacturers, no doubt, have exceeded this angle, be- 
cause it gave them the mouth-size that was sought, for the least 
cost. The direction that has been taken to increase crusher 
capacity has been to make a wider jaw. It would have been 
better if the jaw angle had been made smaller, and the addi- 
tional iron put into the height of the jaw, rather than the width. 
The second point, the breaking character of the rock, is impor- 
tant, but is a character outside of our control. 

It is readily admitted that a decrease in the size of the dis- 
charge opening will reduce the capacity. This amount of re- 
duction is, however, greatly underestimated. Extending the 
principle given by Richards in Vol. I, p. 35, of his "Ore 
Dressing," we may argue that in a 15 X 24-in. breaker, if one 
15-in. cube reports at the mouth in 125 3-in. cubes, then the 
capacity at mouth is 125 times that at the throat when break- 
ing to 3 in. If, now, the crushing be reduced to 1)^ in., there 
would be 1000 cubes produced, and the capacity would be 1000 
times greater at the mouth than at the throat. The capacity, 



360 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

then, in the second case would be theoretically but one-eighth 
of that in the first case. 

With the smaller opening there would be a proportionally 
larger amount of material that would have to be worked on, as 
with a smaller opening the probability of more stuff being 
smaller than that opening would be increased. This would have 
an added effect in reducing the output. As an illustration of 
how much this capacity reduction is underestimated, apply 
the principles stated to the catalog capacity of a 15 X 24- 
crusher: 

Comparison' of C.\pacities 

Approximate capacity for 24 hours 

Break to Sin. 2i^ in. 2 in. 

Tons 600 4S0 420 

Theoretical 

Break to Sin. 21.^ in. 2 in. l}i in. 

Tons 600 347 177 75 

An analysis of a catalog table will show the error of basing 
estimates upon the figures given. 

Approximate Capacity ix Tons per t>\y of 10 Hours 



Sixe 


Tons In. Tons 

I 


In. 


Tons In. 


Tons 


In. 


1—7X10... 
II— 9X15.. 
111—11X18 


50 2 1 40 
120 2}4 100 
200 3 1 175 


2 
2K 


25 
80 

150 


1 

2 


15 

60 
100 


H 
1 



In case I it is seen that a change from 2-in. to 1-in. product 
gives 0.5 the output; from 1^ to ^ in., 0.37 the output. In 
case II, a change from 2 in. to 1 in. gives 0.62 of the output. In 
case III, a change from 3 in. to 1^^ in. gives five-tenths (0.5) 
the output. 

There is no consistency in the table, the intermediate size 
showing less cut than the one larger and the one smaller. The 
table is in aU probability no more than a guess. 



ORE DRESSING 



361 



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364 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 
EsTiM.\TED Cost of Crushing by Jaw Crusher^ 



Size of mouth in inches 

Tons crushed in 24 hours 

Horsepower 

Cost of breaker 

Cost, cents per ton, oil 

Cost, cents per ton, interest and 

depreciation 

Cost, cents per ton, power 

Cost, cents per ton, labor 

Cost, cents per ton, wear 

Cost, cents per ton, repairs. . . . , 

Total coet, cents per ton 



4 X 10 

84 

5 

$275 



0.021 

0.106 
0.773 
4.762 
0.815 
0.462 



6.939 



7 X 10 
120 
8 
$500 



9 X 15 10 X 20 
192 300 
12 20 
$750 $1050 



0.021 

0.135 
0.865 
3.333 
0.815 
0.462 



5.631 



0.021 

0.127 
0.811 
2.083 
0.815 
0.462 



4.319 



0.021 

0.114 
0.865 
1.333 
0.815 
0.462 



3.610 



13 X 30 
540 
30 
$2250 



0.021 

0.135 
0.721 
0.741 
0.815 
0.462 



2.895 



EsTiM.\TED Cost of Crushing by Spindle Breakers^ 



Number of breaker 

Size of mouth in inches 

Tons crushed in 24 hours 

Horsepower 

Cost of breaker 

Cost, cents per ton for oil 

Cost, cents per ton interest and 

depreciation 

Cost, cents per ton, power 

Cost, cents per ton, labor 

Cost, cents per ton, wear 

Cost, cents per ton, repairs 

Total cost in cents per ton. . . . 




4 X30 
72 

3 
$375 


2 
6 x"42 
216 

9 
$760 


4 

8X 54 

540 

22 

$1800 


0.021 


0.021 


0.021 


0.169 
0.541 
5.556 
0.971 
0.308 


0.114 
0.541 
1.852 
0.971 
0.308 


0.108 
0.541 
0.741 
0.971 
0.308 


7.556 


3.807 


2.678 



6 8 

11 X 72 18X 126 

1080 3000 

45 125 

$3300 ,$7000 



2.310 



0.021 0.021 

0.076 
0.541 
0.133 
0.971 
0.308 



2.050 



Per Cent, of Voids in Crushed Limestone' 



Screen opening, 


Per cent, of voids 


inches 


By water displacement 


From specific gravity 


H 
H 
H 
H 

2 toM 

2 to^i 

2H to rs 

2M to IH 

3 to 2 

3 to 2 


40.9 
39.6 
42.2 
43.0 
45.7 
47.9 
46.6 
44.3 
46.2 
46.1 
47.5 


46.8 
46.1 
47.1 
45.6 
44.7 
46.2 
46.6 
42.9 
43.4 
45.1 
46.1 



> R. H. Richards, "Ore Dressing," Vol. I. 
" R. H. Richards, "Ore Dressing," Vol. I. 
' Richards, "Ore Dressing," Vol. IV. 



ORE DRESSING 365 

"An ordinary mine wedge, 8 in. long by 4 in. wide by 2 in. thick 
at the large end, when caught in 9X15-in. breakers, takes about 
as long to work through as does a ton of ore. Moral — remove 
the wood first. 

So far as known, up to the date of writing, July 16, 1915, 
the largest jaw crusher is one made by the Traylor Engi- 
neering and Manufacturing Co., a 66 X 84-in. jaw crusher for 
the Rockland Lake quarry of the Conklin & Foss Co. on the 
west bank of the Hudson River just north of Nyack. This 
crusher, described in detail in the Engineering and Mining 
Journal of Mar. 27, 1915, is slightly larger than the jaw crushers 
the Traylor company has previously supplied. The crusher 
weighs about 520,000 lb. and is approximately 18 ft. high, 26 ft. 
long and 20 ft. wide. The driving pulley is 12 ft. in diameter 
and a 350-hp. Westinghouse MS motor will be used to drive the 
crusher. Fourteen railroad cars were required to transport the 
crusher from the shops to the quarry, where blockholing and 
bulldozing will be practically eliminated by the imit. 

Symon's Disk Crushers^ 

For the work of secondary breaking from a 3- to 5-in. size, 
to approximately IJ^ in., the Symons disk crusher is now being 
largely used, and has been adopted by the larger mining com- 
panies such as Phelps, Dodge & Co., the Guggenheim com- 
panies, the Anaconda Copper Co., and the Inspiration Copper 
Co. Records of the Detroit Copper Co. at Morenci, Ariz., give 
a life of 170,000 tons for one set of manganese-steel disks, which 
are the main wearing parts, and cost about $300. The Federal 
Lead Co., at Flat River Mo., obtained the low figure of 0.2 ct. 
per ton for wear over a period of a year. 

A test of capacity, power and size of the product of a 48-in. 
disk crusher was made by David Gilmotjr, chief engineer for 
the Guggenheim Exploration Co., with a view to determining 
the advisability of using it instead of 72 X 20-in. rolls, and as a 
result the disk crusher was adopted for the Chile Copper Co., 
at Chuquicamata, Chile. One of the tests was as shown 
herewith : 

Test of Disk Crusher 

Feed, 20 per cent. 4 to 6 in., 50 per cent. 2 to 4 in., 25 per cent. 
1 to l}4 in. * • 

Crusher opening, \}^ in. 

Product, 78 per cent. J^ to 13^ in., 22 per cent. 3^ in. and 
smaller. 

Capacity, 100 tons per hour. 

Power, 29 to 47.9 hp. 

It will be noted that the rated capacity for this crusher with 
1 J^-in. product is 60 to 80 tons; the power from 50 to 65 hp., so 
that the catalog ratings are conservative. 

In a more practical way the advantages of the disk crusher 
can be shown by a comparison of costs, which are available for 

1 Julius I. Wile, "Tendency of American Milling Machinery Practice," 
"Eng. and Min. Journ." Apr. 17, 1915. 



366 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



1000-ton units for secondary breaking from S^^ into IJ^ in. 
The accompanying estimate is based on the cost of power and 
repairs only, with 8 hr. crushing and power taken at the low 
figure of $50 per hp. per year, the average yearly tonnage being 
350,000 tons. The estimate is given for both class A and class 
B ores, and comparison is made between gyratories, rolls and 
disk breakers. 

Crusher Action on Various Ores — Class A 





Two No. 5 gyratories, 
50 hp. (25 hp. each) 


72 X 16-in. 
rolls, 60 hp. 


48-in. disk, 
40 hp. 


Power 

Repairs 


0.24 cts. 
0.65 Cts. 


0.29 Cts. 
0.50 cts. 


0.2 Cts. 

0.2 Cts. 


Total .... 


0.89 cts. 


0.79 Cts. 


0.4 Cts. 


Class B 




Two No. 6 gyratories, 
60 hp. (33 hp. each) 


72 X 20-in. 
rolls, 80 hp. 


48-in. disk, 
50 hp. 


Power 

Repairs 


. 32cts. 

1 . 30cts. 


0.39 Cts. 
1 . 00 Cts. 


0.25 Cts. 

0.40 cts. 


Total.. . . 


1.62cts. 


1.39 cts. 


0.65 cts. 



Crushing with Rolls^ 
According to Philip Argall the most successful dry crusher 
is the belted roll. They do their best work on 1^- to 2-in. 
cubes. In wet crushing they give good results down to 20- 
mesh and fair down to 40-mesh. According to Mr. Argall the 
following formulas give the proper roll speed: Let P = peri- 
pheral speed in feet per minute; D = diameter of rolls in inches; 
iV = the number of revolutions per minute; S = size in inches of 
maximum ore. cube fed; >S„ = size in inches of maximum cube 
fed for a given diameter of roll; then 



log — 



100 X 



P; 0.0476 X D = S„; 



382 



X 



M^) 



= N. 



log 2 ^' -"-■"'^" '-"' D '^ log 2 

The angle of nip for a given particle is the angle between the 
tangents drawn to the rolls at the points where the particle 
touches. The most favorable angle is 32°. 

The largest particle which can be fed to a set of rolls, according 

T 

to Haton de la GoupiLLifeRE is: -jt > 18 — 19m; where r = 

K 

radius of roll, R = radius of largest particle in the feed, and 
» E. H. Richards, "Ore Dressing," VgJ. HI. 



ORE DRESSING 



367 



m = ratio between diameter of the largest grain in crushed 
product and that of the largest grain in the feed. 

The theoretical capacity of the rolls is: — ■ = C; where 

1 /^o 

P = peripheral speed in inches per minute, W = width of roll 

face in inches, S = space between the rolls in inches, and C = 

capacity in cubic feet per hour. 

Size of Feed to Grv'E a 32° Angle op Nip on Different Rolls 



Diameter of rolls 
in inches 


Space between the rolls in inches 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 





36 
30 
26 
24 
20 
16 
9 


2.23 
1.99 
1.83 
1.74 
1.58 
1.42 
1.14 


2.10 
1.86 
1.70 
1.61 
1.46 
1.29 
1.01 


1.96 
1.73 
1.56 
1.48 
1.32 
1.16 
0.88 


1.84 
1.60 
1.44 
1.36 
1.20 
1.03 
0.75 


1.71 
1.47 
1,31 
1.22 
1.06 
0.90 
0.62 


1.57 
1.34 
1.17 
1.10 
0.94 
0.77 
0.49 


1.45 
1.21 
1.05 
0.96 
0.80 
0.64 
0.36 



Size of Feed to Give a 32° Angle of Nip on Different Rolls 



Diameter of rolls 
in inches 


Size of feed to rolls in inches 


m 


'" 1 ■ "' 


H 


H 


36 


0.46 

0.280 

0.432 

0.512 

0.666 

0.822 

1 . 193 


Spa 


ce betwee 


Q rolls (a) 




30 


0.038 
0.191 
0.270 
0.424 
0.580 
0.851 








26 








24 


0.031 

0.185 
0.340 
0.613 






20 






16 


0.101 
0.372 






9 


0.132 





(a) Where blank spaces are left the angle of nip is under 32° with the 
rolls set close together. 

Width of Rolls. — According to Richards the following are the 
chief considerations. Wide rolls of the same speed have more 
surface and hence greater capacity. But as width and capacity 
increase so do the stresses to be met, and consequently the cost 
of the machine increases. On the other hand, narrow rolls are 
much easier to keep true, and by running them faster, provided 
the speed does not exceed the limits for good work, the capacity 
lost by narrowing can be regained, the stresses are less, and first 
cost, weight and friction are reduced. 

A table of results of roll crushing, taken from Richards, 
follows : 



368 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 





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ORE DRESSING 



369 



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370 MET.\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



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372 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



Tube Mill Datai 

Relation between Per Cent. Ore and Solution, Fineness of 
Grinding and Horsepower 

Screen Analysis of Sand Fed to Tube Mills, 12 ft. Long, 
5 FT. Diameter 

On 20 On 30 On 40 On 60 On 80 On 100 On 120 On 150 Through 150 
6.0 20.0 24.0 23.0 11.0 8.0 4.0 2.0 2.0 



Vari.able Pebble 


Volume, Fixed Ore and 


Solution 


Pounds, 


On 


On 


On 


A 

M 


Per 


Per 
cent., 


Tons 


Indi- 
cated 


pebbles 


60 


100 


150 




ore 


solu- 
tion 


24 hr. 


liorse- 
power 


3,000 


42.5 


27.5 


8.0 


22.0 


63.72 


36.28 


172 


18.80 


6,000 


46.5 


23.5 


8.0 


22.0 


70.17 29.83 


172 


20 . 37 


9,000 


42.0 


26.0 


8.0 


24 


74.29 125.71 


172 


22.5 


12,000 


32.0 


32.0 


12.0 


24.0 


60.00 


40.00 


172 


32 . 16 


15,000 


29.0 


30.0 


14.0 


27.0 


65.38 


34.62 


172 


39.13 


16,800 


18.0 


36.0 


12.0 


34.0 


66.67 


33.33 


172 


42.88 


18,000 


3.5 


29.0 


16.0 


51.5 


66.67 


33.33 


172 


47.16 


19,000 


4.0 


28.0 


13.0 


55.0 


66.67 


33.33 


172 


51.45 


20,000 


9.0 


32.0 


15.0 


44.0 


71.88 


28.12 


172 


56.28 


21,000 


6.0 


30.0 


13.5 


50.5 


71.88 


28.12 


172 


60.10 


22,000 


6.0 


29.0 


15.0 


50.0 


71.88 


28.12 


172 


65 . 39 


23,000 


6.0 


.30.0 


14.0 


50.0 


70.37 


29.63 


172 


77.18 


24,000 


3.0 


27.0 


16.0 


54.0 


70.96 


29.04 


172 


68.61 


24,500 


4.0 


26.0 


13.0 


57.0 


68.18 


31.82 


172 


69.68 


25,000 


3.0 


26.0 


14.0 


57.0 


66.67 


33.33 


172 


75.04 


26,000 


5.0 


28.0 


15.0 


52.0 


70.00 


30.00 


172 


68.60 


27,000 


8,0 


33.0 


14.0 


45.0 


68.00 


32.00 


172 


64.85 



Variable 


Ore and Solution, Fixed Pebble Volum 


e 






Tons 










Per 
cent., 


Por 


Indi- 


Pounds, 


Feed, 


ore 


On 


On 


On 


Through 


cent., 


cated 


pebbles 


inches 


per 


60 


100 


150 


150 


solu- 


horse- 






24 hr. 












tion 


power 


20.000 


3 


172 


7.0 


32.0 


13.0 


48.0 


64.71 


35.29 


56.4 


20,000 


3 


172 


13.0 


35.0 


11.0 


41.0 


66.67 


33.33 


54.28 


20,000 


31-4 


190 


12.5 


36.0 


10.0 


41.5 


71.05 


28.95 


51.6 


20,000 


3^S 


190 


14.0 


34.0 


12.0 


40.0 


67.86 


32.14 


54.8 


20,000 


4 


216 


16.0 


34.0 


14.0 


36.0 


68.18 


31.82 


53.2 


20.000 


4 


216 


14.0 


36.0 


16.0 


34.0 


69.70 


30.30 


49.4 


20,000 


A\'i 


231 


26.0 


38.0 


11.0 


30.0 


66.67 


33.33 


47.5 


20,000 


i^<i 


231 


30.0 


30.0 


10.0 


30.0 


72.22 


27.78 


43.5 



1 HoFMA.v, "General Metallurgy." 



ORE DRESSING 



373 



Variable Solution", Fixed Pebble Volume and Ore Feed 



Pounds, 
pebble 



Ore "1°^ 
feed, I °1^ 
inches 2rhr. 



Tons 
solu- 
tion 
per 
24 hr. 



On , On 
60 100 



I p Per I Indi- 

On , Throughi . cent.,] cated 
150 1 150 *^^^^- 8olu- ' horse- 
I tion power 



20,000 
20,00C 
20,000 
20,000 
20,000 
20.000 
20.000 
20.000 
20.000 
20.000 
20.000 



172 
172 
172 
172 
172 
172 
172 
172 
172 
172 
172 



68.0 

75.0 

90.0 

92.0 

98.0 

111.0 

113.0 

136.0 

196.0 

207.0 

268.0 



12.5 36.0 10.0 
13.034.0 12.0 
8.0 30.0 13.0 
8.032.0 14.0 
9.0;33.0 12.0 
8.0J33.0J13.0 
7.031.0 13.0 
8.0.34.0 12.0 
7.0 32.0 14.0 
5.5 .30.5 13.0 
8.0 32.0 12.0 



41.5 
41.0 
49.0 
46.0 
46.0 
46.0 
50.0 
46.0 
47.0 
51.0 
48.0 



71.43 
169.56 
65.67 
65.20 
63.78 
60.70 
60.44 
55.71 
47.10 
'45.40 
138.90 



28.57 
30.44 
34.33 
34.80 
36.22 
39.30 
139.56 
44.29 
52.90 
54.60 
61.10 



45.0 
48.9 
55.8 
57.4 
58.0 
56.9 
55.0 
55.8 
59.0 
62.3 
62.3 



Work of Grixdixg Pax axd Tube Mill at Homestake^ 



5-ft. grinding 

pans, 

12,308 tons 

ground by 

7 pans 



5 X 14-ft. tube mill 



Regular 
adjustment, 
medium feed 



Special 
adjustment, 
heavy feed 



Total tons ground per day 
Tons ground per day to 

pass 200-mesh sieve 

Water in feed, per cent.. . 



19.34 per pan 

10.83 per pan 
80-90 



73 



43 

38 



110.0 



52.8 
38.4 




Head Tails 



Assay: gold value per ton. 

Sizing test: per cent, on 
50 mesh '. . . 

Through 50; on 80 

Through 80; on 100 

Through 100; on 200 

Through 200 

Tons ground per horse- 
power per day at one 
passage through grinder 

To pass 100-mesh sieve.. 

To pass 200-mesh sieve.. 



S2.04 



$2.49 

18.0 
49.0 
17.0 
11.0 
5.0 



$2.04 

7.0 
15.0 
14.0 
26.0 
38.0 



2.92 
1.40 
0.97 



Material consumed 
pounds per ton 



] Iron, worn, 3.41 

'} Iron, scrapped 0.82 
J Total iron 4.23 



Pebbles, 1.66 Pebbles, 1.30 



> HoFMAN, "General Metallurgy." 



374 METALLURGISTS AXD CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 









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376 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



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ORE DRESSING 



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378 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

H.\RDiNr,E Mill D.\ta' 



6 ft. by 8 ft. by 

16-in. I 22-in. 

ball mill pebble mill 



Average maximum size of feed, mm 

Average size of feed, mm 

Average maximum size of product, mm 

Average size of product, mm 

Average per cent, of —200 mesh in product 

Average per cent, of —200 mesh in product, no slope. 
Average per cent, of —200 mesh in product, 0.5 to 

4 in. slope 

Reduction ratio, range 

Reduction ratio, average 

Average size of product, no slope, mm 

Average size of product, slope 0.5 to 4 in 

Average tonnage 

Average tonnage at no slope 

Average tonnage at 0.5 to 4 in. slope 

Average horsepower 

Average charge, balls or pebbles, tons 

Average ball or pebble consumption, pounds per ton. 

Average relative mechanical efficiency 

Average percentage of water in feed 

Average revolutions per minute 



44.5 
9.0 
6.0 
0.37 

28 /9« 



7 to 67 
39.6 



203 



35.06 

4 

0.51 
53.2 
60 
28 



9.7 

1.26 

1.5 

0.14 

37.0 

44.3 

31.6 

6 to 15 
8 

0.10 
0.17 
110 
85 
128 
35.6 
4.5 
1.94 
20.5 
58.7 
27.8 



' Trans. A. I. M. E.. July, 1915. 
- Nos. 155 and 191 estimated. 



Stamp Milling 

Stamp order — Homestake 14 2 5 3 
Stamp order— Brazil 15 2 4 3 

Drops per minute — theoretical maximum on 9-in. drop — 95. 
Drops per minute — theoretical maximum on 8-in. drop — 
100 to 108. 

Stamp Mill Duop.'^' 



Length of 
drop, 

inches 


Number 

of drops 

per minute 


Total 

inches 

drop per 

minute 


Compara- 
tive power 
required 


Number 

units 

crushing 

force per 

drop 


Number 

units crushing 

force per 

minute 


6 
7 

8V^ 
10>.4 


115 

108 

100 

90 


690 
756 
850 
945 


100.00 
109.57 
123.19 
136.96 


1.0000 
1.1667 
1.4167 
1.7500 


115.00 
126.00 
141.67 
157.50 



' McFarren's "Stamp Milling and .\malgamation. 
'Mining and ScierUific Press." 



Courtesy of the 



ORE DRESSING 



379 



HORSEPOWER PER STAMP REQUIRED BY THE 
5-STAMP BATTERY! 



Height of Drop in Inches and Number of Drops per Minute 

A. Nominal Horsepower to Raise Stamps without Fric- 
tion 



Weight of 
stamp in 
pounds 


5 in. 

115 

drops 


6 in. 

110 

drops 


7 in. 

105 

drops 


8 in. 

100 

drops 


9 in. 

95 

drops 


10 in. 

90 
drops 


850 

900 

950 

1000 


1.234 
1.307 
1.379 
1 .452 


1.417 
1.500 
1.584 
1.667 


1.578 
1.670 
1.764 
1.856 


1.717 

1.818 
1.919 
2.020 


1.835 

1.943 
2.052 
2.159 


1.932 
2.045 
2.159 
2.273 


1050 
1100 
1150 
1200 


1.525 
1.597 
1.670 
1.742 


1.750 
1.833 
1.917 
2.000 


1.949 
2.042 
2.134 
2.227 


2.121 
2.222 
2.323 
2.424 


2.267 
2.375 
2.483 
2.591 


2.386 
2.500 
2.614 
2.727 


1250 
1300 
1350 
1400 


1.815 

1.888 
1.960 
2.033 


2.083 
2.167 
2.250 
2.333 


2.320 
2.413 
2.506 
2.598 


2.525 
2.626 

2.727 
2.828 


2.699 
2.807 
2.915 
3.023 


2.841 
2.955 
3.068 
3.182 


1450 
1500 
1550 
1600 


2.105 
2.178 
2.251 
2.323 


2.417 
2.500 
2.583 
2.667 


2.691 

2.784 
2.877 
2.970 


2.929 
3.030 
3.131 
3.232 


3.131 
3.239 
3.347 
3.455 


3. -295 
3.409 
3.523 
3.636 


1650 
1700 
1750 
1800 


2.396 
2.468 
2.541 
2.614 


2.750 
2.833 
2.917 
3.000 


3.062 
3.155 
3.248 
3.341 


3.333 
3.434 
3.535 
3.636 


3.563 
3.670 

3.778 
3.886 


3.750 
3.864 
3.977 
4.091 


1850 
1900 
1950 
2000 


2.686 
2.759 
2.831 
2.904 


3.083 
3.167 
3.250 
3.333 


3.434 
3.527 
3.619 
3.712 


3.737 
3.838 
3.939 
4.040 


3.994 
4.102 
4.210 
4.318 


4.204 
4.318 
4.432 
4.545 


2050 
2100 
2150 
2200 


2.978 
3.050 
3.123 
3.194 


3.417 
3.500 
3.583 
3.666 


3.805 
3.898 
3.990 

4.084 


4.141 
4.242 
4.343 
4.444 


4.426 
4.533 
4.641 
4.750 


4.659 
4.772 
4.886 
5.000 



' McFarren's "Stamp Milling and Amalgamation." If the number of 
drops used varies from that in the table, multiply the horsepower taken from 
the table by the number of drops used, and divide by the number of drops in 
the table. 



380 MET.\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 



B. Horsepower Applied to Cam-sh.\ft Pullet 

(1.202 times A) 



Weight of 

stamp in 

pounds 


5 in. 

115 

drops 


6 in. 

110 

drops 


7 in. 

105 

drops 


Sin. 

100 

drops 


9 in. 

95 

drops 


10 in. 

90 
drops 


850 

900 

950 

1000 


1.483 
1.571 
1.658 
1.745 


1.703 
1.803 
1.903 
2.003 


1.897 
2.008 
2.119 
2.231 


2.064 
2.185 
2.307 
2.428 


2.206 
2.336 
2.465 
2.595 


2.322 
2.459 
2.595 
2.732 


1050 
1100 
1150 
1200 


1.833 
1.920 
2.007 
2.094 


2.103 
2.204 
2.304 
2.404 


2.343 
2.454 
2.566 
2.677 


2.550 
2.671 
2.793 
2.914 


2.725 
2.855 
2.984 
3.114 


2.868 
3.005 
3.142 
3.278 


1250 
1300 
1350 
1400 


2.182 
2.269 
2.357 
2.444 


2.504 
2.604 
2.704 
2.805 


2.789 
2.900 
3.012 
3.123 


3.035 
3.157 
3.278 
3.400 


3.244 
3.374 
3.504 
3.633 


3.415 
3.551 
3.688 
3.825 


1450 
1500 
1550 
1600 


2.532 
2.619 
2.706 
2.793 


2.905 
3.005 
3.105 
3.205 


3.235 
3.347 
3.458 
3.570 


3.521 
3.642 
3.764 

3.885 


3.763 
3 . 893 
4.023 
4.152 


3.961 
4.098 
4.234 
4.371 


1650 
1700 
1750 
1800 


2.881 
2.968 
3.055 
3.143 


3.305 
3.406 
3.506 
3.606 


3.681 
3.793 
3.904 
4.016 


4.007 
4.128 
4.250 
4.371 


4.282 
4.412 
4.542 
4.671 


4.507 
4.644 

4.781 
4.917 


1850 
1900 
1950 
2000 


3.230 
3.317 
3.404 
3.492 


3.706 
3.806 
3.906 
4.007 


4.127 
4.239 
4.350 
4.462 


4.492 
4.614 
4.735 
4.857 


4.801 
4.931 
5.061 
5.190 


5.054 
5.190 

5.327 
5.464 


2050 
2100 
2150 
2200 


3.579 
3.667 
3.754 
3.840 


4.107 
4.207 
4.307 
4.408 


4.574 
4.685 
4.797 
4.908 


4.978 
5.099 
5.221 
5.342 


5.320 
5.450 
5.580 
5.710 


5.600 
5.737 
5.873 
6.010 



ORE DRESSING 



381 



C. Approximate Total Horsepower 

(1.35 times A) 



Weight of 
stamp in 
pounds 


5 in. 

115 

drops 


6 in. 

110 

drops 


7 in. 

105 

drops 


8 in. 

100 

drops 


9 in. 

95 

drops 


10 in. 

90 
drops 


850 

900 

950 

1000 


1.666 
1.764 
1 . 862 
1.960 


1.913 

2.025 
2.138 
2.250 


2.130 
2.255 
2.380 
2.506 


2.318 
2.454 
2.591 
2.727 


2.477 
2.623 
2.769 
2.915 


2.608 
2.762 
2.915 
3.069 


1050 
1100 
1150 
1200 


2 . 058 2 . 363 
2.156 2.475 
2.254 i 2.588 
2.352 1 2.700 


2.631 
2.756 

2.881 
3.007 


2.863 
3.000 
3.136 
3.272 


3.060 
3.206 
3.352 
3.498 


3.222 
3.375 
3.529 
3.682 


1250 
1300 
1350 
1400 


2.450 2.813 
2.548 2.925 
2.646 3.038 
2.744 3.150 


3.132 
3.257 
3.383 
3.508 


3.409 
3.545 
3.681 
3.818 


3.643 
3.789 
3.935 
4.081 


3.836 
3.989 
4.143 
4.296 


1450 
1500 
1550 
1600 


2.842 
2.940 
3.038 
3.136 


3.263 
3.375 
3.488 
3.600 


3.633 
3.758 
3.884 
4.009 


3.954 
4.091 
4.227 
4.363 


4.226 
4.372 
4.518 
4.663 


4.449 
4.603 
4.756 
4.910 


165 
170< 
175< 
180 








3.234 
3.332 
3.430 
3.528 


3.713 

3 . 825 
3.938 
4.050 


4.134 
4.260 
4.385 
4.510 


4.500 
4.636 
4.772 
4.909 


4.809 
4.955 
5.101 
5.246 


5.063 
5.217 
5.370 
5.523 


1850 
1900 
1950 
2000 


3.626 4.163 
3.724 4.275 
3.822 4.388 
3.920 4.500 


4.635 
4.761 
4.886 
5.011 


5.045 
5.181 
5.318 
5.454 


5.392 
5.538 
5.684 
5.829 


5.677 
5.830 
5.984 
6.137 


2050 

2100 

2150 

•2200 


4.018 4.613 
4.116 4.725 
4.214 4.838 
4.312 1 4.950 

i 


5.136 
5.262 
5.387 
5.512 


5.590 
5.727 
5.863 
6.000 


5.975 
6.121 
6.266 
6.412 


6.291 
6.444 
6.597 
6.750 



Mud Sills. — These vary from three to four and range from 
12 X 12 to 24 X 24 in. These are used only with old-style 
wooden foundations. 

Cross Sills.— These range from 12 X 16 in. to 20 X 24 in. 



382 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 





















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1 



ORE DRESSING 



383 



Steam Stamps 

The steam stamp is one in which a vertical stacip shaft is 
forced down to strike its blow, and lifted up preparatory to 
the next by means of a steam piston. The large ones are used 
solely in the Michigan Copper Country. A small steam stamp, 
the Tremain, built by the Gates Iron Works, has been devised 
for treating gold ore, the idea being that they would be light 
to pack for the capacity obtained, and could be quickly mounted 
and dismounted. 



Standard Mixing ScreexsI 







Diam. of 


Diam. of 


Equivalent 


Per cent. 


Mesh 


wire No. 


wire, 


aperture, 


in milli- 


of 






inches 


inches 


meters 


opening 


1" 


3 

4 


0.2437 
0.2253 


0.7563 
0.5247 


19.81 
13.33 




fi" 




2 mesh 


5 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 


0.2070 
0.1620 
0.1483 
0.1350 
0.1205 
0.1055 
0.0915 
0.0915 
0.0800 
0.0720 
0.0625 
0.0540 
0.0475 
0.0410 


0.4180 
0.3380 
0.2517 
0.1983 
0.1652 
0.1445 
0.1307 
0.1085 
0.0867 
0.0709 
0.0625 
0.0571 
0.0525 
0.0423 


10.62 
8.59 
6.39 
5.04 
4.20 
3.67 
3.32 
2.76 
2.20 
1.80 
1.59 
1.45 
1.33 
1.07 






2H 
3 






4 






5 






6 




7 




8 




9 




10 




12 


25. 80" 


14 


20 


0.0348 


0.0366 


0.93 


26.01 


16 


22 


0.0286 


0.0339 


0.86 


30.47 


18 


23 


0.0258 


0.0298 


0.76 


30.24 


20 


24 


0.0230 


0.0270 


0.69 


29.16 


22 


25 


0.0204 


0.0251 


0.64 


31.35 


24 


26 


0.0181 


0.0286 


0.60 


32.27 


30 


28 


0.0162 


0.0171 


0.43 


27.03 


40 


31 


0.0132 


0.0118 


0.30 


21.15 


50 


34 


0.0104 


0.0096 


0.24 


25.00 


60 


36 


0.0090 


0.0077 


0.20 


18.45 


64 


37 
38 


0.0085 
0.0080 


0.0071 
0.0063 


0.18 
0.16 




70 


"16.42 " 


80 


40 


0.0070 


0.0055 


0.14 


19.36 



Rittinger's sizes: Fine table ore, finer than 0.25 mm.; 
coarse table ore, 0.25-1 mm.; fine jigging ore, 1-4 mm.; coarse 
jigging ore, 4-16 mm.; lump ore, 16-64 mm. 

' R. H. Richards, "Ore Dressing." 



384 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Tyler Standard Screen Scale 

Ratio Vs or 1.414 







Mesh 


Diam. wire, dec. 
of an inch 


Opening in 


Opening in 


inches 


millimeters 






1.050 


26.67 

18.85 
13.33 
9.423 
6.680 




0.149 


0.742 




0.135 


. 525 




0.105 


0.371 




. 092 


0.263 


3 


0.070 


0.185 


4.699 


4 


0.065 


0.131 


3.327 


6 


0.036 


0.093 


2.362 


8 


0.032 


0.065 


1 . 651 


10 


0.035 


0.046 


1.168 


14 


0.025 


0.0328 


0.833 


20 


0.0172 


0.0232 


0.589 


28 


0.0125 


0.0164 


0.417 


35 


0.0122 


0.0116 


0.295 


48 


0.0092 


0.0082 


0.208 


65 


0.0072 


0.0058 


0.147 


100 


0.0042 


0.0041 


0.104 


150 


0.0026 


0.0029 


0.074 


200 


0.0021 



I. 


M. M. 


Sta.vdaue 


) Laboratory Screens^ 


Mesh, 


Diametei 


of wire 


Aperture 


Screening 


linear inch 


In. 


Mm. 


In. 


Mm. 


per cent. 


5 


0.1 


2.540 


0.1 


2.540 


25.00 


8 


0.063 


1.600 


0.062 


1.574 


24.60 


10 


0.05 


1.270 


0.05 


1.270 


25.00 


12 


0.0417 


1.059 


0.0416 


1.056 


24.92 


16 


0.0313 


0.795 


0.0312 


0.792 


24.92 


20 


0.025 


0.635 


0.025 


0.635 


25.00 


30 


0.0167 


0.424 


0.0166 


0.421 


24.80 


40 


0.0125 


0.317 


0.0125 


0.317 


25.00 


50 


0.010 


0.254 


0.01 


0.254 


25.00 


60 


0.0083 


0.211 


0.0083 


0.211 


24.80 


70 


0.0071 


0.180 


0.0071 


0.180 


24.70 


80 


0.0063 


0.160 


0.0062 


0.157 


24.60 


90 


0.0055 


0.139 


0.0055 


0.139 


24.. 50 


100 


0.005 


0.127 


0.005 


0.127 


25.00 


120 


0.0041 


0.104 


0.0042 


0.107 


25.40 


150 


0.0033 


0.084 


0.0033 


0.084 


24.50 


200 


0.0025 


0.063 


0.0025 


0.063 


25.00 



' E. A. Smith. "Sampling and Assay of the Precious Metals." 



ORE DRESSING 



385 



Sizes of Rouxd and Slot-punched Plate Screens 



Needle number 


Approximate mesh 

of wire cloth to 

which openings 

correspond 


Width of slot or 
diameter of hole 


Width of slot or 
diameter of hole 


of screen • 


in inches 


in millimeters 


1 


12 


0.058 


1.47 


2 


14 


0.049 


1.25 


3 


16 


0.042 


1.07 


4 


18 


0.035 


0.89 


5 


20 


0.029 


0.74 


6 


25 


0.027 


0.69 


7 


30 


0.024 


0.61 


8 


35 


0.022 


0.56 


9 


40 


0.020 


0.51 


10 


50 


0.018 


0.46 


11 


55 


0.0165 


0.42 


12 


60 


0.015 


0.38 


13 


70 


0.013 


0.33 



The needle-number is the number of the standard sewing needle that will 
just pass the screen. 

Table taken from M.4.cFabrex's "Stamp Milling and Amalgamation." 



CONCENTRATION 

The processes by which concentration may be carried on are: 
hand picking, wet-gravity separations (jigging, vanning, etc.), 
amalgamation, magnetic, electrostatic, pneumatic, adhesion or 
flotation, crushing and screening, decrepitation and screening, 
by varying electric conductivity. A short list of the chief 
concentrating machinery follows: 

Ball-Norton Magnetic Separator. — This consists of two 
revolving drums. Within each of these drums is a series of 
stationary electromagnets extending the working length of the 
drum, but corresponding only to a portion of the periphery. 
The ore is fed on the top of the first drum, and as the drum 
revolves, the magnetic particles adhere to it, while the non- 
magnetic fall into a tailings bin below. The magnetic particles, 
as soon as the portion of the drum on which they are passes 
bej-ond the magnets, are thrown off by centrifugal force against 
the second drum. This either rotates faster or has a weaker 
magnetic field than the first drum, so that those particles least 
strongly attracted by the first drum fall from the second, 
making a middlings product. 

Bartlett Table. — This is a three-deck Wilfley, the second 
deck re-treating the material from the first and the third deck 
re-treating the material from the second. An increasing 
amount of wash water is u.sed on the successive decks. 

Bilharz, Corning, Luhrig and Stein Tables. — These are side- 
bump tables having a table surface made of an endless travel^ 
ing belt which has a plane surface. 

25 



386 METALLURGISTS AND CIIENnSTS' HANDBOOK 

Bumping and Jerking Tables. — These machines use mechan- 
ical agitation to brins the liglit and the heavy grains into their 
respective hiyers on a washing surface, and they use a bumping 
or jerking action to convey the heavy grains to one side or the 
other of the machine, while the current of surface water conveys 
the light grains to another side or end. They may be either 
side-bump, having the bump or jerk at right angles to the flow 
of the water, or end-bump, having the bump or jerk in the 
opposite direction from the flow of the water. See Rittinger, 
BiLHARZ, WiLFLEV, Bartlett and OvERSTROM for side-bump 
tables. For further information see these tj^jes and "end- 
bump" tables. 

Canvas Tables. — These are inclined rectangular tables 
covered with canvas. The pulp, to which clear water is added 
if necessary, is evenly distributed across the upper margin. As 
it flows down, the concentrates settle in the corrugations of the 
canvas. After the meshes are filled, the pulp feed is stopped, 
the remaining quartz is washed off with clear water, and finally 
the concentrates removed (by hose or brooms). 

Card Concentrator. — A table made of two planes having a 
flexible joint between them dividing the table into two nearly 
equal triangles, forming a diagonal line along which concen- , 
trates and tailings part company. 

Conkling Magnetic Separator. — The ore is fed on a conveying 
belt which passes under magnets, below which belts run at 
right angles to the line of travel of the main belt. The magnetic . 
particles are lifted up against these cross belts and are thuS' 
removed. 

Deister Table. — This is a riffled table in which the angle;! 
between the line of termination of the riffles and the direction 
of motion is not so acute as in the Wilfley. It is also wider and 
shorter. The top is rhomboidal. 

Ding's Magnetic Separator. — Material is fed up a vibrating 
conveyor and passes through successive zones of separation. 
These zones are covered by the rims of rotating wheels which 
carry secondary magnets. These carry the magnetic particles 
out of the field, are demagnetized, and drop the concentrates 

Dodd Buddie. — A round table resembling in operation a 
Wilfley table, and also like the Pixder table (^.r.) except that it 
is convex instead of concave. The table does not revolve but 
has a peripheral jerking motion imparted to it circumferentially 
by means of a toggle movement. 

End-bump Tables. — The heavy and light minerals are sepa- 
rated by agitation and are propelled up the slope of the table bj 
bumping action, but the wash water carries down the surfacf 
quartz at a higher speed than the bump can send it up. Th 
Gilpin County, Imlay and Golden Gate concentrators are th 
chief types. 

Ferraris Table. — This table has a plane rubber belt travelini 
between rollers furnished with broad flanges to keep the belt ii 
line. It has a .slope from side to side. The feed is at an up 
corner, and washing is by jets directed across the table. 



ORE DRESSING 387 

Film-sizing Tables. — These use the relative transporting 
power of a film of water flowing on a quiet surface, which may be 
either rough or smooth, to act upon the particles of a water- 
sorted- product. The smaller grains, of high specific gravity, 
are moved down the slope slowly or not at all by the slow under- 
current; the larger grains, of lower specific gravity, are moved 
rapidlj' down the slope by the quick upper current. These 
tables may be classified as: Surface tables, from which the 
products are removed before they have formed a bed, so that the 
washing is always done on the same surface; and building tables 
or buddies, on which the products are removed after they have 
formed a bed. 

Frue Vanner. — This consists essentially of a rubber belt 
traveling up a slight inclination. The material to be treated is 
washed by a constant flow of water while the entire belt is 
meanwhile shaken from side to side. Other vanners of the side- 
shake type are the Tulloch, Johxstox and Norbom. 

Gates Canvas Table. — A large form of inclined canvas table 
in which the pulp is first classified, then distributed along the 
upper edge of the table. The concentrates are caught in the 
warp of the canvas and after this is full, treatment must be 
stopped while the concentrates are swept or sluiced off. 

Grondal. — A magnetic separator consisting of a vertical 
revolving cylinder made up of rings of cast iron with the spaces 
between containing the wires for the electric current. Each 
ring is so magnetized as to be a little stronger than the one 
above. There is another cylinder of wood studded with soft 
wrought-iron pegs, a ring of pegs being opposite each cast- 
iron ring. The magnetic portion of the ore (usually crushed 
below 12 mesh) is carried around on the cast-iron rings until it 
gets near the pegs, to which it jumps because of their induced 
magnetism. It is then carried on these pegs out of the magnetic 
field and thrown off. 

Hallett Table. — This is like the Wilfley except that the tops 
of the riffles are in the same plane as the cleaning planes and the 
riffles are sloped toward the wash-water side. 

Hancock Jig. — A jig with movable sieve having both an 
up-and-down and a reciprocating motion. 

Harz or Plain Eccentric Jig. — One in which pulsion is given 
intermittently with suction. The periods devoted to them are 
about equal. 

Huff Separator. — An electrostatic machine depending on the 
repelling and attracting action of electrically charged particles. 
The feed is passed over a roller, and the constituents take various 
electrical charges according to conductivity and are repeUed 
accordingly. This machine is superseding the old Blake type. 

Isbell Table. — A table with a reciprocating motion in which 
there is no cross wash water. The bed of pulp is deep as in a 
jig, and heavy material goes to the bottom. The concentrates 
and tailings are then split by means of a cut-out which can be 
adjusted vertically to skim at any height desired. The riffles 
make an angle of about 20° with the line of motion of the table. 



388 MET:\XLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

James Concentrator. — The table deck, is divided into twd 
sections, flexibly joined together on a line oblique to the line of 
motion of the table. One section is riffled for the coarse 
material while the other section is smooth, to allow the settling; 
of the fine particles which will not settle on a riffled surface. By 
means of the joint, the slope of the sections can be varied 
independently. 

Johnston Vanner. — The chief difference between this and 
a Frue iq.v.) is that the belt is given an undulating motion, 
designed to prevent sands from piling up against the edges of the 
belt. 

Kieves. — These are strong tubs with sides flaring upward, in 
which separation is effected by mechanical agitation m a deep 
mass of thick pulp. Stirring paddles are used for preliminary 
mixing, and hammers or heavy striking bars for the final separa- 
tion. They are used to finish the concentration of fine products 
that are nearl\- rich enough to ship. 

Log Washer. — This is a slightly slanting trough in which 
revolves a thick shaft or log, carrying blades obliquely set to the 
axis. Ore is fed in at the lower end, water at the upper. The 
blades slowly convey the lumps of ore uphill against the current, 
while any adhering clay is gradually disintegrated and floated 
out the lower end. 

Overstrom Table. — A Wilfley squeezed out into a diamond 
shape (rhomboid), thus eliminating the waste corners. 

Pindar Concentrator. — A revolving table on which are tapering 
spiral copper cleats on a linoleum cover. The tailings are 
washed over the riffles and off the edge while the concentrates 
are delivered at the end of the riffles. 

Richard's Pulsator Jig. — An outcome of the pulsator classifier, 
in which a pulsating column of water is used in the jig. 

Rittinger Table. — A side-bump table with plane surface, using 
a cam, spring and bumping po^t. 

Spitzlutte. — This is a classifj'ing device consisting of a V- 
shaped box, as distinguished from the pyramidal boxes of the 
spitzkasten. Classification is dependent on the force of a stream 
of water admitted at the bottom. 

Sutton, Steele and Steele Dry Table. — A concentrator of the 
Wilfley type in motion, but instead of using water, stratifica- 
tion is by means of rising currents of air. The heavy grains are 
pushed forward by the head motion, while the lighter grains 
roll or flow down the slope toward the tailing side. 

Triumph Concentrator. — This machine resembles a Frue 
vanner (q.v.), but the shaking motion is endwise instead of side 
to side. 

Trough Washer. — This is used to float adhering clay or fine 
stuff from the coarser portions of an ore. In its simplest form 
it is a sloping wooden trough, 13'2 to2ft. wide, 8 to 12 ft. long and 
1 ft. deep, open at the tail end, but closed at the head end. 

Ullrich Magnetic Separator. — These machines have powerful 
electromagnets of wedge section. The material is treated on 
rolls on which magnetism is induced. They consist of alternate 



ORE DRESSING 389 

disks of soft iron and some non-magnetic material. The ore is 
fed over the first roll, which removes the most magnetic material, 
and the tailings go on to the second which is weaker, where a 
second separation is made. 

Vanner. — See Frue vanner for general description of the side- 
shake type. There is also an end-shake type, which includes 
the Triumph concentrator, Embry concentrator, and Wood- 
bury vanner, and a gyrating type, the Ellis. A 4-ft. vanner 
may take up to 13 gal. of water per minute and the weight of 
water to dry sand may rise to 10.7: 1. The pulp bed may be as 
much as 0.45 in. thick. 

Wetherill's Magnetic Separator. — Parallel form. Two flat 
belts, the upper of which is the wider, run parallel to each other. 
The magnets are long and set obliquely to the belts. Conse- 
quently magnetic particles are drawn up against the upper belt, 
more diagonally out and as they pass beyond the influence of 
the magnets, fall from the edge past the other belt into a con- 
centrates bin. Another form operates by belts moving across 
the line of travel of the main belt. 

Wilfley Slimer. — A form of shaking canvas table which is 
given a vanner motion. 

Wilfley Table. — A side jerk table with a riffled surface. The 
light and heavy grains are separated into layers by agitation, 
and the jerking action then throws the heavy grains toward the 
head end, while the light grains are washed down over the cleats 
into the tailings box. The table tapers toward the head end, 
and the riffles are progressiveh' longer toward the tailings side. 
The DoDD, Cammett, Hallett and Woodbury are very like it. 

Woodbury Jig. — A jig with a plunger compartment at the 
head end, so that the material is given a classification in the 

jig- 

Woodbury Table. — A table of the general Wilfley-Over- 
strom-card type, with the riffles parallel to the tailing side, 
and a hinged portion without riffles (unlike the Card). The 
table top is a rhomboid, and the riffles gradually shorten as 
they near the tailings side. 

CONCENTRATING AND CYANIDING MACHINERY 

The following list .includes the most important types of con- 
centrating and cyaniding machinery not already described under 
crushing and concentrating equipment. 

Akins Classifier. — A classifier of the free-settling type, in 
which the heavy material is driven up an inclined plane by 
means of an interrupted-flight screw conveyor. 

Blalsdell Reclaiming Apparatus. — Apparatus for automatic- 
ally discharging sand tank having a central bottom opening. 
Consists of a central vertical .shaft carrying four arms fitted with 
round plow di.sks. Sand is plowed toward central opening and 
discharged on a conveyor belt. 

Blaisdell Loading Machinery. — Apparatus for loading sand 
tanks. Consists of a rapidly revolving disk with curved radial 



390 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

vanes. Disk is huag on a shaft in tank center. Sand dropped 
on disk is distributed over the entire tank area. 

Brown Tank. — .\s ordinarily used it is a cylindrical tank 45 ft. 
high and L5 ft. in diameter, ending at the lower end in a 60' 
cone. Within the tank is a hollow column about 15 in. in 
diameter e.xtending from about IS in. of the bottom to within 
about 8 in. of the top. A 13-^-in. air pipe discharges air upward 
at and into the tube. The apparatus works on the air-lift 
principle, the pulp in the tube being lightened by the air, flowing 
upward, and being discharged at the top, more pulp flowing in 
at the bottom to take its place. 

Bunker Hill Screen. — A rotating screen shaped like a funnel. 
Material is delivered inside the funnel, undersize passing 
through the screen while the oversize is discharged through the 
funnel neck. 

Burt Filter. — This is a stationarj'-, intermittent filter in which 
the leaves are suspended vertically in a round tank set on a con- 
siderable incline. The leaves are therefore ellipses. The slime 
cake is discharged by introducing air and water into the interior 
of the leaf. There is also a newer Burt filter of the continuous 
rotating-drum type. 

Butters Filter. — This is a stationary, intermittent vacuum filter. 
The leaves are arranged in a box having a pyramidal bottom. 
When the pulp is introduced a vacuum is applied until a cake 
from 1 to 2 in. in thickness is formed. The surplus solution is 
then removed from the box and wash solution or water intro- 
duced. After removing the wash solution, either the box is 
filled with water or the cake dropped and sluiced out. 

Callow Screen. — A classifying screen using the traveling- 
belt principle, the screen cloth forming the belt member. It 
passes over two drums, or pulleys, oversize being discharged 
while the belt travels under the drums. 

Callow Cone. — This is a conical settling tank with vertical 
central feed, peripheral overflow, annular launder to collect and 
convey away the overflow, and a spigot in the form of a goose- 
neck to discharge the tailings. 

C.A.LLOW CoxE Test ox Butte Copper Slimes 



Total gal. 
per min. 



Grams per 
gal. 



Tone per 
24 hr. 



•'^^^^y, 'Oz. Ag 



Feed 1792.7 

Overflow 1495.0 

Spigot product. . 297 . 5 



41.15 
16.25 
1.54.5 



117.16 
38.45 
73.13 



2.80 

1.815 

3.5 



2.81 
2.36 
3.34 



Dehne Filter Press. — One of the best known of the standard 
plate-and-fraine presses, which see. 

Dorr Agitator. — An agitating machine based on the thickener 



ORE DRESSING 391 

principle. It is essentially a Dorr thickener equipped with a 
central air-lift. 

Dorr Classifier. — A machine to diminish the amount of 
water required for classification by raking the heavier grains 
up an inclined plane against a light current of water, which 
washes away the lighter material. It is of the intermittent type. 

Esperanza Classifier. — A classifier of the free-settling type in 
which the settled material is removed by dragging it up an 
inclined plane by means of a continuous belt of fiat blades or 
paddles. This is continuous in its operation. 

France Screen. — A traveling belt screen in which the screen- 
cloth is mounted on a series of separate pallets, thus avoiding 
bending the screen as it goes over the pulleys. 

Hunt Continuous Filter. — A horizontalh^ revolving continuous 
vacuum filter. It consists of an annular filter bed, usually of 
triangular wooden slats filled with coarse sands. The vacuum 
withdraws part of the pulp moisture as soon as the bed is formed. 
A spray then washes it after which the vacuum dries it and the 
material is then scraped off. 

Impact Screen. — A type in which the screen moves with the 
load of material, bringing up against a stop so as to throw the 
material forward on it. The Imperial is probably the best 
known type. 

Imperial Screen. — A pulsating screen in which the ore is 
thrown up in the air as well as moved forward over the screen. 

Kelly Filter. — Tiiis is an intermittent, movable pressure 
filter. The leaves are vertical and are set parallel to the axis of 
the tank. Pulp is introduced into the tank (a boiler-like 
affair) under pressure and the cake formed. The head then is 
unlocked and the leaves run out of the tank chamber, by means 
of a small track, and the cake is dropped. The carriage and 
leaves are then run back into the tank and the cycle begun 
again. 

King Screen. — A drum-type screen in which the pulp to be 
screened is delivered on the outside, the undersize passing 
through the screen and discharging through the open end. 

Maxton Screen. — A screening machine of the trommel class, 
open at each end and rotating on rollers supporting the tube 
through tires at each end. There are radial elevating ribs, to 
prevent wear of screen cloth and to elevate the oversize. Un- 
screened material is delivered on the inside screen surface, under- 
size passing through and oversize being elevated and discharged 
into a separate launder. 

Merrill Filter Press. — A variation of the plate-and-frame 
press. 

Moore Filter Press. — The best known of the movable, inter- 
mittent vacuum filters. A series, "or basket," of leaves is fast- 
ened together in such a way that it may be dropped in a pulp tank 
and kept submerged until a cake is formed. It is then trans- 
ferred by crane to an adjoining wash-solution tank and washed. 
The basket is then lifted out of this and the cake dropped. 

Newaygo. — A slanting screen down which the material to be 



392 MET.\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

screened passes. The screen is kept in vibration by the impact 
of a vast number of small hammers. 

Oliver Continuous Filter. — This consists of a revolving drum 
prepared as a leaf-filtering surface and divided into com- 
partments, each of which is connected to a vacuum pipe and 
to a pipe for admitting compressed air. The drum is partly 
immersed in a tank or box of thick pulp and revolves at a slow 
rate of speed. The vacuum causes a K to J-^-in. slime cake to 
form; after emerging, the solution is sucked out of the adhering 
cake; a wash is then given and displaced by air as far as possible; 
and finally the cake is dropped by compressed air. 

Ovoca Classifier. — A classifier of the free-settling type in 
which the heavy material is removed by a double-screw, con- 
tinuous-flight conveyor, working up an inclined plane. 

Pachuca Tank. — Same as the Brown tank. 

Paddle-wheel Agitator. — The simplest form, in which the 
solids are kept in suspension by paddles. It is difficult to do with 
sand, the machine being difficult (if not impossible) to start if 
sand packs around the blades, and it is expensive both in 
operating and in repair costs. 

Parral Agitator. — An agitator using a number of small air 
lifts disposed about a circular, flat-bottomed tank in such a 
way as to impart a circular swirling motion to the pulp. 

Patterson Agitator. — An agitator of the PACHUCA-tank type 
in which the air is replaced by solution or water, under pressure 
from a centrifugal pump. 

Plate-and-frame Filter Press. — The old style press. It 
consists of plates with a girdiron surface alternating with 
hollow frames, all of which are held by means of lugs, on the 
press framework. The corners of both frames and plates 
are cored to make continuous passages for pulp and solution. 
The filter cloth is placed over the plates. The pulp passageway 
connects with the large square opening in the frame; the solu- 
tion passageways with the girdiron surface of the plate. The 
Dehn'e and the Merrill are well-known types. 

Richard's Pulsator Classifier. — A classifier operating by a 
pulsating current of water without a screen. The pulp grains 
fall through a sorting column against an upward pulsating cur- 
rent of water. 

Ridgeway Filter. — This is a horizontal revolving, continous 
vacuum filter. The surface is an annular ring consisting of 
separate trays with vacuum and compressed air attachments. 
The filtering surface is on the under side, the trays being dipped 
into the tank of pulp to form the cake, and then lifted out of it. 

Richard's Shallow-pocket Hindered-settling Classifier. — A 
series of pockets through which successively weaker strearns of 
water are directed upward. The material that can settle doeSj 
so and is drawn off through spigots. 

§herman Settler. — A series of cylindrical tanks with conical! 
bottoms having central feed and a peripheral overflow. Thej 
tanks continually decrease in depth and increase in diameter. 

Trent Agitator. — This agitator has the arms of the paddle- 



ORE DRESSING 393 

wheel type, but they are hollow, and pulp solution, or air is 
discharged from nozzles on these arms, thus causing the stirrer 
to rotate. 

Trommel. — A revolving screen set at an angle. The material 
to be screened is delivered inside the trommel at one end. The 
fine material drops through the holes; the coarse is dehvered at 
the other end. 

Vibracone. — A vibrating screen manufactured by the Step- 
hens-Adamson companj', in which the feed is from a saucer- 
shaped distributor onto a conical surface kept in vibration by a 
ratchet motion. 

Power Used ix Bostox & Moxtaxa Coxcextrator 



Machine ' R.p.m. 



Horsepower 
required 



Hancock jig 62 i .3.41 

Evans jig 190 | 0.50 

Trommel (3X6-ft.) 0.30 

Overstrom table I 251 . 364 

Wilflev table ! 251 0.352 

Vanner (4-ft.) 1^2 0.230 



Power Used in Concentrating Mills 

As an indication of what power may be needed in milling, the 
following table is taken from R. H. Richard's "Ore Dressing," 
Vol. IV, page 1929. The figures are those for the Cananea 
Consolidated Copper Co.'s No. 2 and Xo. 1 mills: 

Horsepower 

20 trommels 4X5 ft. and 4X8 ft 20 

4 16-in. elevators, 46 ft. between puUey centers 10 

4 sets 16 X36-in. rolls at 80 r.p.m 20 

6 one-compartment bull jigs (4 active) . , 8 

16 two-compartment middle jigs 16 

16 three-compartment sand jigs 16 

2 dewatering trommels 1 

2 chip trommels 1 

10 shovel wheels with shafting 3 

2 centrifugal pumps, 1200 gal. per minute, 40-ft. lift . . 60 

8 5-ft. Bryan mills 144 

38 Wilfley tables with line shafting 25 

36 6-ft. Frue vanners with line shafting 8 

2 centrifugal pumps 25 

6 shaking launders 3 

2 middling elevators 5 

2 pulp elevators 3 

Friction of engine and remaining shafting 80 

Total on mill engine 472 

1400 tons of ore treated per day. 



394 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK 

Horsepower 

24 trommels 12 

2 No. 1 elevators 13 

2 No. 2 elevators 14 

2 No. 3 elevators 8 

2 No. 4 elevators 8 

8 bull-jigs (4 active) 8 

16 two-compartment jigs 16 

8 three-compartment jigs 8 

2 Bryan mills 36 

2 No. 1 centrifugal pumps 40 

• 2 sliaking launders and 2 shovel wheels 2 

2 16X36-in. Davis rolls 22 

4 14X27-in. Davis rolls 40 

shafting and belts 40 

engine and jackshaft friction 50 

Total engine load 317 

42 Wilfley tables 26 

36 six-foot Frue vanners 8 

2 10X48-in. sand pumps 3 

1 No. 2 centrifugal pump 15 

Friction of transmission 13 

Total motor-driven load 65 

Total power required in mill 382 

1400 tons of ore treated per day. 

Power Used in Mills 
(Data furnished bv General Engineering Co.) 

Crushers, Blake.— 7 XIO, 8 h.p.; 9 X 15, 15 h.p.; 10 X 20, 
20h.p.; 15 X 24, 30 h.p. 

Dodge.— A X 6, 2 h.p.; 7 X 10, 7 h.p.; 11 X 15, 15 h.p. 

Gates.— D Style No. 1, 10 h.p.; No. 2, 15 h.p.; No. 3, 25 h.p.; 
No. 4, 30 h.p.; No. 5, 40 h.p.; No. 6, 60 h.p.; No. 7, 125 h.p.; 
No. 8, 150 h.p. 

Mills.— 10-stamp, 90 8-in. drops per min., 750 lbs., 15 h.p.; 
850-lb., 17 h.p.; 950-lb., 19 h.p.; 1000-lb., 20 h.p. 

Tubes.— 5 X 14-ft., 30 h.p.; 5 X 22-ft., 70 h.p.; 4 X 20-ft., 
50 h.p. 

Chilian. — 4-ft., 6 h.p.; 5-ft., 12 h.p.; 6-ft., 25 h.p. 

Huntington.— 3^-h., 4-5 h.p.; 5 ft., 6-7 h.p.; 6-ft., 8-10 h.p. 

Rolls. Cornish.— 12 X 20, 12 h.p. ; 14 X 27, 16 h.p. ; 16 X 36, 

25 h.p. 

Sample Grinders. — No. 1, 3 h.p.; No. 2, 4 h.p. 

A,malgamating Pans. — 5-ft., 4 h.p.; 8-ft., 6 h.p. 

Grinding Pans.— 5-ft., h.p.; 8-ft., 9 h.p. 

Settlers.— 8-ft., 3 h.p. Agitators.— 8-ft., 3 h.p. 

Clean-up Pans. — 48-in., 13^ h.p. 

Hendryx Agitator. — 5 h.p. 

Revolving Screens. — J^ h.p. Revolving Dryers. — 5 h.p. 

Wilfley Tables. — % h.p. Frue Vanners. — 3'^ h.p. 

Hancock Jigs. — 5 h.p. Harz Jigs.— (per compt) 1 h.p. 

(The data is to be con.sidered approximate only.) i 



ORE DRESSING 



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"11 S'^ 



ORE DRESSING 
Water Consumption in Various Mills 



397 



Gal. water 
per 24 hr. 



Tons 
ore per 
24 hr. 



Water used 
per ton of ore 



GalloDB Tons 



Remarks 



Haile, South CaroUna. . 



Gold Stamp Mills^ 

360,000 150 2,400 10 



CO stamps 



Jigging Mills 



Smuggler Mining Co. . . 2, 160,000 

St. Joe Lead I 4,000,000 

St. Louis Sm. & Ref . . . . | 5,760,000 

T,. n in / 864,0001 

Block 10 A QgoQQ 

Dalv-West ' > 504,000> 

JJal>-west , , 57^600 

^,. T, , . If 2,001,6001 

Mmas Tecolotes i ; 338 400 

Silver Lake I 1,885!000 




5,400 


22.5 


3,333 


13.9 


3.200 


13.3 


/ 1,5001 


6.26 


1 120 


0.5 


/ 1,0081 


4.2 


1 144 


0.6 


/ 3,3361 


13.9 


1 567 


2.36 


5,800 


24.2 



Australian 



Iron Ore W.\shery^ 





. . . 1 300,0002 . 


1,0002 
480 


300 
2,385 


1 25 


Longdale Iron 


...| 1,144,800 

1 


10.0 







Montana Copper Sulphide Mills 





. 44,352,000 
. 25,000,000 


8,800 1 
i 3,000 1 


5,040 
8,300 


21.0 ' 




34 . 6 







Utah Copper Sulphide 



X- V, AT .S C ! 1,440,0001 

Newhouse M. & S ; 720 000 

Utah Copper Co ' 8,64o!o00 



1 non' J 1.4401 6.0 
1,000 ^ J20 , 3.0 

6,000! 1,440 6.0 



Xev.ada Copper Sulphide 



Giroux Con. 



/ 800,0001 I \ 
I 160,000 i 



800 



/ 1,0001 
I 200 



4.01] 

0.83; 



Arizona Copper 



Detroit Copper Min. Co. 
Old Dominion 



275,000 
750,000 




1 In mill circulation. 2 Xen hours. ^ .According to Rich.\rd8, the water 
used in stamping varies from 1 to 6.69 gal. per stamp per minute in the 
various mills under his observation, and 2 40 to 15.97 tons per ton of ore 
stamped. .South African practice seems to be about 4 to 1 tons of water per 
ton of ore milled. * Log washers take about 2000 gal. o